The article reveals the idea of creating a new model of regional continuing teacher training system in Russia. The main system scientific problem that needs to be solved, can be considered as a mismatch between the living conditions complication, the teacher’s functionality expansion, the continuing education inclusion requirement and the archaic forms of its implementation that do not take into account a modern adult living conditions, differentiation of the teaching community by interests, needs and level of training. The regional system is presented as a part of the adults continuing education as part of the regional educational space. The regional system development principles are formulated. These principles are ultimate individualization, continuity, openness, individual interests’ priority, networking, age diversity, andragogy, eventfulness, (self) organization. The regional system development resources are identified. The new model basic structural components are proposed. They are: territorial consulting service / regional consulting network, one window mentoring service, educational programs department for their design and testing. It is substantiated that fully oral programs are not effective and the modular model of the educational program for continuing teacher training is promising. Non-formal professional practices may be recommended for active use by future teachers as well as for teachers with experience in professional development and continuing teacher training. The model developed during the research can be used in the regional/municipal continuing teacher training systems modernization. The model may be potentially addressed to the methodological services and institutional structures that implement continuing teacher training and retraining programs at the regional/municipal level.
Keywords: Continuing adult educationcoachingmentoringnon-formal educationregional teacher training systemvocational education
In the context of all society areas dynamics it becomes necessary to set new tasks to the continuing teacher training system, which is associated not only with changes within the institution of education itself, but also with a new social reality existence. The gap between the social role increase, the teacher’s functionality expansion and the real social status is growing (Foals & Luchkina, 2013).
The education consumers’ structure has changed. There is an increase in the importance of continuing teacher training sector and non-formal education (Ilakavichus, 2018, р. 80). The “Education throughout life” principle of lifelong learning is stated. This determines the need for special forms of continuing teacher training related to the “third age” adult population (Mokroguz, 2016).
Pilot monitoring made it possible to identify regional systems deep problems. First of all, it should be noted that modern structure of continuing teacher training is not flexible. It can’t adapt quickly to student requests.
There are objectively difficulties in building teacher’s individual/personified educational routes within education individualization policy framework. The education expenditure within the individual routes (and training in small groups) is not worth financially.
In fact, there is no student request monitoring. The questionnaire by students completing current year courses on planning next year topics does not give a real picture.
The postgraduate teacher education institutions training plans do not reflect real situation of heterogeneity of school and preschool organizations teachers’ groups. Including heterogeneity of their requests. The continuing teacher training certificate, which is required to be obtained/updated every 3 years, is the only reason for significant part of teachers to start studying. The so called “interested” students is another category. Different conditions must be created for them to master educational programs.
There are also other system problems. The absence of intensity of student training accounting, the general cultural component status. And finally, the national and regional features of the course preparation, national-regional component. There are not really functioning “educational networks” open to communications formation, eventful and significant for teachers.
The system is not in demand in solving real problems of professional pedagogical activity. Efficiency and effectiveness are generally low. The state cost of system maintaining does not pay off.
Main system scientific problem that needs to be solved in this research, is a mismatch between living conditions complication, teacher’s functionality expansion, continuing education inclusion requirement and archaic forms of its implementation that do not take into account a modern adult living conditions, differentiation of teaching community by interests, needs and level of training.
A specific research task within the problem framework is theoretical justification and development of the regional continuing teacher training system framework model variant in conditions of continuing education space of the country development.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to describe the innovative model of the regional continuing teacher training system, in which non-formal educational practices play a significant role.
The culturological approach was chosen as a basis of this research. This approach is used to identify the worldviews of the participants in the space of continuing education of the Russian Federation (Valitskaya; 1997) and their expectations from the continuing teacher training system (Bondarevskaya, 1995; Krylova, 1995; Makhracheva, 2009). It is also used to define the principles and resources for the development of the regional continuing teacher training systems (Krylova;1995).
The axiological approach allowed us to determine values (Sukhobskaya et al., 2002), contributing to the development of its regional multisubject communities, as a system-forming factor in the development of the continuing adult education space in Russia. These questions are described in researches by V. Karakovsky, E. Shiyanov, E. Yamburg, E. Fromm.
