The article is devoted to the analysis of the branch of medicine “surgical instruments” as a part of professional-linguistic world-image of a medical specialist. It was found that the lexical system of the language of this branch of medicine has been changed in the process of its development. New lexical units (special and common ones) were revealed at each of the three distinguished stages of development. It is determined that the design and modernization of technology as well as the use of advanced materials play an important role in the formation of analyzed branch of medicine. The invention of surgical instruments, the performance of surgical operations, the regular improvement of the materials which are used in structure of surgical instruments, the discovery of new laws of physics that have found application in the construction of surgical instruments, the modernization of the properties of instruments caused by the needs of surgical practice, the involving of new areas of medicine in surgery enrich German medical terminology. The design and modernization of technology, advanced materials develop medicine, enlarge its lexical field, and improve the methods of treatment, thereby preserving human health.
Keywords: German medical terminologyhuman healthmedical specialistmodernizationprofessional-linguistic world-imagesurgical instruments
The professional outlook is reflected in the language used in special field. Linguistic research of the human factor in the language has acquired a new perspective caused by the study of world views and, in particular, by the study of the linguistic world-image and led to use of special concepts - a linguistic world-image and professional-linguistic world-image. These concepts become fundamental ones in modern anthropolinguistics and are the most important condition for the existence of a man in the world, as they express the specificity of a man and his life, his relationship with the world (Serebrennikov, 1988).
This concept is studied by many branches of scientific knowledge. So, in philosophy as the world views the scientists understand “the whole objective content that a person has” (Gubsky, 1997). Tsivyan (2005) defines the world views (the model of the world) as a short and simple image of the total amount of ideas about the world in this tradition, taken in their systemic and operational aspects. According to Grinev-Grinevich and Sorokina (2014) a linguistic world-image is the knowledge about the world presented in linguistic forms. The scientists believe that the linguistic world-image is the sum of ideas about the world that was historically formed in the everyday consciousness of a given linguistic collective and then reflected in their language. Analysis of the works of scientists demonstrated that there are many interpretations of the concept “linguistic world-image”. It indicates that there are differences in the world views of different languages and in the perception of the surrounding world by native speakers of a particular language. We think that the linguistic world-image is the representation of a certain linguistic collective about the structure, elements and processes of reality reflected in the language, a complete image of a person, his inner world, the surrounding world and nature carried out by means of naming units. It summarizes, systematizes the information, knowledge, vision of an object received by a person and expressed them with lexical elements. So, we can say that at the present stage of development of linguistics, linguistic models of the world are the objects of description and interpretation in different sciences about human in the linguistic context.
Any type of activity leaves a specific stamp on the lifestyle of a specialist, forming his professional-linguistic world-image.
A professional-linguistic world-image is “an information storehouse” of scientific knowledge of the special field, as it is the result of human cognitive activity in a particular branch of knowledge. In the second half of the 20th century such scientists as E.I. Golovanova, T.L. Masych, S.L. Mishlanova, V.F. Novodranova, E.A. Sorokin, A.D. Samigullin, L.A. Chernyshova, L.A. Shkatova and others investigated professional-linguistic world-image. The combination of words “professional-linguistic world-image” has recently been used actively by linguists, but it has not been clearly defined in linguistics. This is due to the fact that the scientific world-image is the sum of all scientific knowledge about the world developed by all special sciences, and the professional-linguistic world-image is a part (or fragment) of the scientific world-image (Pribytova, 2005). According to Chernyshova (2010), the professional-linguistic world-image plays the role of a meaningful reflection of scientific idea in a specific area of the individual’s special life activity. The scientist confirms that domain-specific terminology is the result of professional thinking; it exists within the linguistic world-image of a particular nation and corresponds to its thinking.
As professional-linguistic world-image we understand an informative invariant of scientific knowledge in a special field of human activity; it is universal, since the scientific knowledge is objective itself (Kiseleva, 2018). During the mental and verbal cognitive activity of a person (specialist), professional knowledge is generated and accumulated; the gaining and forming of it is possible because of linguistic means.
