Citizenship And Patriotism Of Youth As A Resource For Society Consolidation
The subject of patriotism and citizenship has always been popular among researchers, and it is especially true during radical social transformations. There is no doubt that neither the number of researchers nor their continuous efforts reduce the problem's relevance. Systemic transformations taking place in modern Russian society make the problem of increasing social consolidation and national solidarity even more relevant and require new ways to form and develop the Russian identity and values of citizenship and patriotism. We analyse social factors of formation and realization of citizenship and patriotism, socio-cultural components of citizenship, and patriotism of the most active social groups, especially young people. The article provides a theoretical analysis of citizenship and patriotism considering the latter as part of future national challenges. The article analyses the essence of citizenship and patriotism within the sociological knowledge. Patriotism is a value and emotional component of civil identity and foundation for social consolidation. The article discusses types, levels and components of citizenship and patriotism. The authors use regional, national, and original research to analyse cognitive, emotional, and behavioural aspects of the citizenship and patriotism of modern youth.
The values of patriotism and citizenship are topical issues of state policy. Russia is adopting state programs for patriotic education of Russian citizens. Special attention is paid to civil responsibility, patriotism, revival, and preservation of the moral foundations of society. Revival and preservation of moral and spiritual values are a prerequisite for socio-economic transformation and social consolidation.
At the beginning of the XXI century, Russia faced an acute problem of decreasing patriotism, pride in its people, country, history, and culture. The events of recent years, including such large-scale ones as the Sochi Olympics, the accession of Crimea to Russia, annual celebrations of the victory in the Great Patriotic War, and our country's fight against terrorism have contributed to certain shifts in the citizenship and patriotic orientations of Russians, and have manifested in true patriotic feelings and high moral qualities. We can say that for the first time after a long period of spiritual and moral stagnation, there are hopes for the patriotic values revival and an increase in the consolidation of Russian society. The 2016 research of the Institute of Sociology (ISRAS) showed that such notions as "motherland", "Russians", and "patriotism" evoked positive emotions in 86%, 78%, and 76% of respondents respectively (Gorshkov, 2017). As noted by Khaliy (2017), research shows that Russian people preserved basic patriotic values during post-revolution and post-perestroika times. However, attacks on these values have always been carried out.
The systemic crisis currently being experienced by Russian society requires urgent measures to find ways for reproducing spiritual values and maintaining national solidarity. Thus, we need to find ways to facilitate the development of patriotism and citizenship, which are the basis of Russian identity, contributing to social cohesion.
Citizenship is the ability to have rights and perform duties not only for your own personal interests but also for the benefit of the whole society. It can be considered as awareness of one's attitude to the motherland, its people, its origins and roots; it is a set of civic values and moral principles (freedom, equality, social justice, tolerance, and pluralism). In the sociological encyclopaedia, citizenship is defined as a concept that has a moral meaning. It means attitude and behaviour of a person of the highest moral qualities that distinguish a true guardian of the society and country (Buluktaev, 2003). Russian researchers viewed the concept of citizenship as having some other distinctive features. Since the XIX century, citizenship has been understood through the prism of high moral and ethical personality traits (Smirnov, 2011).
Citizenship can be considered from several perspectives. First, as a social institution. Citizenship as a social institution is a set of internalized social norms that regulate the relations of society with power institutions (Smirnov, 2011). Secondly, as a normative idea that sets "a system of civil roles accepted in a certain society as a model", it regulates social relations based on the principle of the universal good (Lubsky, 2019). Third, as a personal quality, the ability of a person to perform a certain role within the framework of institutionalized relations, the ability of a person, regardless of their social status, to take responsibility for a problematic situation in society within their social influence (Smirnov, 2011). Researchers associate citizenship with civic duty, concern for the common good, awareness and fulfilment of their civil rights and duties, participation in the fate of their fatherland, active and responsible participation in public life (Lubsky, 2019). In the West, the concept of "citizenship" is usually associated with "being a citizen", with the qualities of a "good" member of a civil community (Smirnov, 2011). The concept of citizenship is used in a sociological, political, legal, and ethical sense.
The notion of "patriotism" is derived from the Latin word "patris" – "loyalty to your fatherland, family, homeland" and from the Greek word "patriots" – "family", "compatriot". It characterizes national unity, identification with the past, present, and future of the country, priority of the public over the personal, responsibility for the fate of the country, and its protection.
