When conducting research on the political preferences of young people, we assume that depending on the psychological characteristics of the respondent, it is possible to speak about the political preferences of the younger generation (unburdened by life experience), peculiarities of its political behaviour, political activism and so on. We consider how the content component of psychological data "aggression and aggressiveness" of respondents is manifested in the formed nominal groups based on political preferences on the basis of answers to questions of sociological questionnaires. 8 types of reactions are considered using the diagnostic method (the Bass-Darkie questionnaire) that differentiates the acts of aggression and hostility. The author's method was used to solve the problems of multiple comparison of interval psychological variables that characterize groups based on nominal data. For example, annoyance is most pronounced in respondents who assess their political activity state that politics irritates them, as well as in respondents who vote for their candidate in the presidential elections of the Russian Federation just because they like him as a politician. Indirect aggression is more characteristic of respondents who do not participate in political life because politics is a "dirty business" and decent people have nothing to do there. First of all, respondents who voted for their candidate in the Russian presidential election because he was the lesser of evils were extremely suspicious. All these facts lead to the conclusion that groups based on political preferences can be meaningfully characterized psychologically, including through acts of aggression and aggressiveness.
Political attitudes and perceptions of people are the main components of mass consciousness that can be used to assess its state and the prevailing trends in it. We cannot underestimate the importance of political culture and political socialization of young people as factors for increasing the stability of society and, consequently, its well-being. The importance of studying the social and political behavior of young people, their political preferences and orientation is increasing due to the importance of youth as a subject of political changes in modern Russia. And political socialization, like many other things in human life, is largely psychologically conditioned, that raises the problem of studying the influence of psychological qualities of a person on the formation of his political preferences, political activity and in general on political consciousness.
In addition to sociological research, the psychological study of the respondent's personality within the framework of an interdisciplinary study makes it possible to interpret sociological information as a consequence of the respondent's psychological qualities.
Repeatedly studying the aggression and aggressiveness of students, the authors solve their local problems: the analysis of features of aggressive tendencies in the student environment is considered separately (Ivashinenko et al., 2016); aggression and hostility in the framework of emotional and mental health of students are examined (Kozhokina et al., 2017); the features of aggressive behavior of future teachers with different levels of empathy are analyzed (Lebedenko & Mahno, 2017); features of aggressive behavior of young students are studied (Ketova et al., 2019), etc.
It is also interesting to analyze how sufficiently meaningful psychological factors that characterize aggression and aggressiveness influence the formation of interest in politics, political preferences, political activity and other components of the political consciousness of the younger generation.
In general, we investigated the political preferences of students and their various psychological characteristics. In the framework of the proposed article, we consider how the content component of psychological data "aggression and aggressiveness" of respondents is manifested in the formed nominal groups based on political preferences on the basis of answers to questions of sociological questionnaires.
Like any property, aggressiveness has different degrees of expression, ranging from almost complete absence to its ultimate development. Each individual must have a certain degree of aggressiveness. Its absence leads to passivity, listlessness, conformity and so on. Its excessive development is beginning to define the whole face of an individual who may become conflictual, incapable of conscientious cooperation and so on.
Bass and Darki (2018), taking into account some provisions of his predecessors, divided the concepts of aggression and hostility and defined hostility as a reaction that develops negative feelings and negative assessments of people and events. Creating a questionnaire that differentiates the acts of aggression and hostility, Bass and Darki (2018) identified the following types of reactions: “Physical aggression”, “Indirect aggression”, “Irritation”, “Negativism”, “Resentment”, “Suspicion”, “Verbal aggression”, “Guilt”.
Purpose of the Study
The aim of the investigation was to study the causal effects of the formation of socio-political consciousness (interest in politics, political preferences, political activity, etc.) of the younger generation and psychological factors that characterize aggression and aggressiveness.
In sociological studies, two types of variables(answers to two types of questions) are often present simultaneously among the survey data: nominal and interval variables. In this case, it is possible, without involving additional information, to set the task of studying local empirical classifications (typologies), when both external (classification criteria) and internal characteristics of the studied classes are considered simultaneously, which gives new opportunities in describing the results of the survey. The author's method studies the richness of differences between classes formed by the results of responses to the questions (one or more) with nominal answers, based on a set of interval parameters describing the same objects.
The procedure of the author’s method of multiple comparisons for sociological research is considered in detail (with the necessary justifications and examples) in the monograph (Basimov, 2012). As a result of multiple comparisons (1 variant of the result representation) for each psychological parameter, we get the distribution of nominal groups according to the selected responses to sociological questionnaires with political content. In this case, it is possible to consider the psychological conditionality of the emerging political consciousness of aggression and aggressiveness. The method was used in a variety of sociological and psychological studies.
According to the stated topic as results, we will consider the most striking results on the Bass-Darki questionnaire scales for 63 groups (Table 01) formed according to the political preferences of respondents, as well as for 26 additional groups in relation to the respondents' attitude to “civil marriage” (a total of 89 groups).
is a readiness to display negative feelings at the slightest excitement (short temper, rudeness). In the aggressive diagnosis, irritation is most pronounced in three groups.