Event approach (Heidegger, 1978; 1983) became the basis for creating a network interaction participants community, which lies at the heart of the developing space of the region continuing education, characterized by dialogue character (Capra; 1996; Slobodchikov & Isaev, 2000, p. 181), value-semantic unity, contributing to development of subjectivity of participants in interaction of the region (Grigoriev; 2006; Grigoriev & Stepanov, 2010). These questions are described in researches by L. Novikova, D. Grigoriev, M. Yakushkina.
The following complementary methods set was used to solve the tasks. Theoretical - content analysis of philosophical, cultural, sociological, pedagogical literature on the research topic; analysis of legislative and regulatory acts and documents; comparison; generalization. Empirical - method of included observation of existing educational practices in regional continuing teacher training institutes, sociocultural analysis of the situation; comparative analysis; questionnaires, mathematical processing of pilot monitoring data. The use of content analysis in working with sources has revealed trends in development of continuing education space of Russia.
Cultural values and traditions as a basis for educational space development have updated method of sociocultural analysis of specific educational situations. The included observation enabled to summarize experience of partner institutions interaction, highlighting the problem fields. Partner collaboration also allowed a comparative analysis of the education systems state.
The main scientific idea is that we consider regional continuing teacher training system as a part of
Moreover, we mean the subject of
We have chosen the following as
We especially highlight the last principle. The (self)organization principle is special. It shows that continuing education system provides for a holistic process of simultaneous existence of ready-to-choose vocational training offers created by specialists who are professionally involved in organizing education and conducting classes with adults; the presence in continuing teacher training system of a sector where adult students different categories educational order is formed, corresponding to their interests and capabilities (potential and real), the adult self-education results are taken into account. These processes are practically inseparable.
Regional continuing teacher training system model structure is proposed:
1) The system main structural component: territory consulting service is the region consulting network (Knyazeva, 2010, p.73). Several centers establishing is possible in big settlements/regions. But in small cities this service is available within one institution. The consulting network is managed by the region administration.
Consulting service functions:
At the initial stage, the consulting service is responsible for collecting data on educational programs implemented on this territory, structures that carry out formal, non-formal, informal educational activities.
The result of the initial consulting service activities is a system state databank.
After it the consulting service monitors and corrects data bank (in coordination with the region administration) at least once every 6 months. As a result, an electronic interaction system of all continuous education space subjects is formed.
2) A mentoring “one window” principle service is necessary for the development of a continuing teacher training system (Best Practices, 2008; Esaulova, 2017; Francis, 2009; Lavin Colky & Young, 2006).
The “one window” technology aims to reduce the time of forced communication between teachers and the system organizers. It is characterized by the fact that any “educational services” delivery is concentrated in one place. Starting from the application process to getting the results.
An important component of this technology is to minimize the number of documents that the applicant must provide. This is achieved by building a developed infrastructure for the effective interaction of all subjects of the space of continuing education.
Each student individual educational route options is a result of the mentoring service work. The functionality of different categories of educational system personnel, the purpose and result of training are taken into account. 1) A document (certificate of attendance used for official purposes) can be considered as a result. 2) Subject, functional, and other knowledge is also a result. 3) Learning educational practices by teachers is a significant result from our point of view. 4) Appreciation of the professional benchmarks by teachers. 5) Learning one or another general cultural level.
In-depth consulting on the teacher’s categories is required: young teachers, psychologists, social teachers, preschool organizations educators. So, for example, it is necessary to create a special system of continuing teacher training for young teachers, including, as a form of continuing teacher training, the organization of the youth pedagogical movement, forms of pedagogical youth communication (convention of young teachers, summer pedagogical schools, open social event networks, etc.).
Particular attention must be paid to the continuing teacher training of educators engaged in upbringing activities; on the formation of a mentoring system.
3) The Educational Programs Department approves and oversees educational programs design.
All oral programs must be removed as ineffective.
