The main objectives of state policy in the Russian Federation in the field of patriotic education are optimal conditions creation for increasing civil responsibility for the fate of the country. This process is based on developing a sense of citizenship in the history and culture of Russia, as well as increasing cohesion based on educating an active citizen who loves his homeland. Therefore, one of the tasks of the Federal state educational standards at all levels (primary general, basic general, and secondary general) education is to ensure the formation of civic identity in children and adolescents through the system of patriotic education. The system of patriotic education has many disadvantages that are affected by two groups of factors: organizational-theoretical and psychological factors. A formal approach to the process of patriotic education reduces its effectiveness. Therefore, to determine the effectiveness of its impact on the formation of civil self-identification, we offer an assessment of the degree of development of such qualities as awareness of the relationship of all members of Russian society through a collective historical past and their decisive role in the future of the motherland, tolerance of consciousness to the values and social norms of civil society in the Russian Federation, conformity of personal interests with national interests, civic engagement of public importance, readiness for creative mu work with a focus on the priority areas identified by the Government.
Keywords: Civic self-identitycivic identitycitizenshipnational securitypatriotic education
The aggravated situation with the situation of the Russian Federation in the world political arena has led to close attention on the part of the state to the problem of national security. Ensuring national security and sustainable development of the Russian Federation is possible only in the conditions of consolidation of efforts of all members of Russian society, united by shared values and goals. The consolidation of the efforts of society should be aimed at laying the foundation through the patriotic education of children and adolescents.
The post-perestroika period in Russian history was marked by the integration of Russian values with European and New World values. As a result, there has been a change of identity among modern generations of Russians. The change of identity is associated with the formation of a new culture, in which the connection of the concept of "Homeland" with such existential foundations of life as life, family, love has weakened. On the one hand, this process gave impetus to the development of the Russian state. On the other hand, this process has reduced the level of national security, increasing the degree of influence of alien ideologies, and giving rise to interethnic conflicts. This circumstance created the prerequisites for taking measures to create conditions aimed at the awareness of the country's citizens of their all-Russian civic identity. The most favorable period for the emergence and development of a sense of belonging to the Russian people is school age. In this regard, it turns out that one of the essential socio-pedagogical problems is the problem of the formation and formation of the civic identity of students.
The objectives of this study are:
The study of regulatory acts on the organization and implementation of patriotic education aimed at the formation of civic identity in children and adolescents.
Definition of the essence of the concept of civil self-identification.
Identification of problems of the formation of civic identity in children and adolescents in the process of patriotic education.
Today, the formation of civic identity among the population of the Russian Federation is one of the essential state tasks aimed at ensuring national security. Self-identification of a person relative to any group of people occurs mainly in childhood and adolescence. Therefore, special attention in Russia is paid to patriotic education as an instrument for establishing a connection between a developing personality and the fundamental values inherent in members of Russian society. The subject of this study is the conditions for the organization and implementation of patriotic education, created at all levels of education in the Russian Federation and aimed at establishing civic identity.
Purpose of the Study
This article aims to study the effectiveness of patriotic education in the formation of civic identity in the modern reality of Russian society.
This study examines several aspects of the problem, namely, new requirements for the system of patriotic education in the Russian Federation and sufficient conditions for the formation of civic identity among students of honey that need to determine the relationship. To achieve this goal, we laid the foundation for our research, a convergent research design model that allows identifying the correlation of the studied aspects.
According to some researchers, the speed and quality of the formation of the civic identity of younger generations is the basis for the sustainable development of any state, which is a prerequisite for the comprehensive regulation of this complex process at the highest level (Drobizheva, 2017; Korneeva, 2016).
The main goals and objectives aimed at solving the problems considered in the article are set out in the Strategy of the state national policy of the Russian Federation until 2025. Here, the development of civic-patriotic education is seen as a priority. Based on this document, long-term action plans are developed at the state, regional, municipal, and other levels. To this end, the Government of the Russian Federation approved the state program “Patriotic education of citizens of the Russian Federation for 2016 – 2020.” This patriotic education is a joint work of state authorities and social institutions, aimed at developing a sense of love for younger generations Homeland, involvement in its past and future history through constructive activities that are consistent with generally accepted norms in Russian society (Yurchenko, 2013).