1. Groupof 17 respondents who assess their political activity state that they are irritated by politics. And they have the most irritation (the relative weight is) among 89 groups being compared. This result can also be described as a kind of verification of respondents' answers for reliability.
2. Less irritation is manifested in groupof 13 respondents, for whom the reason to vote for their candidate in the presidential elections of the Russian Federation that they liked him as a politician ().
3.There is an even weaker expression of irritation in groupof 13 respondents who offer their non-standard options () as the reason they did not participate in the elections.
Then there are three other groups of similar level on the scale of irritation.
Group of 5 respondents who offer non-standard options () as ways to influence authorities.
5. Group of 22 respondents who did not participate in politics due to the belief that their participation would not change anything ().
6. Group of 8 respondents that offer non-standard options as a reason to participate in elections ().
The opposite pole (with the lowest value of comparative weight for the considered scale) arises when irritation is completely not typical. This lack of irritation, first of all, is characteristic for group of 9 respondents who voted for P.N Grudinin in the presidential election ().
is defined as the use of physical force against another person. Physical aggression was not detected in 89 studied groups with significant positive comparative weight. Thus, groups of political preferences and political activity are practically not differentiated by physical aggression (Table 02).
However, three groups were identified for which physical aggression is determined at an extremely low level:
1. Group of 10 respondents for whom the debate among opposition parties suggests that it is better not to participate in elections (the relative weight is).
2. Group of 31 respondents who believe that an abdication of responsibility is the reason for young people entering into «civil marriage» ().
3. Group of 30 respondents who did not participate in the elections for the main reason that they do not believe in the integrity of the elections ().
These three groups unite apparently passive respondents who are not socially optimistic when physical aggression should still be present, although in a poorly dosed measure (within the norm).
aggression is an aggression directed in a roundabout way. This type of aggression is mostly pronounced in two groups (Table 03).
1. Groupof 8 respondents, who do not participate in political life because politics is a "dirty business" and decent people have nothing to do there, is characterized by a very high level of indirect aggression (comparative weight is equal to). In their opinion, public policy is not for decent people and you need to look for implicit for others, roundabout ways to achieve your goals. They can be gossips and jokes, directed against other people as well as the act of undirected, disordered outbursts of rage.
2. To a lesser extent, indirect aggression characterizes group of 13 respondents, for whom the reason for voting for their candidate in the presidential elections of the Russian Federation was that they liked him as a politician ().
is an oppositional behaviour from passive resistance to active struggle against established customs and laws. Negativism characterizes only two of the 89 groups (Table 04).
1. Group of 22 respondents, who do not participate in political life because they are sure that their participation will not change anything, is characterized by strongly pronounced negativism (comparative weight is equal to), an oppositional behaviour, usually directed against the authority and leadership. Strongly pronounced negativism can lead to active actions against requirements, rules, and laws.
2. To a lesser extent, negativism is inherent in group of 17 respondents who believe that civil marriage has no disadvantages ($not-found()2069). Such respondents are most likely characterized by passive resistance within the oppositional form of behavior.
At the other pole, there are three groups that have the lowest rates of negativism among the 89 groups.
3. Group of 22 respondents who define their political activity by signing collective appeals and petitions ().
4. Group of 15 respondents who assess their political activity as participation in rallies, demonstrations and pickets ().
5. Group of 6 respondents who, if they participate in the voting, will vote for another party due to the protest (). This group on a scale of "Negativism" is in the last place.
is an envy and hatred of others for real and fictional actions. Resentment with a "plus" sign is characteristic of only one of the groups under consideration (Table 05).
1. Envy and hatred of others characterize group of 11 respondents who define their political activity as participation in the conducting the election campaign (the comparative weight is). These respondents tend to feel anger, dissatisfaction with someone or the whole world for real or imaginary suffering.
Resentment, as a hostile reaction, was not detected, first of all, in three of the 89 groups. Respondents of these groups are completely uncharacteristic of showing envy and hatred of others, due to a sense of anger and discontent.
2. Group of 9 respondents who voted for Grudinin P. N. in the elections for the President of the Russian Federation (). .
3. Group of 20 respondents who will consciously change their preferences if they participate in the voting in the future ().
4. Group of 8 respondents who voted for the CPRF in the elections for deputies of the State Duma of the Russian Federation ().
ranges from distrust and caution towards people to the belief that other people are planning and causing harm. Suspicion identifies four groups (Table 06).
1.The respondents of group(5 respondents) who offer their non-standard options as ways to influence the government authorities (the comparative weight is equal to) were identified as extremely suspicious. Hostile reaction "Suspicion" promotes creative activity, they are not satisfied with the standard ways of influencing the government authorities.
2. Groupof 5 respondents, for whom the reason for voting for their candidate in the presidential elections of the Russian Federation was that he was the lesser of the evils (), also has an extremely high level of suspicion. For such respondents all candidates cause, first of all, suspicion. They are expected to do only harm, so the motive for voting is to choose the lesser of the evils.
3. Less suspicion is observed in group of 21 respondents who voted for the United Russia party in the elections for deputies of the State Duma of the Russian Federation ().