Thus, the continuing teacher training system consists of three communicating components (Table
The adult education valuable foundations studied in modern works (the humanization and continuity relationship, ensuring maintenance of adult personal development and achieving social equality through education, as well as other adult education development values and humanitarian principles) are formulated, for example, in the works of Lеngrand (1970) and Delors (1998), conducted and presented to the scientific community in the last decades of the past century. These scientific ideas were developed in the Memorandum of Continuing Education of the European Union, where their implementation method is justified - the complementarity of the life-long learning and life-wide learning parameters. This event consolidated as a necessary component of the adult education content forming process - "cultural tradition completeness", balancing the priority of the professional component.
Conceptual approaches to the education continuity phenomenon were formulated in 60s - 70s of the XX century in scientific works by B. Bim-Bad, S. Vershlovsky, M. Gromkova, A. Darinsky, S. Zmeev, Yu. Kulyutkin, L. Lesokhina, A. Novikov, V. Onushkin, G. Sukhobskaya, E. Tonkonogaya and other researchers. Starting from 80s, the adults continuing education practical experience is studied and conceptualized in the works by R. Ohea, L. Eno, W. Hilton and others (Anoshkina & Rezvanov; 2001, p. 42; Marchenko & Ilyukhina, 2006, p. 58; Wells, 1999). The “lifelong learning” concept is ambiguously interpreted by modern authors: A. Vladislavlev, B. Gershunsky, O. Dolzhenko, G. Zinchenko, G. Gerasimov, V. Turchenko and others. It is connected to the problem complexity, and the fact that the research object itself is actually in a non-linear non-systemic development state. Works by Alan Rogers are well-known. He believes that learning is an integral part of the life of any adult. A number of European scientists believe that a new quality of an adult has been formed today. Adults have infinite potential for learning and development no matter how much knowledge a person has already acquired. His/her inexhaustible potential is more likely the norm than the exception. J. Field calls this quality as plasticity.
Today, according to scientific researches N. Bulaev, N. Valeeva, A. Verbitsky, E. Nikitin, A. Novikov, additional and non-formal education, self-education are recognized as leading in the adult education field. P. Jarvis points out that the need for additional education persists even in people of the fourth age (after 75 years). Back in the XIX century E. Thorndike showed that the learning ability curve decreases very slowly between 22 and 45 years. It decreases no faster for the lower intellect than for the higher. According to A. Mitina there were a steady increase in the share of population participating in additional education over the past 30-35 years. Most researchers point out that non-formal education gives an individual the opportunity to support him/herself as a developing, progressing personality throughout the life (as cited in Binde, 2000). It is the main factor in a person’s creative development.
Researchers C. Rogers and M. Knowles consider an adult student as an active figure in the learning process, who seeks independence, self-realization, learning process self-management (as cited in Knowles, 1980). There is an opinion that learning is the process of creating new habits (M. Magura). Therefore, an adult changes priority of teaching methods. An adult prefers practical classes, of experimental nature often, solving of specific production tasks and problems instead of lectures.
The methodological and theoretical foundations of this research are studies of the educational space formation theory by L. Novikova, N. Selivanova, D. Grigoriev (as cited in Yakushkina, Zagrivnaya et al., 2015), identidying the nature, content and specifics of educational and cultural adult activities by M. Ilakavichus, the concept of adult education in the CIS by K. Pshenko, M. Yakushkina (as cited in Yakushkina, 2015), as well as analytical materials and experience in developing programmatic and methodological support for the educational institution activities by M. Ilakavichus, M. Yakushkina (as cited inYakushkina, Pshenko et al., 2019).
It should be underlined that continuing education today has in fact different meanings. It can be considered as a lifelong learning from a teacher’s point of view. It is an open education that creates the conditions for the personal and professional development of a teacher or pedagogical community, society (Baranov, 2016) if we consider it as a part of the educational sphere. The nature of lifelong learning is the training of teachers ahead of professional crises from the point of view of the non-educational sphere (Shakurova, 2015).
