The specificity of vocational education organizations lies in the training of practice-oriented qualified specialists for business entities of various organizational and legal forms of ownership and types of activity. The modern labor market requires from a graduate of a vocational training institution, in addition to high professionalism and responsibility, psychological readiness for various difficult situations, a significant role is played by the need to constantly improve themselves, both professionally and personally. However, research results, including the results of social surveys conducted among employers, show that the majority of graduates of vocational training institutions have no or poorly expressed skills of social interaction, the experience of team working, the ability to find constructive solutions in complex conflict situations, self-confidence and low level of competence in solving arising social problems, which indicates a low level of their social and professional adaptation. For a long time, the problems of "young specialists" adaptation have been thoroughly considered by both scientists and practitioners, but the process of adaptation is analyzed mainly from the point of view of "personality and environment", while this process is not only of biological, psychological, social and managerial nature but is also one of the urgent pedagogical problems. The article presents the opinion of employers about the professional and personal qualities of graduates, offers pedagogical conditions that contribute to the social and professional adaptation of future graduates of vocational training institutions, in which an important place is occupied by the social partnership with employers, production practice, and developed student self-government.
The development of Russian vocational education is aimed at improving its availability and quality, and training qualified personnel at all levels. Thus, according to the Forecast of long-term socio-economic development of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030, a necessary condition for the formation of an innovative economy is the modernization of the education system, which is the basis for dynamic economic growth and social development of society. In the context of this document, competent, competitive graduates who can independently coordinate their professional activities, demonstrate creative abilities, a high level of adaptability to changing social conditions and dynamic demands of the labor market are currently in demand (Igropulo et al., 2018).
As a rule, it is especially difficult for young specialists – graduates of vocational training institutions to find a job corresponding to their speciality since they have no life or work experience. However, representatives of employers note that lack of professional readiness is a matter of time, usually a young specialist easily "enters the work" if he is prepared in psychological and social terms (Guan et al., 2013; Koestner et al., 2010). To a large extent, professional adaptation is hindered by consumer sentiment, lack of readiness to take initiative, make independent decisions, take responsibility, inadequate self-esteem, psychological problems in communication, and lack of readiness for intensive work (Holdsworth et al., 2019; Liu et al., 2019; Yuh & Choi, 2017).
A survey of representatives of organizations – potential employers of students of vocational training institutions in the city of Stavropol and the Stavropol Territory, such as, "Stavropol Gorgaz", "Interregional universal enterprise for property appraisal and real estate cadastre Capital-service", "Center for Practical Accounting", "TechnoCenter", "Sodejstvie", "Energomera", "Altair", etc.) showed that employers have quite high requirements for the level of socio-professional qualities of graduates, which allows us to build a kind of rating of the qualities of a good specialist (Table 01.).
Institutions of vocational education have great potential to create conditions that promote the social and professional adaptation of future specialists, but the educational process is primarily aimed at providing high – quality theoretical and practical training, while the issue of social and professional adaptation of graduates, as a rule, is given a secondary role.
The survey results of students of vocational training institutions show that today most of the future specialists are guided by the principle "making a lot of money without making a lot of effort", while the socially significant side of work is not taken into account by them.
Thus, it becomes obvious that the main burden in the formation of the future specialist personality, including social and professional adaptation in the labor collective, falls more on the educational organization.
The relevance of the problem of social and professional adaptation of future specialists – graduates of vocational training, determines the need for theoretical justification and practical implementation of pedagogical conditions aimed at its effectiveness.
Socio-professional adaptation is considered as a complex, multi-faceted step-by-step process of entering the profession, mastering value orientations within the profession, awareness and acceptance of professional motives and goals.
What do employers expect from graduates of vocational organizations? Error! Bookmark not defined.
What are the pedagogical conditions for social and professional adaptation of future graduates of vocational training institutions?
Purpose of the Study
This article aims to:
theoretical and experimental justification of pedagogical conditions that promote the social and
professional adaptation of future graduates of vocational training institutions.
In the course of the research, the authors used methods of theoretical analysis of literature, modeling, and pedagogical experiment to create pedagogical conditions for social and professional adaptation of future graduates of vocational training institutions.
In the context of modern research, the concept of "social and professional adaptation" can be considered in various aspects: psychological, social, axiological. It should be noted that the researchers initially distinguish social adaptation as a process of active adaptation of the individual to the social environment, type of interaction of the individual with the social environment, emphasizing physiological, psychological and social level.