Purpose of the Study
We analyze one of the branches necessary for treatment – surgical instruments as a part of professional-linguistic world-image. After analyzing the definitions of the terms
In this paper, the professional-linguistic world-image (PLWI) of this branch of medicine was analyzed by means of diachronic description (to characterize the process of formation of PLWI of a surgeon in Germany), structural, definitional and conceptual analysis. The material for study is simple, complex terms and terminological word-combinations which form a professional-linguistic world-image of the branch of medicine “surgical instruments”. It was found that the vocabulary of this branch of medicine has been changed in the process of its formation and development that also influenced the professional-linguistic world-image of a medical specialist.
All evolutionary processes in science can be revealed in lexical-semantic, structural and syntactic changes of terms. Analysis of the works on surgery and its terminology allowed us to identify three main stages of the formation of the studied area of medicine, which also influenced the formation of the branch of medicine “surgical instruments”.
First stage is characterized by the presence of words borrowed from other fields of knowledge and from the common vocabulary. With time these borrowed words underwent a process of terminologisation, enlarged the conceptual content of lexical units. After that they are used in the studied terminological field.
According to the results of the research, after the process of terminologisation of lexical units having certain semantic characteristics of a common word, get motivation from the linguistic substrate, so, they get a way of representing content level, an internal form (Kosova, 2004). At the same time, there are a number of semantic differences between the term and the common vocabulary. For example, the non-special word
To identify a number of medical instruments (
The borrowed terms from other fields of knowledge were pointed out during the research. Forexample,
These terms in medical terminology underwent semantic rethinking, indicating the same principle of the tool's use. For example,
Terms with Germanorigin (
The use of language units from non-special lexis and terms from other fields of knowledge in medical terminology can be explained by the interaction of everyday and professional areas of communication. They are based on two dominant types of thinking: sensually-figurative and verbal-logical. It confirms the validity of the conclusions made by Golovanova (2011) that scientific knowledge is based on the results of everyday knowledge, since every day and rational knowledge are interconnected. Such interaction explicates the essence of the process of cognition – person understands new knowledge (objects) through the known one.
At this stage, there is a deepening of knowledge, whose process in terminology is expressed as follows:
the term becomes the “genus” term and has the “species” terms. For example, with the development of medical instruments, the term
The presence of genus-species relations allows us to conclude that complex noun-terms (50.8%) represent the multi-stage mechanism of understanding of the functions of a surgical instrument by a medical specialist and helps to improve it.
Genus-species relations represent terminological word-combinations. In the terminological word-combinations the main word expresses a genus feature that is characterized by a word that defines the species feature of a surgical instrument. At the same time, if we speak about cognition, the leading role is played by the lexical unit marking the species feature. For example,
An adjective part of such terminological word-combinations has special scientific information; it is a “terminological marker-specifier”. Because of it, specialist can divide the instruments into subgroups, so he can distinguish a surgical instrument in its group.
It is necessary to say about the high frequency of terminological word-combinations (34.4%) in the studied terminological field. The reason of it is their “plastic” structure. The terminological word-combinations representing the features of a surgical instrument can increase the number of their components. The process of accumulation of cognitive features is endless, it occurs as a result of the development of science and technology and as a result of the mental activity of a specialist. For example,
In the terminological field “surgical instruments” of the German language there are terminological word-combinations that consist of four, five, six, seven and eight words. For example,
the deepening of differentiation in the meanings of synonyms. At the stage of formation and development of the surgeons' professional language there were of course the synonyms, but, as a rule, doctors did not differ their meaning. For example, the synonyms
The presence of synonyms (13.7%) is associated with the progress of science. The synonyms give the opportunity to name the selected categories and concepts in different ways. For example,
since the middle of the 19th century, a large number of eponyms (12.3%) had appeared in the studied terminological field. Such terms are “personalized record”, as they perpetuate the name of the master or scientist who investigated and sometimes modified the instrument.
German surgeon Bernhard Rudolph Konrad von Langenbeck (from 1848 to 1875) had investigated and used a number of surgical instruments:
At this stage, the development of surgery is reflected in the terminological field "surgical instruments" of the German language in the form of new lexemes. It is caused by:
In the studied terminological field the development of robotic-based surgery is characterized by an increase in the number of complex terms (
use of high energy sources to reduce the morbidity and time of operation, to improve its quality. In the terminology field “surgical instruments” of the German language, these terms are represented by terminological word-combinations with the abbreviated component (
die HF-Elektrode für die mono-oderbipolare Koagulation), and by complex terms with the such components as Hochfrequenz-(high frequency), Elektro-(electro), Elektrode-(electrode), Koagulation-(coagulation). Forexample, das Koagulationskabel, das HF-Messer (or das Hochfrequenzmesser), das Hochfrequenzleitkabel, das Elektrotom, das Elektroresektionsinstrument, die Koagulationselektrode, die Schlingenelektrode;
miniaturization of surgical instruments. Because of it surgical instrument can be used directly in the area of surgical intervention. The miniature size of surgical instruments is marked with the Greek terminoelement
Mikro-: das Mikro-Bulldog-Klemmen, die Mikropinzette, die Mikrofederschere, der Mikronadelhalter mit und ohne Sperre, die Mikroinstrumente.
