The paper reveals the relevance of the problem of the formation of civil-patriotic values among young people. The attention is drawn to the strengthening of the pedagogic function of education as a social institution, the nature of changes in civic education is justified, the reasons for the need to intensify the civil-patriotic values among young people as the spiritual basis for national security are identified. It is indicated that the process, value, system implemented through activities foster the development of civil-patriotic values. The functions of methodological approaches to the formation of civil-patriotic values among young people are indicated. The attention is paid to the relation of civil-patriotic values with culture, the spiritual activity of a person, as well as the source of personal development – the educational strength of the socio-cultural environment in which the socialization and enculturation of a person takes place, the formation of civil-patriotic values. The need to engage students in the information and communication field of education, which is focused on civil and patriotic values, is highlighted. The main conditions for the formation of the civil-patriotic orientation of a person are identified. The factors ensuring the efficiency of interpersonal communication are presented. The structural components of the system of civil-patriotic values among students are highlighted: normative-specific, theoretical-meaningful, motivational-axiological, practical-pragmatist, evaluative-effective. The functions of the system for the formation of civil-patriotic values among students as the spiritual basis for national security are defined.
As we enter a new decade of the 21st century, we are witnessing another rapidly unfolding round of social change in most countries of the world. The environment of education with its socio-economic, socio-political, cultural functions has changed. Its new function is being mentioned more often – ensuring national security. The development of a strategy for moving the country into the future, concern for its national interests was reflected in a number of regulatory documents. Developed countries compete for leadership, for the level of their own security, preservation of integrity. That is why education and science are becoming the key factors of development and national security of the state.
Education plays a special role in broadcasting culture, civil-patriotic, spiritual values, introducing generations to social experience, strengthening cooperation. Education can purposefully prepare its future members for the civilized solution of strategic tasks of social development. While the society is stable and protected, the transmission of values is also well-balanced.
Today, when individual capabilities of each person to create and destroy have grown, the problem of educating citizenship, patriotism, morality is especially relevant. It should be noted that the problem of civil-patriotic education is far from a new topic for theory and practice. However, the current situation in the world is increasingly demanding a critical review of the way in which the civic and patriotic education of young people is carried out, resulting in the appropriation of values.
The development of civil-patriotic values among students should be considered as a system in which we highlight several guidelines for studying: values, citizenship, patriotism, sociocultural environment and the spiritual basis of national security.
The theoretical and methodological foundations of this system include axiological, sociocultural and information-communicative approaches.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to determine ways and means of developing civil-patriotic values among students as the spiritual basis of national security.
To solve the research problems, the following set of methods was used: analysis of scientific literature, regulatory documents, historiographic analysis, theoretical, methodological and conceptual-terminological analysis, generalization, observation, study of pedagogical experience.
It is necessary to determine effective approaches to civil-patriotic education taking into account trends in the field of education, which were distinguished by Gromov et al. (2008). These trends are as follows: a) the world trend of a paradigm shift in education; b) the movement of education towards integration into the world culture, the creation of a pan-European educational space, the internationalization of education, the expansion of the academic mobility of teachers and students, the strengthening of international ties, etc.); с) the transformation of educational systems towards their greater openness, the strengthening of the participation of civil society institutions in educational management, etc. (Gromov et al., 2008).
Education as the most important social institution can preserve universal and national values. The information revolution makes its adjustments to the practice of educational organizations ensuring social security, since the foundation of any community is Man, and social security affects the level of national security (Belentsov et al., 2019; Fakhrutdinova et al., 2013). Civic and patriotic education has universal aspects, the essence of which is to form an understanding of the unity and interdependence of the world, the importance of preserving peace, environmental problems, protecting and preserving world artistic culture, etc.
of the process of formation of civil-patriotic values among students as the spiritual basis of national security is a set of approaches: axiological, sociocultural, informational.
Civic and patriotic education is the basic direction of the state policy in the field of education ensuring the assimilation of civil and patriotic values as the basis of national security.
The main concept for the is the concept of “value”, which is associated with the concepts of “interest”, “need”. Moreover, this relation is proportional, since, for example, the value of any object increases with the increase in the number of agreed interests that are aimed at it (Yakovlev, 2012).
We attribute civil-patriotic values to social values. The values included in the process of civil-patriotic education are objective, but the means, methods of assigning them to individuals can be different and be evaluated differently either. The concept of value determines the content of the process and the characteristic of the result of pedagogical activity.
Let us address the concepts of “citizenship”, “patriotism” and “spirituality”. The problem of education of patriotism, citizenship and morality is becoming statewide. It proclaims the need to rely on the system of civil, moral, patriotic values, the formation of Russian identity, culture of health, professional self-determination, etc.
is understood by scientists as the level of moral culture, as an integrative quality, citizenship is specified through the concept of civil culture. is considered as a moral feeling, a moral principle, an integral complex quality.
One of the criteria is the manifestation of patriotism, devotion and love for profession, conscientious fulfillment of personal duty. Among the conditions for the formation of professional patriotism, Saenko (2018) identifies student participation in professional skills competitions, social partnership of an educational institution and production, the implementation of dual training, support for the family in professional choice.