In the psychological literature, the term "social adaptation" is inextricably linked with the socialization of the individual. Thus, many authors emphasize that in the process of socialization, the individual is primarily the object of social influence, and in the course of social adaptation, the individual is more of a subject of activity and communication (Milovanova, 2013).
Various aspects of the problem of a socially prepared personality formation of future professionals are reflected in the researches of Romaeva and Kuzmina (2019)
Pedagogical conditions that ensure social and professional adaptation of students of vocational training institutions
Vocational training is a socially and pedagogically organized process of labor socialization of an individual, providing orientation and adaptation in the world of professions, mastering a specific speciality and skill level, the continuous growth of competence, skills and development of abilities in various fields of human activity. In accordance with the Federal Law "On education in the Russian Federation", the structure of vocational education includes secondary vocational education and higher education.
It should be noted that in the context of this normative document, the main result of the activities of professional education organizations is primarily a qualified specialist in all the main areas of socially useful activities, with certain general and professional competencies. The state educational standard defines competence as the ability to apply knowledge, skills and personal qualities and practical experience for successful activity in a certain area.
The factor of integration of a graduate of a vocational education organization into social and labor relations in the labor market is the formed general competencies – in organizations of secondary vocational education; general cultural and general professional competencies – in organizations of higher education.
General competencies; general cultural and professional competencies form a set of personal and professional qualities of the graduate, which should allow him to carry out activities at a certain qualification level. However, practice shows that general competencies are formal, there is no clear mechanism for their formation, and in addition, this process is associated only with upbringing.
In our opinion, general competencies are an intermediate result in the formation of a specialist, a kind of "basic set " of socio-professional opportunities, correspondences of the mastered educational program, while the process of socio-professional adaptation of a student is more extensive, interfaced not only with professional activities, but with all spheres of life, so it should cover the entire educational process of an educational organization.
There are several stages in the process of social and professional adaptation of students:
preliminary – at the level of the educational organization during the educational process;
primary – during the practical training of students at enterprises with which a social partnership agreement has been concluded;
subsequent – as graduates are employed.
The preliminary stage of social and professional adaptation should be organized taking into account the characteristics of the students, as well as in accordance with the strategic directions of the educational organization, among which, within the framework of the studied problem, it is possible to distinguish:
- increasing the attractiveness of vocational education programs that are in demand on the regional labor market;
- preparing students for participation in All-Russian Olympiads, competitions and professional skills championships WorldSkills Russia "Young professionals";
- implementation of the social partnership development Program; development and search for innovative forms of interaction with social partners, including the development of dual training;
- improving the educational process through the development of the academic advisement system and student self-government;
- creating a system for identifying, supporting and further developing talented youth;
- creation of the infrastructure for social mobility of students;
- formation of positive work motivation, high business activity, skills of effective behavior in the labor market, etc.
An essential condition for the social and professional adaptation of students – future graduates is to attract potential employers to cooperate at all stages of the educational process, starting with the development of educational programs. So, with the introduction of Federal State Educational Standard of secondary vocational education of the TOP 50, educational organizations are given relative independence in the development of academic course working programs and professional modules on the basis of the exemplary principal educational program, the "relativism" considered by most institutions as "bound", at the same time requests of the regional labor market for a number of specialties are not taken into account.
Social partnership with employers can be implemented in different directions:
- direct participation of employers in the educational process: teaching special disciplines and professional modules, organizing and conducting lessons-excursions, on-the-job classes, lessons with the invitation of specialists, etc.;
- organization of industrial practice (specialty practice, pre-diploma);
- participation in the work of examination commissions during qualification and demonstration exams, graduation thesis defense;
- joint participation in competitions, fairs, exhibitions, etc.;
- assistance in employment of graduates;
- professional training, retraining, advanced training of employees of the organization, etc.
To improve the efficiency of socio-professional adaptation of students allows the execution of contracts on the social partnership with employers in the region, concluded in the framework of industrial practice (practice on the profile of specialty), by which, the organization must not only provide a place to practice, to appoint qualified professionals for its leadership, but to provide the conditions for the formation of the general and professional competencies of students, the gaining relevant practical experience. At the same time, representatives of the employer – supervisors of the production practice should participate in the formation of the evaluation material and in the procedure for evaluating the results of the development of general and professional competencies obtained during the traineeship.
In the course of industrial practice, students expand and deepen their practical skills, gain industrial experience, and participate in the life of the staff, which contributes to the formation of such social and professional qualities as:
- readiness to take responsibility for the performed work;
- readiness for positive interaction and collaboration in the team;
- ability to independently solve problems in the field of professional activity.