A deep analysis of the teacher’s professional development system state is needed. Identifying its main “breakthroughs” in particular in non-formal and informal education on the basis of which it is possible to create new educational projects and develop the teachers continuing education space. We emphasize that it is non-formal education in self-organizing non-systemic communities that makes it possible to enrich formalized education and advance in solving the problem of maintaining the educational teacher’s motivation (Ilakavichus, 2018). The implementation of this task is important for pedagogical skills development not only of young, but also experienced teachers. In European countries the basic and additional professional education system has changed significantly in recent decades. A pragmatic approach to building an advanced training system and assessing the professional teachers’ skills has proven itself positively. For example, in Finland in the continuing teacher training system not only the result of examinations or tests is evaluated, but also the presentation to the expert community of the formed practical skills in the profession, which can be counted when assessing the level of qualification or degree of professional skills. Such a system will allow in the conditions of teachers professional or advanced training to produce not only subject matter, but also multidisciplinary specialists in the field of education. A teacher pedagogical skills development perspective is also opened by awareness of the general cultural component importance in his/her professional education or continuing training. It is especially important when building relationships with students in the context of daily pedagogical activity.
Obviously, one of the foundations for the development of the non-formal teacher’s education space should be personal potential development, which manifests itself in a person’s willingness to set goals, change methods and means to achieve them through continuous self-education, self-realization (Baranova & Baranov, 2016). Distinctive features of the teacher’s non-formal education are high motivation and mobility, dynamism of the content and technologies of his educational activity. Mobility, determined by the fact that the basis of the organization of the non-formal educational process is its individualization, aimed at the specific - mainly vital - goals of each student.
Thus, the design of teacher’s non-formal education process should be based not on the academic concept and subject professional education model, but on the basis of andragogical, acmeological, event-based approaches. Also, taking into account such conditions as the need for teacher’s professional self-actualization, the possibility of combining independence of educational activities and group joint activities with other teachers using dialogue pedagogy — the adoption of joint design decisions by teacher and students, relying on student’s experience, awareness, system, electivity, individualization, contextual education in the interests of the student’s personality, updating of learning outcomes, educational opportunities development, training, etc. Designing the non-formal learning content may be related to the development of teacher’s general cultural competence and personal qualities.
The analysis of international relevance documents published Russian and international research results allow us to talk about significant differences of different countries continuing teachers training. So, in such countries as Ireland and Holland the system is structured and financed in accordance with the needs from different sources. In some countries this system (as a system) is practically absent and can only be considered as a sphere of the state educational policy (Schedrovitsky; 1993). An important trend is that in different countries today measures are being taken to promote the formation of organizational and pedagogical support for the teachers education by optimizing the network of educational and consulting centers, creating educational, sociocultural and leisure centers at schools, universities, museums, libraries, clubs, religious structures, as well as optimizing the Internet network based on IT maximum use.
The lifelong learning problem of various teacher categories is not only educational. Today it reflects to a greater extent the level of the state social activity. The educational system social protection function is given priority in programs for the development of different countries national systems and teachers training for its implementation. Neither natural wealth, nor a favorable territorial location, nor the socio-economic development level achieved, but the potential opportunities of citizens in a dynamically developing event educational community will determine the development state level in future.
Obviously, the non-formal education field development prospects within the continuing teachers training system are related to the state policy coordination in this area at the national level, special strategies development, national laws and public recommendations, programs and projects, models and mechanisms for coordinating non-formal education structures educational activities mostly of public organizations, youth movements and educational networks.
The continuing teachers training should be considered today not only as a space for cultural and historical experience reproduction and traditional norms of culture and education, but first of all, as a mechanism for advancing teacher’s educational needs, a mechanism for mastering new relations between people in the context of constant changes in the surrounding sociocultural environment.
The effectiveness research of teacher’s non-formal education is a priority for solving problems of fully integrating pre-retirement age teachers into the continuing teachers training and retraining system.
The expansion of distance education options can be considered as one of the mechanisms for organizing teacher’s non-formal educational process in his personal interests. An important feature of the non-formal education information space is the development of new students and teachers communication technologies and the conditions creation for overcoming obstacles associated with student’s personal characteristics (failure fear, non-standard situations, reassessment or underestimation of one’s own potential or capabilities, language disunity, territorial distance from national and well-known international cultural centers, etc.).