Bannikov (2019) confirmed with practical experience that the use of museum pedagogy through a virtual museum collection ensures the appropriation of civil-patriotic values. Among the factors contributing to patriotic education he attaches particular importance to the socio-cultural environment (educational space).
Citizenship characterizes the moral and legal side of personal development. A citizen has a set of rights and obligations. Citizenship integrates universal. The forms of spirituality are diverse. Any type of activity can become an area of its manifestation, since spirituality is not in the activity itself, but in a person’s attitude to it, in what interests and needs force him to engage in socially significant activities. Any action, an act with a high purpose, is spiritualized, creative in nature. It is necessary to solve the problems of education, the formation of civil-patriotic values as the basis for the consolidation of society and the strengthening of the state at the modern stage of the development of society.
The orientation of students in civil-patriotic values is based on the variable use of communicative means containing an evaluation element (positive, negative or neutral), which is manifested even in the nature of speech communication. The principle of civic values and value relations gives students the opportunity to understand the following civic values: self-determination of an individual, respect for human dignity, patriotism, tolerance, equality of people before the law, respect for national traditions and culture, etc. (Grevtseva, 2005).
The importance of the axiological approach as a methodological apparatus for studying the problems of the development of society lies in determining the nature of values, their origin and the mechanisms of formation in the individual in accordance with the norms of culture (Yakovlev, 2012). The use of the axiological approach involves the indication of key value orientations and the study of promising ways of their formation in the conditions of the modern educational process.
The axiological approach performs the following functions:
1) cognitive related to focus on civil-patriotic values;
2) organizational allowing to optimize the content of civil-patriotic education;
3) indicative related to the choice of values;
4) informational, including transmission of norms of behavior, relations;
5) communicative, including establishing contacts, transmitting and exchanging information;
6) educational ensuring the enrichment of the individual with civil and moral values;
7) evaluation-reflexive related to analysis and evaluation of results of civil-patriotic education.
The process of civil-patriotic education as a socio-cultural process acts as an evaluation process with value and axiological orientation. Civic-patriotic education is associated with the elevation of the educational status of an individual, his orientation in civil-patriotic values functioning within the information and communication space.
The as a principle requires understanding the essence of civil-patriotic values, determining the goal, orienting a student’s personality to civil-patriotic values, organizing the process of civil socialization. The formation of civil-patriotic values on the basis of a socio-cultural approach introduces personality into the system of socio-cultural relations.
This approach allows performing the following functions:
1) integrative function, which manifests itself in the unity of moral, legal, social activity of an individual;
2) socializing function, including establishing contact with the socio-cultural environment;
3) evaluation function, including understanding of civil-patriotic values.
The sociocultural approach reflects the unity and coherence of social institutions in order to harmonize the interaction of man and society; as the main objects of security, it identifies the individual, the society, the state and is focused on meeting their information needs and interests.
In the socio-cultural environment, communicative interaction takes place thus fostering civil-patriotic values and social experience of activity. The socio-cultural environment is the result of the activity of a person, the development and creation of his life space by a person in the organic unity of psychological, spiritual, moral, functional and object-sensory factors of his life. It acts as an objective condition for the formation of the personality, as an object of pedagogical influence, ultimately as a means of educating the personality (Grevtseva, 2005). The socio-cultural environment of the university provides the conditions in which a student assimilates values, masters the profession, improves his skills.
The to the formation of civil-patriotic values from a single perspective allows studying those aspects of natural and social objects for which the information exchange is significant. At the same time, it implies the study of the object as a system capable of perceiving, storing, processing and transmitting information of a civilian orientation. It is important to include students in the information and communication field of education focused on civil and patriotic values.
In the formation of civil-patriotic values, the information and communicative competence of an individual is particularly important. It is important for everyone to develop communication skills, skillfully apply them in specific situations, be able to work in a team, cooperate, establish contact with people, transmit and perceive information. The constituent parts of the informational and communicative competence of a person with a civil-patriotic orientation include knowledge of the essence of citizenship, patriotism, internationalism, their value; skills and abilities, including orientation in civil-patriotic values, knowledge of the essence of moral values, ability to defend views and beliefs; interaction between people in the form of communication, interaction, transmission and exchange of information.
An attribute of the informational and communicative competence of a person is its adaptability to changing conditions, possession of verbal and non-verbal means of communication, attitude to the natural and social world. The significance of the informational and communicative competence for individual civil-patriotic education consists in establishing interpersonal communication at theoretical and practical levels based on their significance for orientation in the corresponding values. Personality development, as well as experience and principles of social relations are formed on the basis of interpersonal communication.
Students’ interpersonal communication is key in their civic and patriotic education. Duranov (2002) highlights the features of interpersonal communication in civil-patriotic education. He refers to them as to the establishment of double feedback, its multichanneling and stage-by-stage approach. Educational impact is associated with interaction based on a functional approach that includes informational, expressive, pragmatic functions.