The problem of patriotism is of interdisciplinary character; psychological, ideological, axiological, and ethical interpretations of it dominate feeling and value, social attitude and political practice, idea and duty, the basis of national identity and the factor of social consolidation (Lubsky, 2019). In the sociological approach, the main research areas are the value content of patriotism and its socio-cultural analysis. The sociological encyclopaedia defines patriotism as love for your homeland, country, people, attachment to your place of birth and place of residence (Ivanov, 2003). In the generally accepted sense, patriotism is understood as a social and moral principle that characterizes the attitude of citizens to their country. In real life, this attitude manifests itself in a complex set of feelings, knowledge, value orientations, attitudes, and actions, usually articulated as love for the motherland (Levashov, 2006). In a broad sense, patriotism is a system of views on history, the development of statehood, a set of collective stable ideas about the motherland and the most important values of the people, preserving a certain type of civilization (Bespalova & Sviridkina, 2019).
From an axiological point of view, patriotism is a spiritual and moral value, the value attitude of the subject to the fatherland: love for the small homeland, knowledge of the history of one’s country, the preservation of traditions and customs of one's ancestors. The socio-cultural dimension of patriotism is manifested in the national and state identity (Boymatov, 2019). Lukov and Kurganskaya (2012) consider patriotic value orientations as a set of knowledge, assessments systems, and social goals that provide self-regulations of the attitude to "... the socio-cultural reality of the motherland", the setting of life plans and goals. According to Kazachenko and Khamula (2019), patriotism is not a part of universal values, because it forms a sense of belonging to a certain group of people (a cosmopolitan cannot be a patriot), and, secondly, the semantic and figurative content of the concept of patriotism will be significantly different from nation to nation. Patriotic values belong to the basic human values of the individual. Butyrskaya (2019) highlights the motherland, fatherland, friendship of peoples, tolerance, social justice, freedom, responsibility, etc. among the main patriotic values. Within the activity approach, patriotism is also considered as an important value, since it encourages an individual to act in the interests of their homeland (Boymatov, 2019), and has the ability to transform emotions into deeds and actions necessary for the fatherland (Murzina & Kazakova, 2019).
The object of patriotism is defined by spatial, territorial and temporal parameters, as well as a set of characteristics of various environments: political, economic, social, cultural, natural, linguistic, religious and cultural. These environments form the image of the patriotism object and they are reflected in the corresponding forms of consciousness and discursive practices (Milovanova & Terentyeva, 2019).
In sociology, patriotism is considered as a complex social system that includes patriotic consciousness, activity, attitude, and organization (Yeshev, 2013).
All researchers Rebrina (2019), Butyrskaya (2019), Selezneva (2017), Scherbakova and Filonenko (2019) identify several components of patriotism: cognitive component (knowledge, perceptions, attitudes, forming patriotic consciousness; ideas about the country, its history, culture, traditions, geopolitical location, and political system), emotional component love and commitment to the fatherland, acceptance of specific ethnic, cultural and socio-political features of the country (Selezneva, 2017), and activity component principles of patriotic actions, need to implement them for the benefit of the country; civic activity and political behaviour (Shcherbakova & Filonenko, 2019).
In today's Russia, the role of patriotism as an integrative basis of society is being strengthened. This is because the patriotic consciousness of a person is the determinant of his civil position and social activity, and can have a determining effect on the self-identification processes of the individual (Yeshev, 2013).
Following from the problem stated the research questions to be dealt in the article are to reveal socio-cultural foundations and relationship between citizenship and patriotism, to consider citizenship and patriotism in value structure of social consolidation. Another question that demands our consideration is analysis of civil-patriotic complex of modern youth based on materials from sociological research.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to analyse the socio-cultural foundations of civic consciousness and patriotism of modern youth in the aspect of social consolidation of Russian society.
