When teaching geography to schoolchildren, an important place in the studied content of this subject should be given to the material of a regional and local history. This applies equally to the study of various components of animate and inanimate nature, as well as to the socio-economic sphere of their region. The regional component of school geographic education contributes to the activation of the cognitive activity of students in the classroom and after school hours, the formation of a holistic view of schoolchildren about the nature, economy and social sphere of the region and their diversity. The authors consider various approaches to understanding the category of “regional component of education”: the inclusion of materials about the region in subjects included in the federal component of the curriculum; introduction of regional academic disciplines, etc. The article identifies and analyzes the regulatory framework for the implementation of the regional component in school (the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Law “On Education in the Russian Federation”; Federal State Educational Standard (FSES), etc.), principles (regionalism, humanization, historicism, etc.) and ways (poly-subject; mono-subject in a regional context; mono-subject integrative; school) of its implementation. The authors present the experience of the Kemerovo region–Kuzbass – in the development of textbooks on geography for schoolchildren, dedicated to the nature and economy of the region.
When studying geography at the school, an important place in the material under study is given to the information of a regional nature, which should reflect the features of various components of nature, economy and social sphere of their region, that is, the implementation of the regional component of education.
The implementation of the regional component in teaching geography to schoolchildren is designed to solve a number of problems:
- to increase the interest of students in the study of the basic program material on geography;
- to intensify independent cognitive activity of schoolchildren;
- to form holistic ideas of students about the nature of the region and its diversity;
- to build an integrated interaction of schools and organizations of additional education for children;
- to enhance the role of the family in the upbringing of the younger generation;
- to ensure the successful socialization of the individual in the conditions of the region.
In connection with all of the above, the topic of this article seems to be urgent, and its content may be of certain interest for teachers involved in the implementation of the regional component of school education.
The need to develop and implement the regional component of school geography education forced us to identify the regulatory framework, didactic principles, tasks and ways of implementing the above processes. All this led us to the need to resolve the following problem: what are the regulatory and general pedagogical foundations for the development and successful implementation of the regional component of school geographic education?
The subject of the study was the regulatory and general pedagogical foundations for the development and implementation of the regional component of school geographic education.
Analysis of regulatory documents and identification of general pedagogical foundations for the development of the regional component of school geographic education.
Creation and implementation in the educational process of schools in the region of textbooks reflecting the regional component of the course of geography.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this work was to identify, theoretically substantiate, develop and implement the regional component of school geographic education in educational organizations of the Kemerovo region–Kuzbass.
The research was carried out on the basis of methods of analysis of regulatory documents, critical analysis of the theory and established practice of development and implementation of the regional component of the content of school education and empirical verification of the effectiveness of its implementation in the framework of teaching the subject “Geography”.
The study of scientific and methodological literature led us to the conclusion that Here are some of them:
- part of the content of the curriculum subjects, including materials about the region – the regional components of the disciplines included in the federal component of the curriculum;
- regional academic disciplines, which include local material;
- a part of the content and process of education, which reflects regional characteristics, actualized by the goals of socialization of the individual in the conditions of their region (Gusakova, 1999; Drozdova, 2006).
When implementing the regional component, the teacher must be guided by the regulatory framework. These include:
- Article 43 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation states: “The Russian Federation establishes federal state educational standards ...” (RF Government, 1993);
- Article 11 of FZ-273 "On Education in the Russian Federation" establishes that the Federal State Educational Standard provides the variability of the content of educational programs of the corresponding level of education, the possibility of forming educational programs of various levels of complexity and focus, taking into account the educational needs and abilities of students (RF Government, 2012).
According to the FSES of basic general education, the curriculum consists of two parts: a compulsory part and a part formed by participants in educational relations. Part 2 ensures the realization of the interests and needs of students, their parents, the teaching staff of the educational organization. The time allotted for part 2 can be used: to increase the teaching hours provided for the study of individual academic subjects of the compulsory part; introduction of specially designed training courses that meet the interests and needs of participants in educational relations, including ethnocultural ones (RF Government, 2010).
