The article is devoted to the consideration of the national idea and cultural identity of Pridnestrovie at the present stage. The authors note that the preservation, development and popularization of national cultures of the Pridnestrovian peoples are fundamental factors in the formation of the community "Pridnestrovian people."The active development of issues of cultural identity, language factor, historical memory, and media development in recent decades has put the related issues in the centre of public attention. The article provides an overview of the factors that influence the formation of cultural identity; assesses the significance of the Pridnestrovian State University as the centre of education and culture of the Republic.A special imprint on the formation of the national idea of Pridnestrovieis imposed by the socio-political and cultural context of the Republic. The article emphasizes that dialogue and mutual understanding are the basis for protection from interethnic conflicts. An important role is played by cultural exchange, which gives people useful knowledge and experience, introduces them to the achievements of other cultures. The theme of the Russian world is extremely relevant for Pridnestrovie since the people of a state that is not yet recognized by the world community have repeatedly demonstrated their desire for a closer unification with Russia in referendums. It is noteworthy that in the recent history of the post-Soviet countries, the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is probably the only state that does not hesitate to support the preservation and strengthening of Russia's presence on the banks of the Dniester River.
Keywords: Cultural identitymass medianational ideapoly-ethnicityPridnestrovian State University
The national idea of the state and its cultural identity is largely determined by the degree of commitment to the fundamental national model of development. In Pridnestrovie, it is based on the traditional society's value and ideological Foundation, cultivated by the state educational and information policy.
Questions of cultural identity are the subject of study in many Humanities, both anthropological and social. The focus of attention of specialists engaged in the study of Pridnestrovie in the context of education, communication and mass media are mainly focused on the problem of identity. In our opinion, the phenomenon of identity should be observed comprehensively (Malkova & Tishkova, 2016).
In recent years, Russian scientists from various fields of Humanities have been considering complex issues of national identity formation in different countries. Here are just some examples of media research in 2019. Marina Yangliayeva (2019) analyzes the effectiveness of media projects in solving the state task of forming national identity on the example of the BBC project "100 greatest Britons" and its distribution in different countries of the world. The author focuses on the details of the creation of mental landscape and the complexity of the choice of reference "morphosculpture" for the consolidation of the nation. Elena Vartanova (2019) addresses the issue of the framework of theoretical analysis and national features of the Russian media system. The problem of European identity on the air of global informational television is observed in the article by Maria Putseva (2019).
However, in the Russian and European researchs, the phenomenon of the formation and development of the Pridnestrovian identity within the modern state is reflected only in fragments, and its interpretation is usually reduced to the identification of individual components.
The relevance of the research is due to the phenomenon of the Pridnestrovian identity formation of an unrecognized state. The question of the positioning of Pridnestrovie and promoting its national idea in the international space remains open.
The article reviews the concepts of "cultural identity", "polyethnicity", "Pridnestrovian State University", "mass media", "historical memory" as essential factors in the formation of the national idea of Pridnestrovie.
Preservation, development and popularization of national cultures of the Pridnestrovian peoples, which is home to representatives of more than 70 ethnic groups, and its historical and cultural heritage is one of the priorities of Strategy of development of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic in 2019–2026. The basic element of the Strategy is the formation of a community of "Pridnestrovian people," which includes representatives of various nationalities, ethnic groups and based on preserving and developing their languages, cultures, customs and traditions. As noted in the Strategy:
Culture is an important system-forming factor in the consolidation and development of society. It is culture and identity as self-awareness of belonging to it that makes people a society. Culture, directly and indirectly, influences many socio-economic processes taking place at both the global (national) and local levels" (Beril, 2017, par. 163).
It is known, that identity includes national identity, which is determined by the features of geographical location, organization of political and economic life, culture and history, the ethnic and religious composition of the population, shared values and beliefs.
Today, based on thirty years' experience of independent development of Pridnestrovie it can be stated, that the notion of the "Pridnestrovian nation" was identical to the concept of the "multinational Pridnestrovian people." That indicates a new phase in the Pridnestrovian national policies-a stage of the formation of a new Pridnestrovian identity in the ordinary sense of the concept of "nation" that unites all ethnicities living on the territory of Pridnestrovie.
Dialogue and mutual understanding are the basis for protection from interethnic conflicts. The cultural exchange also plays an important role, which gives people useful knowledge and experience and introduces them to the achievements of other cultures. The only interaction with other cultures allows understanding our culture and national traditions more deeply.
