The article examines the value orientations of high school students in terms of reflecting the national values of Russia. Familiarizing students with the cultural values of their people and universal values, forming a civic identity is an urgent task of the educational system of any country in the world. The authors believe that when studying the problem of value orientations of high school students, it is necessary to pay special attention to gender differences as a condition for their formation. It is obvious that the value orientations of boys and girls have their own specifics. Without calling for separate training of boys and girls, the authors of this study try to identify the strengths and weaknesses of their value orientations in order to correctly influence them. The empirical basis of the article is a survey conducted among graduates of a school in Nizhny Novgorod. The main conclusion is that most high school students share traditional national values of love, responsibility, family, hard work, and social recognition. However, it turned out that the value of family higher for girls than for boys, they are more focused on the hope of relations, and young men often live for today, they are inconvenienced by the necessity of responsibility for themselves and others, but they are more inclined to knowledge, convinced of the possibility, if desired, to control the situation. Thus, national values are seen in both groups and are more pronounced in girls.
Issues related to the perception of the world and attitude toward it among teen schoolchildren have long been in the sphere of interests of researchers. Man is a becoming being, which is formed, in the process of his whole life. Especially, the formation process goes wildly in school years when the foundations of a person are laid. That is why it is important to address the issues affecting the value system of an individual especially in the teen period of life.
The sociocultural situation in modern Russia is so contradictory that it sometimes put incompatible demands on the developing personality: recognition of Western liberal democratic values while thinking about the priority of national interests and preserving the uniqueness of native culture (Balashova et al., 2018; Gryaznova et al., 2020). “In the 90s of the XX century in Russia the ideal was formed of a person who is free in self-determination and development, “freed” from values, national traditions and obligations to society” (Danilyuk et al., 2011, p. 11).
A rather acute question arises here: on the basis of what value system in the education system the younger generation is upbringing today? How far do the value preferences of the population itself coincide with traditional national values and the requirements of official educational institutions? Thus, a contradiction arises between the need to formulate the basic national values of adolescents and the undeveloped pedagogical conditions for their formation. We consider, in particular, the inclusion of gender differences in value orientations to such conditions. Therefore, when studying the problem of value orientations of teen schoolchildren it is necessary to pay special attention to gender differences. It is obvious that the value orientations of boys and girls have their own specifics.
The created situation sets the basic guidelines for determining the problem of our research, which consists in studying the value orientations of boys and girls in the context of the country's national values.
The value guidelines of students at the level of basic general education are the basic national values of Russian society which were formulated in The Constitution of the Russian Federation, in the Federal Law “On Education in the Russian Federation” (№ 273-FL of December 29, 2012), in the text of the Federal State Educational Standard for basic general education.
Basic national values by the provisions of The Constitution of the Russian Federation:
“The Russian Federation – Russia is a democratic federal legal state with a republican form of government” (The Constitution of the Russian Federation..., 2019, Chapter I, Article 1, p. 3); “A man, his rights and freedoms are the highest value” (The Constitution of the Russian Federation..., 2019, Ch. I, Art. 2, p. 3); “The Russian Federation is a social state whose policy is aimed at creating conditions ensuring a decent life and free development of a person” (The Constitution of the Russian Federation..., 2019, Ch. I, Article 7, p. 4); “In the Russian Federation private, state, municipal and other forms of ownership are recognized and protected in the same way”, “…In the Russian Federation the rights and freedoms of man and citizen are recognized and guaranteed in accordance with international law and in accordance with this Constitution. Fundamental rights and human freedoms are inalienable and belong to everyone from birth. The exercise of the rights and freedoms of man and citizen must not violate the rights and freedoms of others" (The Constitution of the Russian Federation..., 2019, Chapter I, Article 17, p. 7).
The country's national values are also reflected in the Law on Education in the Russian Federation (No. 273-FZ of December 29, 2012). In particular, it is “... the humanistic nature of education, the priority of human life and health, the rights and freedoms of the individual, the free development of the personality, the cultivation of mutual respect, industriousness, citizenship, patriotism, responsibility, legal culture, respect for nature and the environment, rational nature management” (New Federal law on education in the Russian Federation.., 2019, p. 10).