The methodological basis of this research is analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, legal and sociological analysis. Research tasks were accomplished based on the study of citizenship and patriotism as part of state policy and goals, scientific literature on the development of patriotism and citizenship of Russians and especially young people, as well as a secondary analysis of regional (among Russian youth of Moscow, Ulyanovsk, Saratov and Perm Oblast and Khabarovsk Krai) and national research (Russian Public Opinion Research Centre, Levada centre). Original sociological research of patriotism and civil values was also used: "Modernization values and student orientations" (n = 1254, 2010, Penza Oblast, Republic of Mordovia, Ulyanovsk Oblast, Republic of Tatarstan); "Patriotism of Russian and Turkmen students" (n=326; 2013; Penza Oblast); "Social potential of youth" (n=754, Penza and Saratov Oblast, Republic of Mordovia; n=400, Republic of Crimea, 2018; n=675, Moscow, 2019; n=554, Saint Petersburg, 2019).
Citizenship can be assessed in three forms. It can be considered in cognitive form-basic knowledge, views, and fundamental ideas; value form-the features of a civic personality that are necessary to maintain the democratic foundations of society; civic feelings form- a subjective view of the image of a citizen; activity (behavioural) form – contributing to the social effectiveness of the development of society – the activity of a citizen in the civil sphere of society. The culture of citizenship is a qualitative state of the individual as an actor of social relations, which is focused on citizenship and its political, legal, spiritual, moral, and labour aspects. Figure
Researchers emphasize the broad understanding of patriotism in modern sociological theories: some understand it as civil patriotism, some as the formation of civil identity, and some as consolidation based on organic solidarity (Shcherbakova & Filonenko, 2019). In theoretical sociology, patriotism is considered as a social value and a form of social self-identification that provides socio-cultural cohesion and integration. Secondly, patriotism is viewed as a set of social rules and norms that determine the relationship between the individual, the country (territory) and the government. Thirdly, patriotism is regarded as a result of constructivist influences and a tool for socio-political management, and fourthly, as a component of civic culture and identity (Lubsky, 2019).
The problem of patriotism is closely connected with self-identification which implies two conceptual fields – political (the individual's self-identification with political institutions, attitude to power, civic position) and socio-cultural (attitude to "patriotism", "homeland", "fatherland"). Patriotic feelings are an emotional component of identity.
The values of social consolidation reflect solidarity, cohesion, involvement, and identity. The analysis of factors that contribute to social consolidation allows us to identify the basic consolidating values: social trust; state and civic identity; moral components of citizenship - civic consciousness, civic duty, civic responsibility and patriotism. It should be noted that these values are not identical to civic values, which are considered for the most part as political values that contribute to the maintenance of the corresponding political and state system. At the same time, it cannot be denied that the values of societal consolidation can be regarded as civic values.
Solving the most important state tasks and achieving success in social development is impossible in the situation of incomplete knowledge about patriotism and civic consciousness of Russians. In current political and socio-economic situation on the world stage, the analysis of problem of development formation of civic consciousness and patriotism values is extremely important, because, for solid foreign policy, a “firm support” within the country itself in face of its population is necessary. The loyalty of this “support” can be measured by researching social factors of formation and implementation mechanisms for patriotism and civic consciousness of youth, as the most active part of society expressing their interests and opinions more clearly than others.
The author’s research was conducted in 2013 among students of Penza State University (n = 326; 250 - Russian students and 76 - Turkmen students). The research found that 49% of Russian students and 94% of Turkmen students certainly and most likely described themselves as patriots. According to the research, “being a patriot” means: love your country (30% of Russians students and 37% of Turkmen students); work for country blessing (22% and 26%, respectively); try to change country situation (24% and 11%). Respondents consider the following actions permissible: moving to the permanent place of residence in another country (54% and 30%), working in foreign company (75% and 61), marriage with foreigners (42% and 39%), evading the army (22% and 11%); and impermissible - tax evasion (49% and 28% respectively), ignorance of state symbols (54% and 56%). A third of Russian students consider refusal to vote in elections to be acceptable, personal matter for everyone, 28% of students from Turkmenistan consider this acceptable only in some cases (Rozhkova & Vasilyeva, 2014).
According to researches among students conducted in different years, dominance of cognitive and emotional patriotism components over behavioral is fixed. So, Kurganskaya (2011) revealed that there are twice as many patriots determined by direct indicators (pride in country fate, patriotic self-identification - 46.6%, need for original Russian development path - 48.9%) as there are patriots determined by indirect indicators (ready to work for the benefit of the people - 30% among students, 22% of respondents consider emigration for economic reasons not acceptable). More recent sociological researches among students also confirm these trends. So, the survey of Perm students in 2017 showed the presence of conservative approach to patriotism among the vast majority of students: they connect patriotism with love for the homeland, small homeland, history, and culture. However, this is not accompanied by sacrifice idea: respondents are not ready to defend their country in hostilities events (Shilov et al., 2019). Thus, most students show declarative patriotism unrelated to patriotic activity.