The efforts of state authorities, municipalities, parties and public associations, religious organizations of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic are aimed at stabilizing and harmonizing interethnic relations, and at developing a culture of interethnic communication based on the priority of universal human values and high civic patriotism.
Pridnestrovian State University as a centre of science, education and culture, actively participates in the development strategy of Pridnestrovian society. Future specialists in various fields have all the conditions for familiarizing themselves with the riches of world culture accumulated by humankind over the centuries.
One of the tasks of the Pridnestrovian State University is to form patriotic views and a common Pridnestrovian civil identity among young people based on familiarizing them with social, socially significant activities, cultural and historical traditions, including involving them in the activities for youth public associations and voluntary activities.
In order to develop inter-generational relations, the student youth at the Pridnestrovian State University is involved in the unified space of civic and patriotic education in the Republic following the development Strategy of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and state programs. Those are aimed at strengthening social, multi-ethnic and inter-confessional harmony among young people, preventing extremism and xenophobia, and preserving the culture of the peoples of the Republic.
As a mirror image of the multi-ethnic Pridnestrovian society, the University speaks and teaches in three official languages: Russian, Moldovan, and Ukrainian. A fundamentally new phenomenon is the close integration of departments and laboratories into the scientific and educational space of Russia and other CIS countries. Leading specialists from near and far abroad are invited to give lectures to students and teachers. Currently, Pridnestrovian State University has signed more than 170 agreements and memoranda of cooperation with universities and academies in Russia, Ukraine, Bulgaria, France, China and other countries (Beril & Kunichenko, 2019). Pridnestrovian State University is also a member of the Eurasian Association of universities and many other reputable international organizations (Beril, 2017).
Within the framework of international cooperation, students' delegations participate in various youth festivals in Russia and CIS forums. Such events as the action "St. George's ribbon", "Tatyana's Day", "Days of Slavic graphic and culture," "Maslenitsa," "The international Humor festival," "The international youth festival "Druzhba," gatherings of students, youth and public organizations of the Pridnestrovie, as well as various music competitions, have become familiar to young people.
One of the important social problems of modern post-Soviet society at the beginning of the XXI century is the search for optimal social mechanisms for preserving and updating the historical memory of the younger generation. Preservation of traditions, awareness of the value of traditional culture is one of the key factors of social consolidation and stability of the Pridnestrovian society. At the same time, contemporary socio-cultural practices of social life are motivating factors in consolidating the historical memory of the younger generation because it is formed differently from the historical memory of the older generation, including the chronology of events and evaluations, stereotypes, a system of values.
The theme of history and historical memory is extremely relevant and in demand for Pridnestrovie. Unlike many other countries of the former Soviet Union in Pridnestrovie is not destroying monuments and is not engaged in the falsification of historical processes. It is equally objective to perceive inspiring and heroic, as well as tragic moments of the past – this basic principle of historicism, which the President of Pridnestrovie Krasnoselsky declared fundamental for the Republic. Indeed, at present, the interest in history, its important milestones, dates, personalities and events in the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic has increased repeatedly.
Historical memory actively influences the aspirations and prospects of the modern political system. The rich history of the region acts as a state-forming factor and is the most important ideological resource. The reliability of historical events is described in numerous textbooks, monographs of the Pridnestrovian scientists and covered by the Pridnestrovian journalists. It is supported by the truth of the facts, clarity of assessment of the experience gained in the past.
The mass media play a special role in the process of intercultural communication in Pridnestrovie. The main task of the media is to preserve and strengthen interethnic peace, serving as "propaganda" of positive experiences of coexistence and interaction between different peoples and different confessions (Raspopova, 2013).
The existing language conditions in the media of Pridnestrovie are not only of linguistic value but also acquire socio-political significance for a multi-ethnic society. There are republican newspapers published in three official languages ("Pridnestrovie,"" Gomin," "Adeverul Nistryan"). The Pridnestrovian state TV and Radio Company broadcast programs in Russian, Moldovan and Ukrainian languages. The existence of "trilingualism" in the Pridnestrovian media is considered as one of the main tools for achieving mutual understanding between representatives of different cultures living on the territory of the Republic. The media is a useful resource for influencing interethnic relations, a source of forming a positive or negative image of representatives of ethnic groups in the audience, and a kind of guarantor of preserving ethnic and cultural pluralism in the multinational Pridnestrovian society.
