The axiological orientation of modern social thought is implemented in educational policy, considering a modern university graduate as a person, not just possessing specific competences and knowledge, but also capable of cooperating and constructive multicultural dialogue, interacting with people of different cultures and knowing the system of socially significant world values. In modern pedagogical science, considerable experience has been accumulated in preparing students of different specialities for value-oriented professional interaction, forming and developing the tolerance, intercultural communicative competences, educating the younger generations in a multicultural world. The article is devoted to the concept of professional-value orientations, which is based on the analysis of the emergence and development of the problem of forming professional-value orientations in the would-be specialists of restaurant and hotel services, the study of the state of the problem in the philosophical, psychological, pedagogical, economic literature, regulatory documents. Based on the research of A.V. Kiryakova (2000), we come to the conclusion that education is the main channel for introducing the future Manager of restaurant and hotel services to the values of culture, education and profession.
According to A.N. Dzhurinsky, before educational institutions "the goal is set – to promote spiritual renewal of society, education of high moral standards, and, above all, personal responsibility" (Dzhurinsky, 1999). This fact is fixed in the normative documents of the Russian Federation in the field of education, which highlight the problem of increasing the level of competitiveness of the country's managerial personnel by preserving and multiplying moral and cultural values.
According to the state normative documents on education of the Russian Federation, in the modern education system, much attention is paid to the formation of human capital; the development of talent, skill, culture; ensuring long-term competitiveness of Russia in the world economy. According to the National doctrine of education, the social order of the state in education is aimed at educating a person who is modernly educated, moral, and ready to make decisions independently in a situation of choice. Innovations enshrined in the Law of the Russian Federation "on education" allow higher educational institutions of restaurant and hotel profile to introduce axiological content into the educational process and, accordingly, to form professional and value orientations for future managers of restaurant and hotel services.
Summarizing the above, we come to the conclusion that most of the state documents are focused on the formation of morality, high spiritual ideals, as well as on improving the general level of culture of future specialists. The analysis confirmed our idea that the problem of forming professional and value orientations for future managers of restaurant and hotel services is not reflected in the state regulatory documents of the Russian Federation on education, despite the fact that its implementation would contribute to creating the image of a new generation of manager who can significantly improve the quality of service in the hospitality industry.
In the logic of our research, consideration of the problem of formation of professional and value orientations in future managers of restaurant and hotel services assumes the establishment of the initial conditions of formation, as well as the main trends in the development of this problem. Let's focus on its historiography.
Purpose of the Study
To analyze the current state of the term “Professional-Value Orientations” based on the consideration and definition of the conceptual and categorical framework.
To achieve the research aim, theoretical scientific methods are used: comparative, system, and structural types of analysis, synthesis, and pedagogical modelling. Pedagogical papers and pedagogical system in Russia, exemplified with teaching foreign languages to the students of restaurant and hotel service` faculties is the empirical material in this paper.
The emergence of the concept of value at the end of the XVIII century, we associate with the revision of the traditional justification of ethics, characteristic of antiquity and the middle ages, which assumed the identity of being and good. The concept of value first appears in Kant, who contrasted the sphere of morality with the sphere of nature (Kant, 1980). The expanded doctrine of values was first given in the middle of the XIX century by Lotze (Lukyanova, 2004). During this period, the one-sided ontological representation of educators about the homogeneity of reality, which was in front of a person, was overcome. It is important to note that the values included the good, the beautiful, the just, and other manifestations of being addressed "to our feelings".
Later appears axiology (from axio – value, logos – word, teaching) is one of the youngest branches of philosophy, which is the "teaching of values, philosophy universally valid principles for determining the direction of human activities, the motivation of human actions" (Dictionary on pedagogics, 2004). As an independent philosophical science, axiology appeared only at the end of the last century. Of course, we find arguments about different types of values among ancient philosophers, as well as among scientists of the middle Ages, Renaissance, and Modern times. But it should be noted that there was no general idea of value as such and its forms of manifestation until the middle of the last century.
Limited to the post-war period of the XX century as the most fruitful in the implementation of scientific pedagogical ideas and directly related to the formulation and research of our problem, we have identified the following stages: 1) 50–80 years. XX century; 2) 80 – mid. 90-s of XX century; 3) from the mid-90s to the present. Let's describe them in more detail.
Beginning of the first stage (50–80 years XX century) is associated with the theoretical justification of axiology as an independent philosophical category. It is known that the term "axiology" was introduced in 1902 in the scientific thesaurus of P. Lapi and became actively used in philosophy, sociology, psychology and pedagogy. The development of the problem of value has long remained a kind of monopoly of foreign philosophy. Formed at the beginning of our century as a certain direction on the basis of the neo-kantian teachings of V. Windelband, G. Rikkert (Windelband, 1995; Rikkert, 1997), axiology (the theory of values) was then widely spread in the works of a number of German and American scientists. It was only in the 60s of the XX century that the place and role of the theory of values in Marxism, its significance for the development of the complex of human and social Sciences, and the prospects for its development in the unity of epistemological, sociological and pedagogical aspects were determined in Russian science.