The research results of Russian and Belarusian image among students (2018–2019, Moscow, Minsk, n = 400) are interesting. Patriotic attitudes are quite pronounced in Russia and Belarus. Both Russian and Belarusian students see patriotism as love of the country, pride in the country. Russian students highlight the basis of patriotism: “country's successes in international arena”, “achievements in culture and sports”; their patriotism is undoubtedly associated with independent international politics of Russia and strengthening of its sovereignty in the world (85% of Russian students). Pride in country fate is also noted: victory in the Second World War. Belarusian students feel proud of the country in connection with its peaceful and balanced policy and order in the country (76% of Belarusian students) (Snezhkova et al., 2019).
As rightly noted by Ilyinsky and Lukov (2020) over the years (from 2012 to 2019) student population has completely changed and the proportion of answers has changed slightly. So in 2015, indicator of patriotism grew 2.2 times, and in 2019 returned to its original level. But more importantly, patriotism is evaluated among students as the least characteristic feature of Russian youth.
The materials of regional studies (2018, n = 420, Saratov) confirm this data. A third of respondents (28.9%) consider Russia as their homeland; 21.1% - city in which they were born; 15.5% - the USSR; 3.3% - home yard (Ivchenkov & Saiganova, 2019). The most common interpretations of “patriotism” concept were: “active participation in socially useful activities” and “honest payment of taxes” (12.8% each), “conscientious fulfillment of one’s professional duties” (12.5%), “compliance with state laws” (11.8%), “defense of Motherland” (11%), “trust to national state” (10.9%), “respect and continuation of Russian traditions” (10.9%), “love to Motherland” (6%). Thus, researchers state the activity principle of patriotism. At the same time, 38% of respondents certainly characterize themselves as patriots, and another third (31%) are more likely as patriots. Rather, 22% of respondents do not consider themselves patriots, and 9% stand out as non-patriots. In response to the question of patriotism manifestation in everyday life, 21.1% show it through conscientious fulfillment of their duties in society; 18.9% - through patriotic upbringing of children, 13.3% - respect for Russian traditions; 11.1% - military service (Ivchenkov & Saiganova, 2019).
In another regional research, share of “unconditional” patriots is almost identical (2018, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District, n = 600), so it was found that “patriots” group (clearly define their position as a patriot of country) is about 40%. The second group (who “most likely” refers to patriots) is 40%. The third group (referring to themselves as “non-patriots”) is 12%. A separate group is “difficult to answer” - 8.2%. The analysis showed that in value orientations of different groups in relation to state there were common basic values - justice, equality, and legal protection. The research showed direct correlation between assessment of authorities and state actions and respondent's patriotism. Defining characteristic of “non-patriots” group was their poor identification with country, state, and nation (Martynov & Purtova, 2019).
One of the main components of personality is his civic position, which implies his self-identification with status of his country citizen where he lives, with his father’s home (small homeland), love for Motherland and readiness to protect it, involvement in its past and present (Berezutskiy, 2019).
Analysis of attitudes toward citizenship was considered as part of the author’s research: “Modernization values and student orientations” (n = 1254, Penza region, Republic of Mordovia, Ulyanovsk region, Republic of Tatarstan, 2010); “Social potential of youth” (n = 754, Penza and Saratov regions, Republic of Mordovia; n = 400, Republic of Crimea, 2018; n = 675, Moscow; n = 554, St. Petersburg, 2019). The results of the author's research in 2010 indicate that according to self-esteem of students, citizen of their country is individual who has civil rights and obligations (52%). According to research 2018-2019, approximately the same results were obtained. Modern youth considers citizenship to a greater extent from position of legal understanding. Another most selectable criterion for being a citizen is passport citizenship. Data are presented in table
In 2010, patriotism as an important factor in civic consciousness was considered by 43% of respondents, in 2018-2019 this indicator ranged from 17% to 29%. At the same time, Volga region’s youth and Crimea’s youth often note patriotism as a component of civic consciousness, in contrast to capital's youth. The same picture is observed in relation to protection of one’s country. At the same time, responsibility for destiny of their country is more important for capital's youth than for Volga region’s youth and Crimea’s youth (Rozhkova et al., 2019).