Thus, according to regulatory documents, the implementation of regional lesson courses is possible only at the expense of a part of the curriculum formed by the participants in educational relations. Along with the lesson activities, extracurricular activities of schoolchildren should be organized, within which the regional component can also be implemented.
The implementation of the regional component should be guided by a number of principles.
1): focus on taking into account the peculiarities of Kuzbass in the educational process;
2) is the wide inclusion of knowledge about people in the content of education, the formation of a humanistic worldview, the creation of conditions for self-knowledge, self-realization of a developing personality in conditions of living in a particular region.
3) is the disclosure of the historical conditionality of phenomena and processes occurring in the nature of their region.
4) combines various aspects of the content of education, local history material in various subjects into a single whole with distribution by levels and years of study.
5) is the upbringing of an ecologically educated person who is aware of the peculiarities and special acuteness of the ecological situation in Kuzbass, responsibility to modern and future generations for the preservation of the nature of the native land
6): parts of the curriculum, individual subjects and courses should complement each other.
7): the regional component is built taking into account what is happening in the local community;
8): maintaining a balance of conservatism and innovation in the content of education, etc. (Romanina, 2002; Safonova, 2006).
Below we will consider several possiblet.
involves the organic inclusion of regional content in the subjects of the federal component and its use to achieve educational results.
is an in-depth study of regional (local history) content with the help of special training courses that are included in the second part of the curriculum.
is the development of complex courses in which various aspects of regional content are interrelated. They are also implemented through a part of the curriculum formed by the participants in educational relations.
: these are courses of extracurricular activities, elective courses in certain educational areas (Romanina, 2006; Safonova, 2006).
In the Kemerovo region–Kuzbass – poly-subject and school methods are mainly implemented (in more than 90 % of educational organizations that implement programs of basic general education. Two other methods are much less common (less than 10 %).
In Kuzbass, the purposeful and systematic implementation of the regional component of school geographic education has become possible thanks to educational and teaching aids on the relevant topics and content, published at the regional and federal levels.
For example, in the Kuzbass regional institute for advanced training and retraining of educational workers, together with the Novokuznetsk institute (branch) of the KemSU, over the past several years, the following have been published:
- Socio-economic geography of the Kemerovo region: educational and methodological kit (2016), including: educational and methodological manual, guidelines for teachers and a workbook for independent work of students;
- Ecology of the Kemerovo region: educational and methodological kit (2018.), including a training manual and a workbook for independent work of students;
- Physical geography of the Kemerovo region: teaching aid (RosStat, 2019).
- The introduction of regional materials contained in the manuals into the educational process opens up an opportunity to improve the quality of students' assimilation of knowledge in the subject. Additional means for the successful work of schoolchildren are the rich illustrative material of the manuals: maps, diagrams, graphs and tables, statistical information. Tasks on individual topics are designed in such a way that they can be used both in the lesson, when working with the text, and when preparing at home.
Thus, the systematic use of the textbook on the socio-economic geography of Kuzbass in the 9th grade when studying the section “Economy of Russia” made it possible to improve the quality of learning of a number of complex topics. For example, when studying the fuel and energy complex of Russia, using the text of the paragraph “Fuel industry and energy are the leading sectors of the economic complex of Kuzbass”, it is possible to consider various brands of coal, mining methods, coal mining enterprises and organize practical work "Characteristics of the coal industry in Kuzbass.” The topics of projects, discussion and problematic issues presented in the manual are unique: “Modern technologies of land reclamation”, “Miner's past and present of the cities of Kuzbass”. From the rubric “I will solve the problem” the question is discussed with schoolchildren: “One of the problems of the coal Kuzbass is waste heaps. Some of them burn and pollute the environment. Suggest your ways of solving this environmental problem." The discussion is quite interesting, the students' proposals are original and realistic, for example, to use the waste heaps for recreational and sports purposes, as a winter entertainment zone (sledding), create ski slopes, bike trails, plant the waste heaps with vegetation, taking into account the altitude zoning and use the territory as an ecological route (Petunin, 2018).
