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On Language Universals: Modality

Table 1:

Types of modal meanings Shades of expressed modal meanings Modal verbs
Necessity to perform an action Order Have to, should, ought to, need.
Logical necessity Need.
Inevitability Must, stay, expect
Order Have to, ought to, need, be needed.
Logical necessity Need, be needed.
Expression of will to commit an action Will Want, wish, desire, hope, strive for, count on.
Intention Want, intent, think, plan, decide, be going, get ready.
Readiness Want, get ready, be going.
Attempt Try, seek, dare, risk.
Internal permission Agree, allow (to yourself).
Possibility to perform an action Ability Can, be able to.
Internal permission Can, allowed.
Ability driven by favorable circumstances Can, succeed, be lucky.
Ability driven by unfavorable circumstances Can, manage, be able to, take after.
Assessment of regularity of an action Become accustomed, learn, adapt for, get the habit, fall in love.
Subjective-affective evaluation Love, be afraid, beware, look out for
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