The classification of English asyndetic complex sentences proposed depending on the main criterion of elementarity, which understood as verb predicativity and describes simultaneous actions; subsequent actions; timeless actions; continuous actions. The grammatical combination of compound elementary sentences carried out through free adjoining if these components are not grammatically related, i.e., do not affect each other. Despite grammatical independence, there is a specific semantic connection that acts as part of the English asyndetic sentence, which combines the meanings of these simple elementary sentences as components but not having a close semantic structure, where elementary sentences can function with appropriate actual division and isolated from each other. The intonation of the English asyndetic sentence is different in that at the junctions of elementary compound sentences. It has a technique of rising and transitioning to articulating the subsequent elementary sentence's further meaning. In a written speech, such intonation displays punctuation marks "semicolon" and "comma." All elementary sentences – components of the English asyndetic sentence are characterized by a full subject-predicate structure [Sub + Pred] and show complete predication. The proposition uniting these subject-predicate structures into a typical semantic-grammatical structure of an asyndetic complex sentence shows signs of insufficiency and incompleteness, as indicated by the following factors: 1. The grammatical independence of the compound elementary sentences; 2. Weak semantic connection of these components; 3. Intonation incompleteness between compound elementary sentences, which can destroy the weak semantic connection between them.
We characterize asyndetic complex sentences (ACS) in English as a combination of two or more simple elementary sentences in one complex syntactic structure through the grammatical connection of adjunction (Kachalova & Izrailevich, 1995; Searle, 1985).
“ACS – a special type of complex sentence, in which the absence of an allied means of communication allows a broader and more free interpretation of the meanings and shades of meaning transmitted in these constructions” (Zakharova, 2016, p. 54).
English asyndetic complex sentence can be classified depending on the basic elementary criterion, which involves taking into account the number of designated speech objects and situations to be covered. Examination of the English factual material shows that this principle of elementarity, i.e. verb predicability, allows you to distribute all English asyndetic complex sentences into four types: asyndetic sequential complex sentences; 2. asyndetic simultaneous complex sentences; 3. asyndetic timeless complex sentences; 4. asyndetic continuous complex sentences.
The proposed classification of asyndetic complex sentences in modern English is thus based on "... on the theory of the atomicity of its subject-predicate structure, on the concept that sentences are organized as holistic units according to certain typical patterns crystallized in the language" (Abramov, 1972, p. 43; Halliday & Kress, 1976; Muir, 1972, p. 38).
Asyndetic sequential complex sentences denote one subject of speech and cover one extra-linguistic situation. For example:
(1) The interior was poor and bare; the only car visible was the dust-covered wreck of a Ford which stood in a dim corner (Fitzgerald, 2014).
(2) An-Yen paused and sat for some time silent; his pipe had sputtered out and lay cold in the hollow of his hand; his eye was fixed upon the wall where the light and shadows shifted in the dull flickering of the candle (Stevenson, 2010).
(3) “But indeed, Utterson, I am very glad to see you; this is really a great pleasure” (Stevenson, 2010).
Grammatically, all the above English asyndetic sequential complex sentences (1), (2), and (3) are interconnected by adjacency when one simple elementary sentence is joined to another by a free syntactic link. The semantics of all the sentences above are due to the notation of simultaneous actions. So, in (1) English asyndetic sentence, two simple elementary sentences are connected, indicating such actions simultaneously. It is the simultaneity of actions correlated with one designated subject of speech and with one extra-linguistic situation that allows us to ensure that the semantic interconnectedness of all the constituent parts – simple elementary sentences as part of the entire asyndetic complex sentence. In the intonation-phonetic structure of the English asyndetic complex sentence (1), as well as in two other complex sentences (2) and (3), there is a melody of the incompleteness of meaning, when a slight rise in the intonation of the previous simple sentence indicates the further development of the "phonetic storyline" and to continue the thought in the subsequent simple sentence as part of the asyndetic complex (Ahmanova & Baranova, 1986; Zimniaia, 1993).
The phonetic-phonological melody of the incompleteness of thought takes place in oral and colloquial speech. In the written and literary speech, such incomplete intonation of the previous simple sentence and transition to the next sentence is displayed by the punctuation mark "semicolon," which not only combines simple elementary sentences in the composition of the asyndetic complex but through some pause and divides the phonetic speech in the composition of the asyndetic complex sentence.
Purpose of the Study
In all the above English-language sentences (1), (2) and (3) there are full-fledged subject-predicate structures:
However, the proposition as the highest form of predication, linking together the whole semantic structure of the English asyndetic complex sentence, in examples (1), (2), and (3) seems incomplete. For example, in (2), in which there are three subject-predicate structures, the incompleteness of the proposition is due to the weak semantic connection of all composite elementary sentences with each other:
An incomplete proposition arises in the entire structure of an asyndetic complex sentence, when it, "describing one fragment of the situation, does not give a complete picture of it" (Puzikov, 2009, p. 120).