In the process of patriotic education, the personality of the child, and then the adolescent, must undergo such changes that will lead to the acceptance of themselves as an integral part of the Russian state. Therefore, there was a need for correction of the content of school education in the Russian Federation. The improvement of this school is associated with focusing on raising respect for the all-Russian culture and history, expanding ideas about the national traditions of the peoples of Russia, which should become the basis for the formation of the rising generation of all-Russian civic consciousness. Currently, the Federal State Standard of the new generation provides for the formation of knowledge from fundamental sciences, the upbringing of all-Russian identity, patriotism among the population, citizenship, social activity, tolerance, humanity, legal self-awareness, commitment to the values that are enshrined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation (Gulyanova & Nepsha, 2014).
An analysis of the main documents and recent studies showed that it is advisable to consider patriotic education as a process of personal development in specially created conditions of the educational environment associated with the formation of beliefs, motives, and values that ensure activities for the good of the Fatherland (Kostrikin, 2008; Loginova, 2010).
Civil self-identification is a process of identifying a person with a community of people united territorially and legally based on shared cultural values, whose activities are aimed at the benefit of the whole community. Therefore, fundamental to patriotic education is the creation of conditions for children and adolescents to understand themselves as an integral part of Russian society and their role in its development.
However, there are two groups of factors that inhibit and reduce the effectiveness of measures for the formation of civic self-identification: organizational-theoretical and psychological.
The first group includes the lack of state standards for civic education, the lack of technologies for building a civic position among younger generations during patriotic education, and a weak coordination system for this type of activity (Evgenieva & Nechaev, 2014; Medvedeva, 2012). Besides, the formal approach to the planning and implementation of patriotic education, as well as the lack of an objective analysis of the conditions created effects, negatively affect the pace and quality of civic self-identification of children and adolescents.
Even though the study of the traditions of numerous nationalities inhabiting the territories of the subjects of the Federation occupies a special place in the system of patriotic education, and multicultural Russian society, the line between civil and national self-identification in many regions blurs the value of ethnic identity higher than the all-Russian civic identity (Bolotina et al., 2017; Batomunkuev, 2018). This process indicates a shift in the given territories of the emphasis of patriotic education towards the division of Russian citizens into friends and foes (Savvinov, 2018). Therefore, the question of performance indicators and the effectiveness of patriotic education on the formation of civic identity among younger generations is also open.
The second group of factors includes psychological barriers that inhibit the process of formation of civic self-identification (Fokina, 2011), which are influenced by the external environment and personal characteristics of students. The formation of civic identity is an integral part of its self-determination. Self-determination of a personality is a long and multi-stage process, which is a series of subsequent decisions, including determining the degree to which national interests correspond to the personal interests of the person, which are based on basic needs (Semenova, 2014). In many ways, these decisions are made by the child or adolescent due to the influence of the educational environment and the principles of parenting in the family, which can be qualitatively changed under the tasks. Therefore, educational organizations are required to carefully and meaningfully select means and methods for forming in children and adolescents ideas about themselves as a citizen according to their age characteristics when implementing patriotic education (Murzina & Kazakova, 2019). First of all, it is necessary to assess the readiness of children and adolescents to participate in activities aimed at developing their patriotic feelings and beliefs. Such readiness is an initial system of knowledge that allows the child emotionally responding to the content of planned activities and determine the importance of its significance for itself.
Patriotic education includes a wide range of tasks. Tasks include familiarizing children in preschool educational institutions with state symbols and crafts. For high school students, an in-depth study of the history of the state and the law of Russia is necessary. It is necessary to clarify for the essence of the foreign policy pursued by the Russian Federation to protect its national interests through a logical system of targeted measures, during which their public self-identification takes place.
Due to age-related, individual personality differences, and characteristics of family education, the trajectory of civic self-identification is differently constructed in children and adolescents. All this must be taken into account when planning, organizing, and implementing patriotic education.
As integrative indicators of the effectiveness of patriotic education in the formation of civic identity in children and adolescents, it is worth considering the degree of development of such qualities as:
awareness of the interconnectedness of all members of Russian society through a collective historical past and their decisive role in the future fate of the homeland;
tolerance of consciousness to the values and social norms of civil society in the Russian Federation;
compliance of personal interests with national ones;
civic engagement of public importance;
readiness for creative work with a focus on priority areas identified by the Government of the Russian Federation.
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27 February 2021
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National interest, national identity, national security, public organizations, linguocultural identity, linguistic worldview
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Yakimovich, E. P., Khvastunov, N. V., Banku, T. A., Sapsai, I. A., & Okolod, A. A. (2021). Сivil Self-Identification Formation Among Schoolchildren In The Russian Federation. In I. Savchenko (Ed.), National Interest, National Identity and National Security, vol 102. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1159-1164). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.02.02.144