regular improvement of the materials which are used to make surgical instruments (Cr - chromium, Ti - titanium, Ni - nickel, Mn - manganese, Mo - molybdenum, N - nitrogen, S - sulfur, V - vanadium). The use of materials is represented in the form and structure of terms marked by the predominance of complex terms and terminological word-combinations:
der Titanclip, teflonüberzogener Schaft.
modernization of the properties of instruments caused by the needs of surgical practice:
das Klammermagazin( clips box for suturing the organs), der Linear Cutter (Stapler)( linear cutter – linear suturing and cutting stapler), der zirkuläre Stapler – der Zirkulärstapler( circular stapler), die MIC-Instrumente, where MIC – Minimal Invasive Chirurgie( instruments for minimally invasive surgery), der Trokar (trocar), der Mandrin (mandren), der Obturator (obturator), der Applikator (applicator (surgical)), das Rasterkraftmikroskop–AFM( atomic-force microscope), das Rasterelektronenemikroskop–REM( scanning probe microscope– SPM).
Progress in the use of mechanical suturing apparatus has led to construction of
The components (
The use of miniature sources of “cold” lightand television cameras:
The analysis of the professional-linguistic world-image of a surgeon (by means of the example of the terminological field “surgical instruments” in the German language) revealed the desire of specialists to save the basic “prototype” terms that characterize this science. For example, in the name of such surgical instrument as
In addition, in the studied area of medicine, we have identified a number of proto-terms that are used simultaneously with the scientific concepts:
Analysis of the history of the development of surgical instruments indicates that the terms during the development of the process of cognition are introduced and excluded (from terminology), interpolated (renew) and extrapolated (transferred from some areas of knowledge to others), generalized, they can enlargethe conceptual content and undergo other changes (Madzhaeva, 2010). Radical changes taking place in society make conditions for the studies that reveal the final results of the influence of these changes on the development of all spheres of human activity, including medicine (Madzhaeva, 2015), its professional-linguistic world-image.
During the whole history of development of humanity, we see the formation of medicine as a science and, consequently, the enrichment of the professional language with new special units.
Analysis of the history of surgery demonstrated that at the beginning of its formation it based on the everyday knowledge, for which the words of a common language are characteristic. At the first stage we have identified the borrowed words from other areas of knowledge; at the next stages special units appear and are used in studied terminology. This indicates the scientific nature of knowledge.
The invention of surgical instruments, the performance of surgical operations, the regular improvement of the materials which are used in structure of surgical instruments, the discovery of new laws of physics that have found application in the construction of surgical instruments, the modernization of the properties of instruments caused by the needs of surgical practice, the involving of new areas of medicine in surgery enrich German medical terminology; the terms otherwise represent the PLWI of a surgeon. The professional-linguistic world-image of a medical specialist is modified and as a result the concept of surgical care is enlarged. The doctor’s professional knowledge has changed because of development of anatomy and physiology. The enrichment of the knowledge of surgeons influences and changes the PLWI of a doctor.
The branch of medicine “surgical instruments” as a part of professional-linguistic world-image demonstrates the complexity of medical language, as it is represented not only by terms, but also by common words, indicates the dynamism of its verbal display. The design and modernization of technology, advanced materials develop medicine, enlarge its lexical field, and improve the methods of treatment, thereby preserving human health.
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28 December 2020
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Madzhaeva, S. I., Lukoyanova, T. V., & Kiseleva, L. A. (2020). Surgical Instruments As A Part Of Professional-Linguistic World-Image. In N. L. Shamne, S. Cindori, E. Y. Malushko, O. Larouk, & V. G. Lizunkov (Eds.), Individual and Society in the Modern Geopolitical Environment, vol 99. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 605-614). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.12.04.70