It must be taken into account that power-sharing between the educational organization divisions and partnership networks building in the field of non-formal education is an important trend in the field of creating conditions for expanding access to education. Partner networks may include the following:
Interstate level: public organizations, youth movements, religious organizations, national academies of education, universities, postgraduate education institutes, ministries.
Individual countries level: educational centers, industries, business structures, cultural institutions, media, self-government bodies.
Local level: educational/cultural/social institutions, local governments, etc.
In the space of lifelong learning there is a tendency to develop partner networks based on the association’s creation, network organizations. The international teacher’s association is also in demand.
The Final Declaration of the 6th UNESCO Adult Education International Conference presents an analysis of one of the approaches approved by the international community to the non-formal adult education development in modern conditions. The Declaration emphasizes that “the necessary conditions for the development of non-formal adult education and its practices are: its attractive nature, taking into account the needs of adults as active citizens, the means of education to develop an independent, autonomous personality, creating and restructuring an adult's life in a difficult and fast changing cultural, social and economic situation - at work, family, social society” (Confintea VI, 2010).
Considerable conditions for non-formal adult education practices effectiveness are corporatism, collectivism, and community. An example of Japanese non-formal corporate education organization should be given in this connection. Japanese national character traditional features are extraordinary diligence, good faith, discipline, and very important - team respect: everyone subordinates personal needs to the goals, interests, and will of the group. One of the Japanese traditions is willingness to sacrifice for the common collective welfare. Japanese companies were organized as production communities, or as Western Europe big family business. Most large Japanese companies, corporations, used to take responsibility for the well-being of workers. Management is strongly encouraged by loyalty to their company. Voluntary overtime work cases are common among Japanese employees. The so-called Japanese "quality clubs" are known all over the world. Rationalizers and inventors mass movement in the interests of the company.
The OECD experts indicate an increased interest in participation of different adult categories in non-formal educational practices in the framework of new professions training, new functions of specialists in various fields of traditional professional activity. Taking into account changing demographic situation, most of the non-formal sphere of education formal educational programs and educational practices in economically developed countries will be actualized by 2050 by adult population. It is estimated that more than 600 million adults will participate in non-formal educational practices (Confintea VI, 2010). However, this trend is not yet a priority in the continuing teacher training field. It should be noted that the active teacher’s cohort includes a significant category of “silver age” teachers who maintain an active lifestyle and pedagogical activity - this category of teachers participating in the continuing teachers training system requires special approach (and practice).
One can identify many approaches to the definition of the term “Practice” by analyzing the conceptual apparatus of the research of continuing teachers training and retraining systems and non-formal education. From the point of view of philosophy, Practice is an expedient and purposeful activity in the person surrounding environment. As a company, Practice is a commercial or industrial enterprise, collaboration of entrepreneurs. Social Practice is a process where a concrete historical subject using public institutions influences the society relations system in such a way that it changes society; while developing itself. Theatre practice is application of knowledge, skills and abilities of a theater actor in the process of staging a performance or performing a specific role that include pantomime, word of art, singing, musical movements, etc. Socio-political practice - activity, accompanied by the development of certain socially useful skills. Industrial practice - professional activity real objects form of training at classes. This is part of the specialist training educational process. Basic institutions examples that translate teacher’s non-formal education practice: religious structures and organizations (community, sect); academic (club); class (library, museum); studio, group (theater, photo); professional practices (advanced training institute design).
The practice effectiveness phenomenon is embedded in social realities. In general, non-formal education can be considered as a combination of effects. The most effective educational practices are those imitating sociocultural ones. Therefore, today it is necessary to search for their sociocultural analogues (including historical ones) (Shatsky et al., 2008). To typify educational practices, it is necessary to connect the practices types with their prototypes (prototype - technical revolution period labor division) and a description of prospects (and effects) of such practice’s development in modern society (prototype - practice - development forecast).
