Formation Of An Inclusive Volunteering Culture In The Training Of Students
The article substantiates the relevance of sociocultural transformations in determining the strategy of state youth policy and the systematic involvement of students in the social life of society and social interaction. The essential characteristic of volunteering as a sociocultural phenomenon, a resource for successful socialization, personal development, and the condition for the formation of professional competencies is presented. Based on theoretical research and generalization of experience, the possibilities of designing the sociocultural space of higher education for the implementation of inclusive volunteering are revealed. The methodological basis of the research is formed in the totality of sociocultural, competency, process, and instrumental approaches. The leading ideas and specifics of the indicated criteria allowed presenting the process of forming an inclusive volunteering culture and determining educational strategies in the training of students. Based on the study, organizational, methodological, and substantive aspects of inclusive volunteering are discussed. The conclusion is drawn about the necessity and possibility of expanding volunteer inclusive practice to develop professional competencies, forming the motivation of a socially active lifestyle, tolerance, and moral qualities of students.
Keywords: Culture of volunteeringinclusive volunteeringvolunteering
Global transformations of Russian society lead to a discussion of various issues in the context of the development of national interests, self-awareness, and identity. Discussion questions are also focused on the consideration of sociocultural transformations acquiring new meanings and value orientations (Gnatyshina et al., 2019; Vorozheykina, 2018). Undoubtedly, it is vital to determine the strategy of state youth policy in the development of the sociocultural and educational space of society and the systematic involvement of young people in public life. In current conditions, the sociocultural phenomenon of volunteering is becoming a culture-forming entity and the main form of manifestation of youth social activity. Volunteering is a powerful resource for social and moral education and an effective means of socialization, self-realization of students (Badaeva & Osipova, 2018; Gorlova & Krasavina, 2018; Zagladina & Arsenieva, 2018).
Numerous modern studies and personal experiences convince us to define the higher education system as one of the platforms for the development of the volunteer movement in Russia (Pilipenko, 2018; Tsilitsky, 2018). In the sociocultural space of higher education, volunteering is considered in the aspect of the development of social and professional competencies of students. One of the current sociocultural forms of volunteering is inclusive volunteering. Inclusive volunteering involves a mechanism of social rehabilitation and adaptation of people with disabilities, their acquisition of competencies that facilitate integration, and their inclusion in the socio-economic life of society (Bystrova, 2018). The implementation of inclusive volunteering is a sociocultural phenomenon. Volunteering can be considered as a socio-psychological resource for all stakeholders. However, we believe that youth associations and public organizations, as well as higher education, do not fully realize the possibilities of raising an active civic position of student youth. It is the current position of students that is the basis of volunteer competence. However, today there are not enough opportunities for manifestation of the social initiative of youth. The leading role of socially-oriented processes in education is not sufficiently indicated. Also, the methodological and technological tools for managing this area of activity have not been developed.
The subject of this scientific research is the study of the sociocultural phenomenon of “inclusive volunteering” and the formation of its culture in the process of training students. This study streamlines the process of development of volunteer competence and identifies the possibilities and technological mechanisms of its formation in higher education.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the article is to justify the pedagogical essence of inclusive volunteering and to determine didactic strategies for the formation of a culture of inclusive volunteering based on sociocultural transformations in the training of students.
A significant method of our research is the theoretical and methodological analysis of published sources on the topic of volunteering. Based on the analysis, a scientific understanding of the category of volunteering is presented. A study of various sources revealed the foreign and domestic experience of the volunteer movement. Akatov, Kiseleva (2017), Kobysheva, Lynch, Makarley, Martynova & Gavlo (2019) and others made a significant contribution to the development of this problem. The findings are based on a study of theoretical research and the existing practice of volunteering. We concluded that in the context of global transformations in the sociocultural space of society, the formation of a culture of inclusive volunteering requires a particular and purposeful organization (Korotka, 2016). In our opinion, it is necessary to indicate the fundamental orientation of the study, expressed in the totality of the following approaches: sociocultural, competence, process, and instrumental.
The sociocultural approach allows defining inclusive volunteering as the need and priority for solving the difficulties of rehabilitation and the sociocultural integration of people with disabilities. Significant in this matter is the expansion of compensatory skills, the acquisition of social and subjective experience necessary for life in society. There is no doubt that pedagogical education has a special mission in the sustainable and productive development of inclusive volunteering.