The federal state educational standard for basic general education lists the basic national values of Russian society: patriotism, social solidarity, citizenship, family, health, work and creativity, science, humanity (Federal state educational standard.., 2019).
Immediately we note that a significant layer of psychological and pedagogical literature is devoted to the study of the sphere of values of personality. Based on a theoretical analysis of the work of Burns (2012); Kagan (1987); Kon (2006); Yadov (2013) etc., we can distinguish the following main factors that determine the formation of the value system of personality: family structure (full or incomplete composition, the presence of brothers and sisters, older parents); types of parenting and styles of parental behavior; the conflict or non-conflict nature of the relationship between parents; social status.
The problem of studying the value orientations of personality is deeply represented in the works of domestic sociologists and psychologists: Alekseev (2014); Bodinya & Kornilova (2013); Gryaznova & Goncharuk (2019); Nemova et al. (2020); Rylova (2018); Zdravomyslov (2016); etc.
The formation of a system of value orientations of an individual is subject to certain laws: the prevalence of individual factors and mechanisms that implement the processes of personality dynamics during individual development determines the dominance of an appropriate level in an individual value system which, in turn, forms a similar type of personality (Pishchulina & Fedorova, 2018; Zalessky, 2016).
Modern adolescents have rather mobile value orientations, the dynamics of which depend on socio-demographic characteristics, the level of socialization, external factors (political, cultural, economic) (Bogacheva, 2016; Goncharova, 2012; Tolsteneva et al., 2020). Among the main neoplasms of the personality it is worth highlighting the formation of moral self-awareness (Murzina, 2015; Markovа, 2019), the desire for independence of one's activity (Markova, 2015; Vorokhobov, 2020), socialization within the reference group of peers, and the search for a “hero” whom he wants to be like (Andrienko et al., 2020; Zanfir et al., 2018).
Purpose of the Study
The age and gender relevance of the problem, insufficient study of the issue determined the topic and purpose of our study – the study of gender differences in the value orientations of teen schoolchildren in the context of Russian national values.
1- In the course of the study, we used a specially designed diagnostic unit, including:
a- a questioning method on the presence of family values in children’ worldview, developed by Molostovoy, Zinkevich;
b- empirical method using psychodiagnostic techniques:
“Value orientations of personality” by Rokich;
“The meaning of life orientations” by Leontiev.
The obtained research results were subjected to quantitative and qualitative analysis using Microsoft Excel for Windows. The selection of diagnostic psychological and pedagogical tools was carried out taking into account the validity and sensitivity of the methods and the possibility of obtaining objective data in quantitative and qualitative terms.
The statistical analysis of the data was also carried out with the assessment of the significance of differences in average data using the automated statistical package “SPSS Statistics 20”, using the Student’s t-criteria test, which allows us to conclude that the difference between the two average values for the two samples.
The pilot research involved teen schoolchildren of the 11 forms (16-18 years of age) from the Municipal Budgetary Educational Institution "School №11 named after Bersneva" in the city of Nizhny Novgorod, in the amount of 46 people, 23 of them were girls and 23 boys.
The test on the presence of family values (according to the questionnaire, Molostova, EA Zinkevich) found out that girls have higher family orientations (M1 = 10.2) than boys (M2 = 6.8); girls noted more often such expressions as: “a person cannot live his whole life without a family”, the family should be built on love and understanding, the presence of traditions in the family, both national and intra-family, is necessary; which is statistically confirmed (p <0.05).
According to the study it turned out that boys more than girls tend to:
financially secure life (lack of material difficulties M1 = 6.7; M2 = 9.1), but not statistically confirmed;
cognition (the possibility of expanding one’s education, horizons, general culture, intellectual development M1 = 6.8; M2 = 9.2), but has not been statistically confirmed;
productive life (the most complete use of one’s capabilities, strengths and abilities (M1 = 7.8; M2 = 12.8); it was statistically confirmed (p <0.01).
Girls more than boys tend to:
active productive life (fullness and emotional richness of life M1 = 12; M2 = 8.6), but not statistically confirmed;
love (spiritual and physical closeness with a loved one M1 = 9.3; M2 = 7.3), but not statistically confirmed;
interesting work (M1 = 10.5; M2 = 6.6), which was statistically confirmed (p <0.05).