4. Group of 34 respondents who identify legal risk as a significant disadvantage of civil marriage ($not-found()2079) is also noted with explicitly expressed suspicion.
Two groups that have the least suspicion among the 89 groups studied, more precisely it is completely absent among them, were identified at the opposite pole.
5. Group of 8 respondents who voted for the CPRF in the elections for deputies of the State Duma of the Russian Federation ().
6. Group of 8 respondents who do not participate in political life due to personal employment (no opportunity and time) ().
is defined by the expression of negative feelings both through the form (screaming, screeching) and through the content of verbal responses (swearing, cursing, threats). Verbal aggression distinguishes only one group (Table 07).
1. Group of 8 respondents who offer their non-standard options as the reason for participating in the elections (the comparative weight is equal to) was identified by extremely clear verbal aggression as an aggressive manifestation.
The remaining three groups of interest to the researcher were determined at the opposite pole with the lowest indicators on the scale of “Verbal aggression”.
2. Verbal aggression is clearly uncharacteristic () for group of 11 respondents who define their political activity as participation in the election campaign.
3. The similar result is observed in group of 13 respondents, who consider the reason of entering of young people into a "civil marriage" to be a check of sexual compatibility (.
4. The lowest indicator for verbal aggression was determined in the group of 9 respondents who voted for Grudinin P. N. in the presidential elections of the Russian Federation ().
expresses the possible belief of the subject that he or she is a bad person and commits evil acts. Such a person regularly feels remorse. A sense of guilt distinguishes three groups with a clear expression of this quality (Table 08).
1. Group of 10 respondents who believe that "civil marriage" should give way to legal marriage, when the financial situation allows, is clearly characterized by a sense of guilt (comparative weight is equal to). They likely feel that they are doing something wrong and shameless.
2. Group of 21 respondents, who determine the overall budget as the main indicator that a man and a woman are in a "civil marriage", is also characterized by a strong sense of guilt. Such views on the relationship between men and women are also accompanied by a negative opinion of the respondent about himself or herself.
3. Group of 9 respondents who voted for their candidate in the presidential elections of the Russian Federation because they like him as a person is also characterized by a strong sense of guilt (). Most likely, such an act in elections is subconsciously assessed by them as not quite correct.
Two groups, which are absolutely not characterized by a sense of guilt, with almost record values of negative comparative weight in modulus, were identified at the opposite pole.
4. Groupof 5 respondents who offer their non-standard options as ways to influence the government authorities, do not suffer torments for their actions.
5. Group of 8 respondents who believe that "civil marriage" should never give way to legal marriage also do not suffer from remorse ().
Based on the results of the presented information, it can be said that the reasons why respondents determine their political preferences and political behaviour are largely determined by the expressions of aggression and hostility, diagnosed by the method of A.Bassa and A.Darki The most striking expressions on 8 scales of the method, identified on the basis of multiple comparison, were considered above, which gives the following conclusions. Annoyance, as a special reaction, was most evident in respondents who, evaluating their political activity, claim that politics irritates them, or in respondents for whom the reason for voting for their candidate in the presidential elections of the Russian Federation was that they like him or her as a politician. Indirect aggression characterizes, first of all, respondents who do not participate in political life because politics is a "dirty business" and decent people have nothing to do there, or respondents for whom the reason for voting for their candidate in the presidential elections of the Russian Federation was that they liked him or her as a politician. There is a strongly pronounced negativism among respondents who do not participate in political life because they are sure that their participation will not change anything. Resentment, as a hostile reaction, is observed mainly in respondents who define their political activity as participation in the conducting the election campaign. Extremely suspicious were respondents who offer their non-standard options as ways to influence the government authorities; or respondents for whom the reason for voting for their candidate in the presidential elections of the Russian Federation was that he was the lesser of the evils. Verbal aggression, as an aggressive reaction, was manifested to the greatest extent in respondents who offer their non-standard options as a reason for participating in elections. A sense of guilt is most pronounced in respondents who believe that "civil marriage" should give way to legal marriage when it allows their financial situation, as well as in respondents who voted for their candidate in the presidential elections of the Russian Federation for the reason that they like him or her as a person.
It continues our research within the study of nonlinear nature in relation to the social and human sciences. Although the nonlinear nature of psychological and sociological data is not relevant for most researchers, and the conversation about traditional errors that occur due to the ”new“ rules of statistics, when due to gross errors that are invisible to the vast majority of researchers, the ”necessary" results are obtained, was raised by the author and his associates at sociological (ESA, ISA) (Kornienko, 2017) and psychological (ECP, IPC) (Basimova, 2016; Ilinyh, 2012; Padurina, 2012) congresses (58 presentations in total), as well as in numerous articles.
Preparation of the paper was supported by grant of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR). Project: № 18-011-01071а.
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Basimov, M., & Kornienko, V. (2021). Characteristics Of Aggressive Behaviour For Groups Of Political Preferences Of Young People. In D. K. Bataev, S. A. Gapurov, A. D. Osmaev, V. K. Akaev, L. M. Idigova, M. R. Ovhadov, A. R. Salgiriev, & M. M. Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Knowledge, Man and Civilization, vol 107. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1910-1918). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.05.252