Author's research among students in 2010 revealed differences in views of rural and urban students on understanding of civic consciousness. So, the youth of large cities and metropolises understands civic consciousness in a legal sense, and residents of small towns prefer patriotism and love for motherland (Rozhkova & Vasilyeva, 2014). Based on research materials from 2018-2019, the relationship of civic consciousness with respondents’ age was revealed: the older they are, pride, responsibility for country and knowledge of its history become more important for them. The results of researches conducted in 2010, 2018, 2019 also showed some gender differences in understanding civic consciousness. According to 2010 survey, girls more often single out civil rights, duties and enforcement of laws as important factors of civic consciousness, while for boys it is given priority to country defense. According to data from 2018 and 2019, almost the same results were obtained. The exception is factors of patriotism and responsibility for their country, which are more often identified by girls. According to 2019 survey, a certain relationship was established between attitude to civic consciousness and material situation of youth in metropolises: the worse material well-being of young people, the more elements of civic consciousness, such as civil rights and obligations, implementation of Russian laws are often significant for them (Rozhkova et al., 2019). Interesting are data on relationship of civic consciousness with the assessment of current socio-economic situation in the country: the more often youth of St. Petersburg assesses situation as catastrophic, the more important is citizenship by passport and responsibility for the fate of country. This is confirmed by studies among Moscow’s youth (Rozhkova et al., 2019).
The theoretical analysis made it possible to define patriotism as love for one’s Motherland, country, people (sociocultural, value meaning); civic consciousness - ability and willingness to feel oneself and act as citizen, active involvement in affairs of political community (political and legal meaning). In socio-political sciences, civic consciousness is a set of moral, ethical, psychological and socio-political qualities of social actors, which is characterized by sense of patriotism, love for Motherland, developed socio-political self-awareness.
The results of all-Russian and regional sociological researches indicate that level of Russians’ patriotism has high rates, which definitely cannot be said about youth, where it has average values, which is confirmed by materials on youth’s patriotism in Central, North-Western, Far Eastern, and Volga federal districts. There is a negative tendency towards a decrease in value of patriotism for both young people and the older generation. Researches confirm structure deformation of the patriotic value-orientation complex of youth when there is a contradiction between declared attitudes and behavioral strategies. The situation is aggravated by factors not only of internal, such as country socio-economic situation but also of external order, for example sanctions policy against Russia. Pride in the country, in particular for its victory in the Second World War, international sports life contributes to an increase of patriotic orientations. Modern youth perceives civic consciousness more often in the strictly legal sense: rights and obligations, residence in Russia, citizenship on passport. The current socio-economic situation affects patriotic values of youth: the more often young people assess current country’s socio-economic situation as catastrophic a lot of young people share responsibility for the fate of the country.
The reported study was funded by RFBR and EISR according to the research project № 20-011-70001.
- Berezutskiy, Yu. V. (2019). Social activity of youth in the region: sociological analysis. Far Eastern Institute of Management - branch of RANEPA.
- Bespalova, T. V., & Sviridkina, E. V. (2019). Cultural and Civilization Meanings of State Patriotism. Institute of Heritage.
- Boymatov, U. F. (2019). The social construction of patriotism is an effective response to the challenges of globalization. Voronezh State University Bulletin, 1, 31-36.
- Buluktaev, Yu. O. (2003). Citizenship. In Sociological Encyclopedia (Vol. 1, pp. 115). Publishing House Thought.
- Butyrskaya, E. V. (2019). Theoretical approaches to the formation of patriotism. The Higher Education Today, 4, 34-37. https://doi.org/10.25586/RNU.HET.19.04.P.34
- Gorshkov, M. K. (2017). Russian society and the challenges of the time. Book Five. Publishing House the Whole World.
- Ilyinsky, I. M., & Lukov, V. A. (2020). Moscow students: transformations of value orientations. Bulletin of the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, 20-1, 50-63. https://doi.org/10.22363/2313-2272-2020-20-1-50-63
- Ivanov, V. N. (2003). Patriotism. In Sociological encyclopedia (Vol. 2, pp. 573). Publishing House Thought.