In almost the same way, both girls and boys, above all, strive for social recognition (respect of others, the team, workmates) and life wisdom (maturity of judgments and common sense achieved by life experience).
Young men, more than girls, prefer such qualities as:
high demands (high demands on life and high claims M1 = 4.7; M2 = 6.6), but not statistically confirmed;
cheerfulness (sense of humor M1 = 5.6; M2 = 9.1), which was statistically confirmed (p<0.05)
responsibility (sense of duty, ability to keep the word M1 = 8.6; M2 = 12.3), which was statistically confirmed (p <0.05).
Girls, more than boys, prefer qualities such as:
sensitivity (caring (M1 = 10.7; M2 = 7.9), but not statistically confirmed;
independence (the ability to act independently, decisively M1 = 10.8; M2 = 8.5) but has not been statistically confirmed;
firm will (ability to insist on one’s own, not to back down from difficulties M1 = 13; M2 = 8.9), which was statistically confirmed (p <0.05).
Almost the same way both girls and boys, first of all, appreciate such qualities as: accuracy (cleanliness), ability to keep things in order, order in business and good manners (good manners).
It was statistically confirmed that there are gender differences in the aspirations of high school students, such as: in an interesting job, a happy family life and the maximum use of their capabilities, strengths and abilities.
It was statistically confirmed that there are gender differences in the preferred qualities of high school students, such as: strong will, responsibility and cheerfulness.
As a result of the study it turned out that girls give life more meaningfulness, focus and time perspective, in contrast to boys (M1 = 36.2; M2 = 39.3), but no statistically significant differences are noted (p> 0.05).
Girls perceive the process of their life as interesting, emotionally rich and full of meaning, unlike boys who live one day (M1 = 35.0; M2 = 39.3), which was statistically confirmed (p <0.05).
Practically the same for both boys and girls, there is a meaningfulness of the passed segment of life and satisfaction with the lived part of life (M1 = 30.1; M2 = 31.3); self-image as a strong personality with sufficient freedom of choice to build his life in accordance with his goals and objectives and ideas about its meaning (M1 = 24.1; M2 = 25.7); but no statistically significant differences were noted (p> 0.05).
Young men have the belief that a person is given the ability to control their life, make decisions freely and bring them to life higher than that of girls (M1 = 39.4; M2 = 36.1), which was statistically confirmed (p <0.01).
Thus, as a result of the study, the following conclusion was made: girls perceive the process of life more interesting, emotionally saturated and filled with meaning, unlike boys, and boys are convinced that life is subject to conscious control, unlike girls. However, national values are visible among representatives of both groups and are more pronounced among girls.
When considering gender differences in the field of value orientations it was concluded that at a young age systems of value orientations are intensively formed which affect the formation of character and the subsequent self-realization of a person.
An experimental study of the gender characteristics of the formation of value orientations among teen schoolchildren showed that:
girls have higher family orientations than boys;
boys more than girls strive for a productive life (the fullest use of their capabilities, strengths and abilities);
girls more than boys seek interesting work;
girls and boys alike strive for public recognition (respect of others, the team, workmates) and life wisdom (maturity of judgments and common sense achieved by life experience;
boys more than girls prefer such qualities as: cheerfulness (sense of humor), responsibility (sense of duty, ability to keep their word);
girls more than boys prefer such qualities as: firm will (ability to insist on one’s own, not to give up difficulties);
girls and boys alike value qualities such as accuracy (cleanliness), ability to keep things in order, order in business and good manners (good manners);
girls perceive the process of their life as interesting, emotionally rich and full of meaning, in contrast to young men who live one day;
young men have the belief that a person is given control of their life, make decisions freely and bring them to life higher than that of girls.
In general, the results showed that the value orientations of teen schoolchildren mostly coincide with the national values of the country and are more pronounced in girls than in boys.
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27 February 2021
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National interest, national identity, national security, public organizations, linguocultural identity, linguistic worldview
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Maltseva, S. M., Bogacheva, A. V., Balashova, E. S., Voronkova, A. A., & Stroganov, D. A. (2021). Gender Differences In National Values Of High School Students In Russia. In I. Savchenko (Ed.), National Interest, National Identity and National Security, vol 102. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 606-612). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.02.02.76