Residents of Pridnestrovie, being in the information space of Russia (in contrast to neighbouring states, almost all federal channels broadcast uncut, and the main information agencies distribute information, etc.) consider Russia to be their great Homeland and, worried about it, they say "we," meaning the Russian Federation. Based on using pro-Russian language units ("ideologems"), the authors in their publications relate the Russian world to the Pridnestrovian world, pointing to common roots, cultural unity and close spiritual connection. Note that pro-Russian "ideologems" are more often used in direct speech of ordinary citizens, regardless of their nationality, those who consider Pridnestrovie to be a part of the Russian world. After all, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia became the successor country, and for Pridnestrovie, at the same time, the guarantor of stability both in political and economic terms. The analysis of the media in Pridnestrovie has shown that journalists, politicians, scientists, and public figures create a positive image of the Russian world.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to review the factors that influence the formation of the cultural identity of Pridnestrovie.
During the research, such methods as analysis, synthesis, generalization, observation, analysis of legal documents and statistical data, content analysis of the media of Pridnestroviewere used.
The results of the study include the main principles of the tolerance ideology that contribute to the unification of the Pridnestrovie peoples:
Comprehensive development and support of official languages. The support and development of a unified culture, both mass (intended for the broadest audience) and elite (maintaining the traditions of high national culture) are shown.
2. Honouring the history of Pridnestrovie as a single multi-ethnic, multicultural state.
3. Preservation and internal development of Pridnestrovie, the establishment of relations with other states. Strengthening in the mass consciousness of the idea that all citizens of the Republic, regardless of nationality, are the owners of its territory is presented. Comprehensive support for the development of civil society institutions (broad dialogue between different cultural, religious, and ethnic communities) is established. Wide acquaintance with the cultures of the peoples of Pridnestrovieis held.
4. The idea of competitiveness and welfare of the state and society. Creating opportunities, social justice and success as a guarantor against ethnic conflicts that are exacerbated by socio-economic problems exist.
5. The idea of integrating society into global processes and taking Pridnestrovie's rightful place in the modern world. Only an integral society and state with its stable values and social solidarity of various people, representatives of various nationalities, can be an organic component of global civilization and enjoy the benefits and achievements of modernity.
Formation of a multi-ethnic united nation with its values and development guidelines, capable of adequately responding to internal and external challenges.
The preservation, development and popularization of the national cultures of the peoples of Pridnestrovie are fundamental factors in the formation of the "Pridnestrovian people" community. Pridnestrovian teachers, scientists, and journalists work in the delicate field of national relations. Therefore, it is pressing them to have the interest in both their own and other people's social and cultural experience, the desire to understand and explain the features of the activities and behaviour of representatives of different ethnic groups, the strengthening of inter-ethnic relations and the creation of a harmonious intercultural environment.
- Beril, S. I. (2017). Pridnestrovian State University. T. G. Shevchenko in the Russian education system. In Universities in the Eurasian educational space.
- Beril, S. I., & Kunichenko, N. A. (2019). Development of common bases of cooperation of the CIS countries-the mission of the Eurasian universities. In The three missions of the University: education, science, and society.
- Malkova, V. K., & Tishkova, V. A. (2016). Anthropology of media: theory and practice. IEA RAS.
- Putseva, M. (2019). The Problem of European identity in the global information broadcast television. Media almanac, 5.
- Raspopova, S. L. (2013). Journalistic mission in polyethnic society. Questions of theory and practice of journalism.
- Vartanova, E. L. (2019). On the issue of the framework of theoretical analysis and national features of the Russian media system. Media almanac, 2.
- Yanglyaeva, M. A. (2019). The role of modern mass media in promoting models of national identity (for example, the BBC TV project “100 greatest Britons”). Mediaalmanac, 1.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
About this article
27 February 2021
Print ISBN (optional)
National interest, national identity, national security, public organizations, linguocultural identity, linguistic worldview
Cite this article as:
Beril, S. I., Nikonova, Z. V., & Raspopova, S. L. (2021). The Idea Of National And Cultural Identity In Pridnestrovie. In I. Savchenko (Ed.), National Interest, National Identity and National Security, vol 102. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 136-141). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.02.02.17