The efficiency of interpersonal communication depends on the following:
- values of communicative attitude and its focus on civil-patriotic values;
Communicativeness acts as an important condition for cognition, development of an individual, formation of his civil-patriotic orientation. The information-communicative competence allows shifting from the process of civil-patriotic education to the process of self-education.
In personal terms the information and communication approach comes to the “self” theory (I concept) interpreted as the system of ideas about oneself formed in the process of socially valuable activity. The “self” theory allows a person perceiving himself as a citizen and as a patriot, a carrier of information, it is formed in the process of communication and activity, manifests itself in self-esteem, social activity, personal claims, interpersonal relations, relations to the society and the state. Therefore, it is important to take into account and develop sociability as a personal quality that has a civil-patriotic orientation.
The system of civic and patriotic education of students is an information system. Based on the energy approach to information systems, Setrov (1971) identifies the following several aspects:
- enhancement effect is determined by the presence of free energy in the perceiving system. The greater the criticality of the system, the less energy impact required for its transformation, the higher the information value, the meaningful impact of a teacher;
The formation of civil-patriotic values serves as an information and communication process, being energetic its essence, in which there is an energy interaction of self-regulatory systems: a teacher and students, students and the social environment (information field), a student and means of communication.
The personality, and at the same time its civil-patriotic orientation, is formed as a result of communication, interpersonal interaction in the process of communication. Communication itself, interpersonal interaction is informational and communicative in nature: information and knowledge are exchanged between the teacher and students. The sociable nature of knowledge in pedagogy is communicative, it reflects the interaction of participants in the pedagogical process. Civic and patriotic information is an integral part of educational knowledge, which is used to guide relevant values, to actively use knowledge in management activities, to communicate for the development of this pedagogical system and educate students as citizens and patriots. Therefore, this knowledge is in constant circulation, movement.
The efficiency of the system depends on the activity of its participants. Therefore, communicativeness characterizes the qualitative side of the participants of the pedagogical process, while the activity is its attribute. The success of civil-patriotic values depends on production and reproduction of information, use of various means of communication, i.e. on its energy. Hence, the energy of an information and communication approach to civic-patriotic education as a pedagogical process depends on its organization based on the following:
- targeting, forecasting and planning, use of communication means in management activities of a teacher;
Therefore, the formation of civil-patriotic values should be based on the information and communication approach as a pedagogical principle, which performs important functions, including:
- informative related to selection and transfer of terminal, instrumental, moral values to students with civil-patriotic orientation;
Based on the identified methodological approaches, a system for the formation of civil-patriotic values among students was developed, including the following components: normative-target, theoretical-substantive, motivational-axiological, practical-pragmatist, evaluation-effective.
The normative-target component of the system is aimed at determining the goals and objectives of the simulated process, at updating civil-patriotic values taking into account the peculiarities of the socio-cultural environment, as well as methods, forms and means of civil-patriotic values.
The theoretical-substantive component of the system determines the content, specifics of interaction, forms the system of beliefs, views that determine creativity; is aimed at creating a value-based attitude towards people, work, nature.
The motivational-axiological component of the system affects the motivational and value sphere of a student, contributes to motives, their comprehension, consolidation of the significance of civil and patriotic values, includes preservation and development of social success. Dialogue, design, research, communication and other technologies are the means of developing a value-based attitude to civil-patriotic qualities and motivation of civil creativity.
The practical-pragmatist component of the system generates positive values through a variety of activities; creates conditions for creative communication, develops design, communication competencies, ability to work in a team, cooperation. The main means of implementing this component in the sociocultural environment is activity.
The evaluation-effective component of the system is an element of assessing the quality and diagnostics of the level of efficiency of civil-patriotic values.
The system for the formation of civic-patriotic values among young people as the spiritual basis of national security performs analytical, diagnostic, predictive, design, practical-orientation, protective, educational, cognitive, organizational, socializing and control-evaluation functions.
The highlighted civil-patriotic values act as beliefs, as goals and means of achieving them. Rules and norms of relations related to the fulfillment of civil and professional duty are developed on their basis.
Value orientations act as the result of the educational process, interaction with the socio-cultural environment, the inclusion of civil-patriotic values in the personality structure, without which it is impossible to develop the rule of law and create a humanistic society.
The results of the study have a certain practical significance. It includes the fact that the main socio-pedagogical aspects of the identified civil-patriotic values will serve the basis for activities in educational institutions in terms of educating the spiritual and moral qualities of a younger person.
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17 May 2021
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Grevtseva, G. Y., Tsiulina, M. V., Bashtanar, I. M., Zhilkina, T. A., & Isakova, T. I. (2021). Formation Of Civic And Patriotic Values Among Young People. In D. K. Bataev, S. A. Gapurov, A. D. Osmaev, V. K. Akaev, L. M. Idigova, M. R. Ovhadov, A. R. Salgiriev, & M. M. Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Knowledge, Man and Civilization - ISCKMC 2020, vol 107. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1620-1627). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.05.214