When studying the topic “Metallurgical complex”, the tasks of the heading “Metasubject workshop” are used. For example, “Calculate the amount of iron ore required to obtain 50 million tons of iron, if it is known that pure iron in the ore contains: a) 65 %; b) 50%; c) 25 %. Will the importance of the raw material factor in the development of metallurgical enterprises increase?” (Petunin, 2018).
Working with the textbook on the socio-economic geography of Kuzbass contributes to the vocational guidance of students and allows them to gain deeper knowledge of the subject. This is evidenced by the results of schoolchildren when passing the BSE in geography.
The solvability of the tasks of the BSE checking the requirements for “knowledge/understanding”, “skill”, as well as “use of acquired knowledge and skills in practical activities and everyday life” on the topics that are studied in the regional geography of the Kemerovo region demonstrate high results. Thus, in educational organizations – pilot sites for testing and introducing regional textbooks into the educational process in geography – students demonstrated 100 % solvability of a number of tasks. For example, task 15 “Choose two examples of unsustainable environmental management. 1) timber harvesting followed by forest planting; 2) timber rafting along rivers with separate logs; 3) open pit mining; 4) land reclamation in coal mining areas; 5) integrated use of the extracted raw materials” or task number 26 “Which two of the listed cities are centers of non-ferrous metallurgy? Write down the numbers under which these cities are indicated. 1) Lipetsk 2) Krasnoyarsk 3) Magnitogorsk 4) Novokuznetsk 5) Cherepovets” completed 100 % of the graduates of the basic school. On average in the Kemerovo region in 2019, these tasks have a solvability of 43 and 53 %, respectively (RosStat, 2019). The above example confirms the effectiveness of improving the quality of mastering complex topics, if the materials presented in the manuals on regional geography were systematically used in teaching the subject.
As our pedagogical experience has shown, the development of regional aspects of the content of the school course in geography should be carried out taking into account the identified regulatory and general pedagogical foundations. The introduction of regional material into the practice of teaching geography at school contributes to the development of students' motivation, increases their interest in studying the subject “Geography” and leads to higher educational results.
Drozdova, I.A. (2006). The methodology for the development and implementation of models of the regional component of physical education in a basic comprehensive school (for example, the Krasnoyarsk Territory) (Cand. Dissertation). Krasnoyarsk.
Gusakova, N.V. (1999). Problems of the implementation of the regional component in school environmental education (based on material from the Don region). Taganrog.
Petunin, O.V., Ryabov, V.A. (2018) Socio-economic geography of the Kemerovo region. A textbook for grade 9. Moscow: LLC “Russkoye Slovo – textbook.”
RF Government (1993). Constitution of the Russian Federation. Retrieved from: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_28399/
RF Government (2010). Federal State Educational Standard of Basic General Education. Retrieved from: https://base.garant.ru/55170507/53f89421bbdaf741eb2d1ecc4ddb4c33/
RF Government (2012). On Education in the Russian Federation. Federal Law. Retrieved from: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_140174/
Romanina, N.S. (2002). Development and organizational and pedagogical conditions for the implementation of the regional component of the state educational standard of local lore (Cand. Dissertation). Stavropol.
RosStat (2019). State final certification for educational programs of basic General education in the Kemerovo region in 2019. Collection of statistical materials. Kemerovo: GU OCMKO, 143 p. Retrieved from: http://lizey11.ucoz.ru/_ld/4/468_2019stat09.pdf
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17 May 2021
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Petunin, O. V., & Ryabov, V. A. (2021). Regional Component Implementation Geographic School Education In Kuzbass. In D. K. Bataev, S. A. Gapurov, A. D. Osmaev, V. K. Akaev, L. M. Idigova, M. R. Ovhadov, A. R. Salgiriev, & M. M. Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Knowledge, Man and Civilization - ISCKMC 2020, vol 107. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 2838-2843). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.05.376