- Ivchenkov, S. G., & Saiganova, E. V. (2019). Patriotism as a component of public consciousness: generational perspective of measurement. Bulletin of the Institute of Sociology. 10-1, 104-119. https://doi.org/10.19181/vis.2019.28.1.558
- Kazachenko, O. V., & Khamula, L. A. (2019). Patriotism as an image (psycholinguistic aspect). Mari State University Bulletin, 13(1), 68-75. https://doi.org/10.30914/2072-6783-2019-13-1-68-75
- Khaliy, I. A. (2017). Patriotism as a value: the backgrounds, types, dependence of innovations. In O. Aksenova (Ed.), Asymmetric life of modern Russian society: ratio of traits and innovations (pp. 133-144). Federal research centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
- Kurganskaya, M. Ya. (2011). Image of a patriot as the basis of normative model of patriotic education of youth. Knowledge. Understanding. Skill, 6, 3.
- Levashov, V. (2006). Patriotism in the context of modern socio-political realities. Sociological Studies, 8, 67-75.
- Lubsky, A. V. (2019). Patriotism and citizenship in Russian society, or how to overcome the deficiency of citizenship in Russian patriotism. Humanities of the South of Russia. 8(2), 47-66. https://doi.org/10.19181/2227-8656.2019.2.3
- Lukov, V. A., & Kurganskaya, M. Ya. (2012). Patriotic value orientations. Knowledge. Understanding. Skill, 2, 316-317.
- Martynov, M. Yu., & Purtova, V. S. (2019). Values of patriotism and formation of civic identity (based on the materials of sociological survey in Ugra). Bulletin of the Udmurt University, 3-1, 14-19.
- Milovanova, M. V., & Terentyeva, E. V. (2019). Image of present in the light of the category of local patriotism: analysis of the information balance of the communicative and textual media environment of Volgograd region. Scientific dialogue, 4, 83-98. https://doi.org/10.24224/2227-1295-2019-4-83-98
- Murzina, I. Ya., & Kazakova, S. V. (2019). Perspective directions of patriotic education. Education and science, 21(2), 155-175. https://doi.org/10.17853/1994-5639-2019-2-155-175
- Rebrina, L. N. (2019). Forming local patriotism of past: information balance of the communicative and textual environment. Scientific dialogue, 2, 49-64. https://doi.org/10.24224/2227-1295-2019-2-49-64
- Rozhkova, L. V., & Vasilyeva, N. D. (2014). Citizenship and patriotism as the basis for social consolidation of Russian society. Monitoring of public opinion, 3, 123-129. https://doi.org/10.14515/monitoring.2014.3.08
- Rozhkova, L. V., Dubina, A., Sh., & Salnikova, O. V. (2019). Citizenship in views of youth in Russian regions. In S. I. Bugasheva & A. S. Minina (Ed.), Humanities in a modern university: yesterday, today, tomorrow (pp. 421-425). SPbGUPTD.
- Selezneva, A. V. (2017). Patriotism as a political value: political and psychological analysis. Tomsk State University Bulletin, 38, 200-208. https://doi.org/10.17223/1998863X/38/20
- Scherbakova, L. I., & Filonenko, V. I. (2019). Active patriotism as a factor of creative development of Russian youth in the conditions of changing social reality: contradictions of formation. Power, 27(1), 112-119. https://doi.org/10.31171/vlast.v27i1.6237
- Shilov, V. V., Pudovkina, I. M., Sergeeva, T. N., & Zakharova, N. Ya. (2019). Patriotism in minds of young people and older generation: regional aspect. Bulletin of the Perm National Research Polytechnic University, 1, 18-26. https://doi.org/10.15593/2224-9354/2019.1.2
- Smirnov, V. E. (2011). Institutional-role approach to understanding the phenomenon of citizenship. A sociological almanac, 2, 246-255.
- Snezhkova, I. A., Kalacheva, I. I., Shalygina, N. V., & Gromov, D. V. (2019). Images of Russia and Belarus in representations of youth of two countries. Power. 27-1, 107-112. https://doi.org/10.31171/vlast.v27i1.6236
- Yeshev, M. A. (2013). Russian patriotism as the basis of national identity. Power, 6, 116-118.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
About this article
Cite this paper as:
Click here to view the available options for cite this article.