Asyndetic simultaneous complex sentences, expressing sequential actions, denotes one subject of the speech, and covers one situation. For example:
(4) The coupe came to a stop; Daisy signaled us to draw up alongside (Fitzgerald, 2014).
(5) Up the Yukon, a black speck appeared against the show, closely followed by a second (London, 2013).
(6) As they struggled to and fro, the table was overturned, and the vase dashed into a thousand fragments (Hawthorne, 2013).
The grammatical combination of the simple elementary sentences in the complex ones is carried out through free adjoining. These components are not grammatically related to each other, i.e., do not affect each other. However, despite the grammatical independence of the elementary compound sentences in the English asyndetic complex sentence, there is some semantic connection between them, which manifests itself in the fact that they all designate one subject of the speech, or rather, sequential actions of this subject of speech and cover the same non-linguistic designated situation. In (4), (5) and (6), a sequence of actions of one subject of the speech is observed in a single extra-language situation. Moreover, the intonation of the incomplete sunrise at the end of the previous simple compound sentence is used in the type of the asyndetic complex English sentence. After a short pause, the new simple compound sentence begins with an even tone (Eshmambetova & Verbitskaya, 1990). In writing, i.e., in written speech, such intonation is displayed by punctuation marks "semicolon" [example (4)] and "comma" [example (5) and (6)].
The predicative structure of all those as mentioned earlier English asyndetic sentences is characterized by the presence of full-valued subjective-predicate structures [Sub+Pred]:
Thus, in all three of the above English complex sentences of the asyndetic type, there is a complete prediction due to the presence of full-fledged subject-predicate structures (Firbas & Jan, 1992; Kozuev, 1999).
As for the proposition that combines the meanings of simple elementary sentences, in all the above sentences (4), (5) and (6), it seems to be incomplete. The incompleteness of the proposition is due to three factors already identified: first, the grammatical loose connection adjacency; secondly, the weakened and nonadherent semantic connection between the components of these complex sentences; and thirdly, in oral speech, the transitional intonation of incompleteness (Ilyina et al., 1991).
For example, such an incomplete proposition can be shown in a complex sentence (4):
(7) One house, however, second from the corner, was still occupied entire; at the door of this, which wore a great air of wealth and comfort, though it was now plunged in darkness except for the fanlight, Mr. Utterson stopped and knocked (Stevenson, 2010).
(8) The fair widow knew, of old, that Colonel Killigrew compliments were not always measured sober truth, so she started up and ran to the mirror, still dreading that the ugly visage of an old woman would meet her gaze (Hawthorne, 2013).
(9) "You shave off that moustache of yours – it did not an ornament" (Jerome, 2012).
English complex sentences (7) and (8) represent complicated syntactic structures; Thus, in (7), the second clause contains the subordinate definitive, and, therefore, this second part can be viewed from the angle of a complex sentence of a subordinate type. In (8) in the first clause there is an additional clause, and, therefore, the first part of this example can also be considered from a complex sentence of a subordinate type, in which real language life has "piled up" the most different types and types of elementary sentences. So, in this case, we are interested in the asyndetic connection of English complex sentences. Therefore, we will perceive the existing subordinate clauses as a separate member of the sentence – in (7) this is a definition, and in (8) this is an objective complement, focusing on analysis a complex sentence of the asyndetic type. In the analytical study of such brightly complicated English examples, the speech in which the linguistic structures are framed determines the method of linguistic analysis. According to the apt remark of Wunderlich (1979), the nascent speech act not only improves communication but also predetermines the methodology of its linguistic research and analysis. (Shepeleva, 2009).
In all these examples (7), (8), and (9), one subject of the speech is indicated – (7): One house; (8): The widow; (9): mustache, correlated with one extra-linguistic situation; the actions performed by this subject of speech – the subject (The widow) or object (One house, mustache). However, are perceived as timeless, i.e., those that are produced by the subject of speech at all times, without a specific reference to any moment or logical plan of the past, present, or future. It is such timeless actions that provide the semantic connection of preferences into one structure of an asyndetic complex sentence type.
As for the intonation design of the above sentences (7), (8) and (9) in spoken language, their asyndetic semantic connection is manifested only at the junction of sentences, when the previous compound sentence ends with some upsurge of the technique, and the next starts after some pausing from a flat tone (Isaev, 2009). The intonation – semantic connection of English asyndetic complex sentences is provided in writing not only by the punctuation mark with a semicolon but also by the punctuation mark "dash" (Arndt, 1984; Rosenthal & Telenkova, 1985).