A number of conditions should be laid down to the development and implementation teachers’ educational practices basis. Its combination determines their distinctive features: 1) Professional teaching practices can and should be creative and non-formal in nature and require teacher to apply abilities and interests, to update knowledge, skills and competencies. 2) Pedagogical practice is more effective the more fully its participants are included in productive, socially significant activities. 3) For a full immersion such practices participants must, first, recognize planned work results responsibility and its possible risks. 4) The practice effectiveness is achieved by mastering pedagogically significant situations in group activities (community). 5) Non-formal practice should approach in form, content of activity, intensity to real professional pedagogical activity and the occurrence of non-formal, non-standard situations in it.
One of the effective organizational forms of implementing non-formal practice in the context of additional education in the continuing teacher training institute is conditionally called the immersion method. To facilitate the practice participants orientation to professional activities, their leaders in a free form (for ex. seminar) or in the non-formal communication with teachers’ format, introduce them to the pedagogical activity organization, management structure, and traditionally applicable norms and traditions. Present their idea of the prospects for their improvement in a given educational or public organization, region, country (Okhrimenko et al., 1980). If teacher is aware of the possibilities of group practices with students and can use them in their work, in the future he himself will be able to act as a consultant, methodologist, organizer. He will be able to create adequate conditions for a child/child-adult communities’ development (Yakushkina; 2007).
Already for several decades, mainly methods to enhance the creative activity of specialists involved in various activity types (pedagogy, art, managerial activity, etc.) have been used to create the conditions for conducting non-formal practice both in Russia and abroad (Panteleimonov & Ryzhkov, 1987; Degterev; 2010) The most well-known is Osborn (2011) brainstorming method (the 40s of the XX century) and Gordon (1961) synectic method. According to the authors, these methods are universal. They can be used to solve scientific, technical, organizational and other problems. It should be borne in mind that mental activity is more productive in a new, unfamiliar to person environment (Hill, 1973). The analogy and team leader play leading role here. The T-group technique elements can be used in the work course. The ideas underlying this technique can be successfully used to train professional communication, group and community relationships (Dudchenko; 1981). What such non-formal practice provides to participants is evidenced by the data of expert evaluations and their participants’ self-esteem. 1) During the practice period its participants retain a stable positive motivation for the work performed and responsibility for its results. 2) When organizing a practice using the immersion method, the participants activity, their organization, responsibility sharply increases. The creative possibilities of each are activated. 3) The process of learning creative work group forms is fast, efficient. 4) The proposed working methods actualize knowledge, skills, abilities and competencies received by future teachers at the university and contribute to their practical application. 5) The conditions for the teacher’s citizenship development are created.
Some negative aspects are noted in case immersion method is used (Oleshkov, 2011, p. 74). For example, participants with high level practice requirements achieve results with fewer effects than participants with low requirements. Conflicting group members reduce its creative potential, productivity. Some students and young teachers cannot join the work right away; they don’t meet the deadlines.
Non-formal professional practices can be recommended for future teachers’ active use for their professional development, as well as for experienced in continuing teachers training system teachers.
The innovative model description of the regional continuing teachers training system is the scientific significance of this research results. A significant role of the system is assigned to non-formal educational practices.
The model developed during this research can be tested and used within regional continuing teachers training systems modernization. The model’s users are methodological services and structures that implement continuing teachers training and retraining programs for educational sphere specialists of the Russian Federation at the regional (municipal) level.
The results of the research can be used as educational material in the educational programs implementation for graduate students in pedagogical sciences, as well as for social sphere personnel in the system of continuing teachers training, in production workforce training and retraining system.
The article is prepared in the framework of the State Research Assignment "Modeling a regional system of continuing teachers training in the development conditions of the continuing education space of the Russian Federation", the Federal State Budget Scientific Institution "Institute of Management of the Russian Academy of Education". The author is grateful to Yan Medvedev for his support with the English version of this article.
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18 December 2020
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Yakushkina, M. (2020). Non-Formal Educational Practices As A Driver For Development Of Teacher’s Education Systems. In O. D. Shipunova, & D. S. Bylieva (Eds.), Professional Culture of the Specialist of the Future & Communicative Strategies of Information Society, vol 98. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 462-475). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.12.03.46