From the position of a competency-based approach, inclusive volunteering can serve as the basis for the formation of social, psychological, professional competencies of students. Voluntary social activities of future teachers can help solve many social problems of society. Moreover, their social activities contribute to the development of socially significant personality traits, an active life position, and professional skills.
We believe that specifying the content of volunteer competence; it is advisable to correlate it with the methods and tools that the student will apply in his practical volunteer activities. Therefore, effective and process-technological approaches can provide a concretization of the requirements for the formation of an inclusive culture in future professional activities.
The motivational-target stage involves a system of motives and incentives that will help to activate students in social interaction, provide space for the development of its personally important qualities. At this stage, it is essential to cultivate moral values and a humane attitude, representing behavioral and activity norms of a sociocultural nature. The subject of study was the sociocultural capabilities of the socio-educational space. Based on this analysis, we concluded that the goal of this stage could be achieved through the combination of educational and professionally-oriented activities and the interaction of all participants in the integrated socio-educational space of vocational training. Here technologies of consulting, team building, training, motivational meetings, building a resource map, creating individual volunteer projects can be used.
The organizational stage involves direct preparation for volunteer activities, designing, designing students' actions under requests, and a plan of work with people with disabilities and persons with disabilities. A single, personality-oriented goal of volunteerism is based on individual motives, interests, and aspirations. Following this goal, students are introduced to the content of the volunteer program, and conditions are created for the creative realization of abilities in volunteer practice. At this stage, technologies for counseling and training to work with people with disabilities, tutorials, mapping, event-resource technologies, and other technologies are used.
The training or stage of comprehensive training is aimed at developing practical skills in various situations of volunteering. In order to form volunteer professional competencies, we propose introducing the discipline of choice "Formation of a culture of inclusive volunteering" into educational programs for bachelors. This program will enhance the professionalism and socialization of future teachers. The implementation of this course will lead students to include in a theoretically based, socially-oriented activity that meets the requirements of a future profession. It will ensure the formation of professional and social competencies. At this stage, students will receive a unique experience of volunteering in inclusive teams as part of social and cultural events. Such events are specialized exhibitions, art festivals for students with disabilities, the accompaniment of persons with disabilities in the process of admission and training at educational institutions, job fairs for disabled people, organization, and creation of an inclusive volunteer resource center based on the university and other events. The organization of volunteer activities is also aimed at translating the value of inclusion. One of the main tasks is to remove communication barriers. Students can master the competencies of interpersonal interaction. Thus, the formation of an inclusive culture in the youth environment.
The reflexive stage, which provides control and correction of students' activities, is also significant. Students take part in collective analysis and evaluation of the results of inclusive volunteering. At this stage, the support of volunteers and their motivation for the implementation continuation of the volunteerism is needed. At this stage, cycles of lectures, seminars, workshops, and training on the difficulties of project implementation are also held. Significant are the issues of creating an accessible environment. Information is provided on significant barriers for each category of persons with disabilities and ways to address them. Round tables, web conferences on the exchange of experience in volunteering, and the development of student initiatives in this direction are organized.
The stages designated as a result of theoretical reflection and practical experience contribute to the formation of a culture of inclusive volunteering in the process of training students. We believe that at all stages, it is necessary to take into account the complex structure of this activity, individual psychological characteristics, requests, motivation, and willingness of future volunteers to participate in the volunteer movement.
An analysis of current trends and global transformations allows ascertaining the influence of sociocultural factors in building a socially responsible society. Volunteering is a socially significant phenomenon that allows considering volunteering as a practical resource for realizing the social potential of youth in the context of Russian youth policy.
We found that the formation of a culture of inclusive volunteering is characterized by the fact that:
exists and functions under the influence of social order and inquiry;
implemented in an open system that responds to changes in the external socio-cultural environment;
culture of inclusive volunteering is a component of the training of future teachers;
involves the inclusion of student youth in socially useful activities, intending to form their volunteer professional competence;
forms the motivation of a socially active lifestyle among young people;
creates the conditions for the manifestation of student initiatives and self-realization in volunteerism.
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