As practice shows, the active participation of employers – social partners of an educational organization in conducting various types of classes, activities, including extracurricular ones, has the most effective value in confirming the professional and social significance of chosen profession among the students.
In our opinion, one of the main conditions for improving the readiness of future specialists for professional activity, to fully master professional skills of a specialist, skills of social and professional interaction, is the modeling of practical activities in the educational process through a system of practice-oriented (professional) business games with the participation of employers, as well as their preparation and conducting in real production.
Monitoring the formation of general and professional competencies shows that the level of practical tasks performed by students who actively participate in the preparation and conducting of professional business games is about 35–40 % higher than by students who passively participate or do not participate in them at all.
It is fundamentally important to systematize business games according to training courses, interdisciplinary courses, professional modules and stages of training, as well as to develop a game situation based on practical materials of existing organizations (enterprises), which will ensure more complete testing of the functions of a modern specialist.
The purpose and level of the integrality of business professional games are determined by the stage of the educational and production process they complete.
At the initial stage of training, business games are based on interdisciplinary connections provided by interdisciplinary course or a professional module, and subsequently, taking into account the expansion of the integration of interdisciplinary module and module of vocational training completing the training practice, based on the results of industrial practice (Specialty Practice), they acquire a more complex form.
The schematically generalized structure of the professional business game is shown in figure 01.
Social and professional adaptation of future specialists is facilitated by participation in the activities of a really functioning self-government.
The main goal of the activities of student self-government bodies is to educate a socially active personality, combining high morality and culture with a sense of professional integrity, and responsibility for the quality and result of their work, preparing graduates to perform managerial and self-government functions in the production team, in society as a whole, increase the activity of students in public life, responsibility for decisions made.
Student self-government bodies are called to solve a number of tasks, for example:
- creating conditions for the comprehensive development of the individual and personal abilities;
- organization of joint activities of a single team of students and teachers united by a common goal of personal and social significance, humane relations and high responsibility;
- the establishment of moral and ethical standards in the student body, the development of democratization and transparency;
- formation of a cohesive team of students and its public opinion;
- formation of managerial, organizational and educational skills of each student in the team;
- development of active citizenship, independence in decision-making, formation of qualities of the head of the labor collective;
- creating a professional and socio-cultural environment that forms the readiness of all members of the team to communicate and cooperate, etc.
Successful social and professional adaptation of students is facilitated by their participation in the development and implementation of various projects of social orientation, professionally-oriented, projects aimed at revealing the creative abilities of students. One of the examples of projects of socio-professional orientation is the Festival of Professions aims at: increasing the social prestige of professions that are in demand in the labor market of the Stavropol city and the region; promoting the values of work, professionalism and the use of their own creative potential in the future profession; stimulating professional self-knowledge of students, expanding their horizons and forming interest in the future profession; demonstrating the achievements of creative, personal self-realization of students; developing new forms of social partnership.
The main events of the Festival can be defined as: Olympiads in special disciplines and professional modules; contests of course projects; conferences; contests of professional skills; intellectual contests and quizzes; meetings and round tables with employers, etc.
As the practice of the Festival shows, its overall result is the students understanding of their own professional resources (opportunities); professional interaction in the mode of competition; the development of initiative and creative activity.
Thus, the research allowed us to formulate pedagogical conditions for social and professional adaptation of future graduates of vocational training institutions:
- attracting potential employers to cooperate at all stages of the educational process, including the development of educational programs;
- compliance with the terms of social partnership agreements with employers of the region, concluded within the framework of industrial practice (practice in the specialty profile), under which the organization must not only provide a place for practice, appoint qualified specialists for its leadership, but also provide conditions for the formation of general and professional competencies of the student, the gaining relevant practical experience;
- simulation of practical activities in the educational process through a system of practice-oriented (professional) business games with the participation of employers, as well as their preparation and implementation in real production;
- participation of future graduates in the activities of a functioning student government
participation in the development and implementation of various projects of social orientation, professionally-oriented projects aimed at revealing the creative abilities of students.
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17 May 2021
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Romaeva, N. B., Kuzmina, S. V., Kartasheva, E. V., Zaikina, E. S., & Romaev, A. P. (2021). Social And Professional Adaptation Of Future Graduates Of Vocational Training Institutions. In D. K. Bataev, S. A. Gapurov, A. D. Osmaev, V. K. Akaev, L. M. Idigova, M. R. Ovhadov, A. R. Salgiriev, & M. M. Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Knowledge, Man and Civilization - ISCKMC 2020, vol 107. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1342-1350). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.05.177