All compound sentences in examples (7), (8), and (9) can be considered fully-predicate; they all have a complete subject-predicate structure [Sub+Pred]:
The asyndetic continuous complex sentences with components expressing long-term actions denote two or more subjects of speech, but covers one situation. for example:
(10) So in their big, cold mansion John Ingerfield and Anne, his wife, sit far apart, strangers to one another, neither desiring to know the other nearer (Jerome, 2012).
(11) Ah-Yen paused; I lighted my pipe afresh and nodded to him to show that I was listening (Stevenson, 2010).
(12) Each night, the old man would indicate a different peace; on each following day, my brother-in-law would proceed to break up the mill at the point indicated, and look for the treasure (Jerome, 2012).
The grammatical connection of adjacency unites in a freeway, without any grammatical interdependence, all composite elementary sentences into the complex asyndetic structure in the English examples (10), (11) and (12). There is a semantic connection between the constituent parts of these complex sentences, but it is not so strong that the constituent parts could not be used without each other. This weak semantic connection in the asyndetic complex sentences (10), (11) and (12) is provided by the long-term nature of the actions of different speech objects but acting in the same speech situation.
The intonation structure of simple elementary sentences in the composition of those mentioned earlier asyndetic complex sentences is defined as a narrative sentence technique with an increasing outcome at the end, which indicates the incompleteness of the thought of the whole message (Arndt, 1984).
All three analyzed asyndetic complex sentences (10), (11) and (12) each contains two simple elementary sentences, while all these elementary sentences have a full-fledged subjective predicate structure [Sub+Pred]:
However, the proposition that links these subject-predicate structures into a typical semantic-grammatical structure of the asyndetic complex sentence is not complete and complete. Proposition on the scale of the entire asyndetic complex sentence is incomplete and unfinished, which indicated by the following factors: firstly, the grammatical connection of adjoining, although it combines two or more simple elementary sentences into one large syntactic construction is loose and non-coherent; secondly, the general semantics of the asyndetic complex sentence is not homogeneous, it is instead not heterogeneous; and thirdly, the intonation of incompleteness and the method of transition from one elementary sentence to another as part of the asyndetic complex is not so uninflected, it is regulated not only by the general meaning of the statement but also by the length of the pause.
Thus, these sentences manifest their elementary nature as a verb action:
Asyndetic sequential complex sentences with components expressing sequential actions; it denotes one subject of speech and covers one extra-linguistic situation;
Asyndetic simultaneous complex sentences with components expressing simultaneous actions, it also denotes one subject of speech and covers one extra-linguistic situation;
Asyndetic timeless complex sentences with components expressing timeless actions; in the same way, it denotes one subject of speech and covers one extra-linguistic situation;
Asyndetic continuous complex sentences with components expressing long-term actions; but it denotes two or more subjects of speech, although they cover one extra-linguistic situation.
The grammatical connection acting as part of the English asyndetic complex sentence is the adjoining of free simple elementary sentences.
The semantic connection, acting as part of the English asyndetic complex sentence, combines the meanings of these simple elementary sentences as components of a typical semantic structure and is loose and uninflected – elementary sentences can function with appropriate actual division and isolated from each other.
The intonation of the English asyndetic complex sentence is different in that at the junctions of elementary compound sentences, and it has a technique of rising and transitioning to articulating the further meaning of the subsequent elementary sentence. In a written speech, such intonation displays punctuation marks "semicolon" and "comma".
All elementary sentences – the constituent parts of the English non-union compound sentence are characterized by a full-fledged subject-predicate structure [Sub + Pred] and show full prediction, which is ensured by the obligatory two-component syntactic structure of the simple English sentence, both extended and non-extended.
The proposition as the highest stage of predication acts already at the level of the entire asyndetic complex sentence; we designate it as a proposition of an incomplete kind since its incompleteness is determined by many linguistic factors: 1. The grammatical independence of compound elementary sentences; 2. The semantic friability and despair of the meanings of these components; 3. The intonation of incompleteness with an unregulated duration of pausing between composite elementary sentences: a specific lengthening of the pause can break the already weak semantic connection between them.
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Kozuev, D. I., Jumalieva, G. E., & Beksultanova, G. A. (2021). Structural And Semantic Characterization Of English Asyndetic Complex Sentences. In D. K. Bataev, S. A. Gapurov, A. D. Osmaev, V. K. Akaev, L. M. Idigova, M. R. Ovhadov, A. R. Salgiriev, & M. M. Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Knowledge, Man and Civilization - ISCKMC 2020, vol 107. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 877-884). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.05.118