In the development of the problem of value orientations, important, in our opinion, are the arguments about the moral value of human English teacher J.E. Adamson (Dzhurinsky, 1999), who put forward the idea of its theological character. The meaning of the student's educational life he saw in the moral and religious order: "The significance of religious instruction ultimately lies in the individual's knowledge of their value, and thus of their place in society." J.E. Adamson's reflections of this kind are explained by the fears of supporters of religion that the rejection of it will create a spiritual vacuum, the loss of humanistic guidelines for the younger generation. They insisted that religion should play a basic role in moral education.
Analyzing the process of developing the problem of forming value orientations in Russia, it can be noted that in Russia the first attempts to correlate private judgments about a particular type of values appear from the moment when Russian philosophical thought became an independent and independent field of knowledge from theology. Despite the fact that at the beginning of the next century, the pan-European movement of Romanticism took over Russia, making F.V. Schelling the most influential philosopher in our country, this did not immediately lead to the formation of the theory of value, as in the West.
Describing this stage, it should be noted that at this time there is an active formation of the theory of values in domestic and foreign science as an independent philosophical category. At the same time, in pedagogy, the problem of forming professional and value orientations for future managers of restaurant and hotel services was still far from its scientific definition.
The second stage (80 – mid. 90-s of the XX century) it is characterized by the development of certain aspects of the problem of forming value orientations in the system of professional education.
During this period, there is an intensive development of the axiological approach. It becomes an organic and necessary component of understanding sustainable social development, the study of the phenomenology of value systems of personality, the formation of a new thesaurus and a new educational paradigm, a retrospective analysis of philosophical and pedagogical systems, the basis for comparative pedagogy, the philosophy of education of the new time.
In the field of human knowledge (philosophy, psychology, sociology, pedagogy) there are different approaches and concepts, but the General direction of the development of the theory of values is indicated by the statement of the priority of universal and humanistic principles in the context of different cultures. In the period of unification of mankind in solving global problems, the theory of values is experiencing its revival in connection with social and scientific and technical changes in reality, since the categories of the world, human life, and life creation are beginning to play an increasing role in the content of the worldview and outlook of new generations. At this time, there is a need for an interdisciplinary synthesis of knowledge about a specialist in the hospitality industry as a pedagogical goal, which in turn should be based on an updated philosophical picture of the world, on professional and value orientations that will contribute to creating an image of a successful, competitive manager of restaurant and hotel services.
In the aspect of our research, the works of A.G. Zdravomyslov are important. In their work "Needs. Interests. Values" (Zeer, 1998) he says that the content of values is determined by the cultural achievements of society. The world of values is, first of all, the world of culture in the broad sense of the word, it is the sphere of spiritual activity of a person, his affections, which reflect the spiritual wealth of the individual. "Values are interests that have become separate in the course of history itself due to the division of labor in the sphere of spiritual production." Value incentives, according to A.G. Zdravomyslov, affect the personality, the structure of self-consciousness, and personal needs. Without them, there is no place for any feats, understanding of public interests, and true self-affirmation of the individual. And only a person who acts for the sake of ideals and values can gather other people around him and become an expression of certain social interests and social needs. It should be noted that this stage is characterized by the development of certain aspects of the studied problem: the approval of the priority of universal and humanistic principles, the need for an interdisciplinary synthesis of knowledge about a specialist in the hospitality industry, the study of the phenomenology of value systems of the individual. At this time, the problem of forming professional and value orientations for future managers of restaurant and hotel services is gradually taking shape in the form of awareness of the problem of improving the quality of education and training of managerial personnel. In addition, professional and value orientations become the object of attention of domestic teachers, and ideas of axiological education appear and are actively implemented.
The third stage (from the mid-90s to the present) of the development of the problem of forming professional and value orientations for future managers of restaurant and hotel services takes place in the conditions of transition to a market system of economic relations and the reform of professional education. At this stage, a theoretical and methodological basis is being created to study the structure of professional and value orientations of future managers of restaurant and hotel services and their formation in the higher education system. The studied problem is reflected in the field of theoretical and practical achievements in the field of management and economics. In this regard, the point of view of A.D. Chudnovsky is important (Dzhurinsky, 1999), which characterizes modern life with an accelerated rhythm, the injection of mental stress, emotional instability of people. Along with leisure activities, entertainment helps to relieve nervous tension in a person. In addition, A.D. Chudnovsky notes that escaping from reality and relaxing a person are important value orientations of the entertainment industry. Analyzing the requirements imposed on the staff of the hospitality industry, he notes that the staff of all categories of hotels should be able to create an atmosphere of hospitality at the enterprise, should be ready to kindly fulfill the request of the guest and should show patience and restraint towards the guests. This fact will be taken into account when determining the essence and structure of the author's concept of "professional-value orientations of future restaurant and hotel service managers", as well as when building a system for forming professional-value orientations of future restaurant and hotel service managers in the next paragraph of this study.
Assessment of the manager's personality from universal positions, according to N.I. Kabushkin (Kabushkin, 2002), is based on the fact that it should be a very smart and highly cultured person, a professional who cares primarily not about his profit, but about how to help the client, how to serve it culturally, since the hotel and restaurant make money on it. Among the requirements to the manager from the modern theory and practice of management, N.I. Kabushkin identifies the following:
- ability to manage yourself;
- reasonable personal values;
- constant personal growth;
- creative approach;
- knowledge of management theory;
- ability to form and develop a workforce;
- high level of culture, etc.
An interesting fact is that in the former USSR, the selection of managerial personnel was guided by four main requirements: political literacy, moral stability, competence, organizational skills (Kabushkin, 2002). While in the UK, there were other requirements for the personality of the Manager, namely: oratorical ability and ability to express thoughts; knowledge of the art of managing people, regulating relationships among subordinates; the ability to establish relationships between the firm and its clients, etc. In the US government system, there are five main requirements: common sense, knowledge of the case, confidence in their own affairs, a high overall level of development, and the ability to finish what they started. Analyzing the principles of hospitality enterprise management in European countries, we come to the conclusion that they provide for the presence of various types of professional competencies without taking into account professional and value orientations, which would contribute to the effective implementation of all knowledge, skills and skills of a professional nature.
Special attention in the domestic economic science deserves the position of A.V. Sorokina (Sorokina, 2006), which describes the functional responsibilities of hotel managers. According to the accepted standards, the hotel director must know the guiding documents related to the service sector; advanced domestic and foreign experience in hotel services; economics, labor organization and organization of hotel management, etc. In turn, the hotel administrator, as one of the main managerial employees of the hospitality industry, must know the regulatory documents related to the service sector; the management structure, rights and obligations of employees; rules and methods of organizing customer service; the basics of aesthetics and social psychology, etc. Analyzing the requirements for the management staff of a restaurant and a hotel, we come to the conclusion that they provide only professional skills and do not take into account moral characteristics, the presence of professional and value orientations, while there are many objective reasons for this.
Reflecting on the achievements in the field of Russian philosophical, pedagogical, and sociological knowledge, we come to the conclusion that it was certainly productive in a number of ways:
- first, the concept of "value" appeared in theoretical usage, the need for theoretical research in almost all areas of the humanities was proved, and various approaches to solving this problem were identified;
- second, the study of various types of values, primarily moral and aesthetic, was very successful, since these areas of knowledge were relatively less dependent on official ideological doctrine than philosophy in its general principles.
However, as far as Economics is concerned, there is a complete lack of attention to the issue of forming professional and value orientations for future managers of restaurant and hotel services. Leading modern economists (Kabushkin, 2002;) consider, first of all, various issues and aspects of professional training of a Manager, wishing to see in him a very smart and highly cultured professional in his field. It is important to note the absence of specific methods and techniques for the formation of professional and value orientations as an essential part of the structure of personality of a future manager of restaurant and hotel services, which will help creating the image of the manager of a new generation, is able to significantly improve service quality in domestic hotel and restaurant industry.
Conducting an analysis of the historiography of the problem of formation of professional and value orientations in future managers of restaurant and hotel services, we can not ignore the theoretical and practical achievements in the field of axiologization of education, presented in the works of A.V. Kiryakova (Kiryakova, 2005), which identified three phases of value orientations: 1 phase-assignment of values of society; 2 phase-transformation of the individual based on the assignment of values; 3 phase-forecast, goal setting, design. Adhering to the point of view of A.V. Kiryakova, we can assume that the process of professional-value orientation of future managers of restaurant and hotel services is carried out by assimilation, internalization, exteriorization of professional-value orientations inherent in the hospitality industry. Discussing the development of axiological potential of the individual in the conditions of University education, this author emphasizes its importance for the professional life and quality of professional activity of the future specialist. Based on the research of A.V. Kiryakova (2000), we come to the conclusion that education is the main channel for introducing the future Manager of restaurant and hotel services to the values of culture, education and profession.
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17 May 2021
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Savelyeva, N. K., Gnatyshina, E., Uvarina, N., Pakhtusova, N., Savchenkov, A., & Kabanov, A. (2021). Historical And Pedagogical Analysis Of The Problem Of Forming Professional-Value Orientations. In D. K. Bataev, S. A. Gapurov, A. D. Osmaev, V. K. Akaev, L. M. Idigova, M. R. Ovhadov, A. R. Salgiriev, & M. M. Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Knowledge, Man and Civilization, vol 107. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 2852-2858). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.05.378