The article presents the concept of the regional cultural component implementation within the training system of future teachers of the Russian language. The purpose of the study is to reveal the ways of optimizing this process. In the course of the study, the regionally determined parameters of the teacher’s professional competence were determined – linguistic and region study knowledge and the skills of its educational representation. When using the methods of linguoculturological, contextual, etymological analysis, the types of linguistic units with a rich cultural and historical regional content were revealed – urban toponyms, phraseological units and paroemias, functioning in folk speech. Methods of lexicographic modeling and discursive tactics of educational lexicography were used to create samples of lexicographic local history text, which were used to form regionally determined parameters of students’ professional competence. The novelty of the obtained results is presented in the article by the system of optimal forms of linguistic studies with students in the framework of elective courses and forms of implementation of the knowledge and skills acquired in the course of pedagogical practice. The results of the creative scientific and methodical activity of students in the context of linguistic and regional studies are shown: cognitive local region study texts for schoolchildren and foreign students, dictionary education materials, entertaining tasks of the phraseological quest on regional material. The practical significance of the concept is determined by the universality of the suggested methodical system, and the possibility of its application to the material of absolutely different regions and languages.
Keywords: Culture of the regionprofessional competenceRussian language
The specifics of the vocational training of a philologist teacher to a greater extent than the training of specialists of other educational programs is determined by the socio-cultural situation in the region where the university is located. For many regions of Russia and foreign countries as well, a distinctive feature of the modern stage of social development is the strengthening of migration processes, a change in the ethnic structure of the population. The problems of intercultural communication and national self-identification that arise in this regard are considered by researchers in historical and cultural, socio-philosophical and socio-pedagogical aspects (Khrisanfov & Turygina, 2020; Kuprina et al., 2019; Marfil-Carmona & Ortiz-Cobo, 2019). The concept of regional identity is introduced, based on “spatial and temporal identifications of subjects of multicultural discourse, defining a coordinate system of reality in which there are residents of the given region, as well as a set of thematic identifications, including economic, political, cultural, ethnic, religious, language and others” (Ilyina & Kablukov, 2020, р. 53). In this regard, the sociocultural adaptation of non-native speakers, including foreign students in the communicative space of the region and the educational space of the university, which, as a rule, found the educational process on the basis of the regional competence profile, is particularly relevant. Accordingly, the competency model of a teacher of a regional university is developed, the professional self-identification of Philology students and their awareness of the significance of the personal and professional qualities of a teacher are being studied (Gabidullina et al., 2019). In the system of professional training of Philology students – future teachers of the Russian language in multiethnic classes of schools and groups of foreign students – it is necessary to provide for the formation of regionally determined parameters of their competence, which will allow them to effectively carry out educational and methodical support for the process of linguistic and sociocultural adaptation of foreign students in the region of their studies. The solution to this problem is complicated by the fact that the Russian language textbooks for foreign languages include a sufficient amount of regional geographic material and quite fully represent the image of Russia, as evidenced by the results of their analysis by the imagology method (Eremina, 2019; Dziuba, 2019; Vesnina & Kirilova, 2019), and the development of regional linguistic and cultural materials, as a rule, should be undertaken by a Russian language teacher who also plans and performs work with these materials.
In connection with everything said above, it is extremely important to take into account the cultural and historical specifics of the region in the formation of the professional competence of a Russian language teacher. For the Pskov region, the issue becomes especially urgent, due to its border position, active contacts with the Baltic countries, the development of international cooperation in the field of education, as well as the replenishment of the contingent of foreign-speaking students at the expense of children of migrants from neighboring countries.
The study is supposed to answer the questions: what knowledge and professional skills of a teacher of the Russian language make up the regional component of his professional competence; on what language material it is advisable to form regionally determinate parameters of professional competence of the Russian language teacher and what forms of educational work it is advisable to use.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to identify ways to optimize the process of forming regionally determined parameters of professional competence of a future Russian teacher in the implementation of the linguistic component of teaching.
When working on the research tasks, we use the methods of linguistic analysis and educational representation of language material, including: linguocultural analysis, etymological analysis, component analysis, contextual analysis, lexicographic modeling, discursive tactics of educational lexicography.
As a result of the linguistic and cultural analysis of the language material, we have identified the resources that are most valuable in terms of implementing the regional component of the language training of students specializing in Russian philology. Such language resources turn out to be urban toponymy and folk phraseology. This material was used to frame elective courses and blocks of pedagogical practices aimed at the development of regionally determined parameters of future teacher professional competence. We’ll represent the cultural potential of regionally marked language resources and the forms of working with it in a student audience.
Toponymy of a region as a culturologically valuable material
The concept of implementing a linguo-regional approach in teaching Russian language to students in multi-ethnic classes and foreign students involves the widespread use of toponyms to represent the cultural and historical realities associated with this socially significant material, and, first of all, city place names.
In accordance with this concept, we prepare students specializing in Russian philology to implement this approach when dealing with different groups of pupils. In the course of linguistic training, students specializing in Russian philology get acquainted with the results of linguistic and cultural studies of toponymy in different regions of Russia (Ivanova, 2019; Kaksin, 2019).
Many of the practical study manuals of toponymic material carried out by students are addressed to middle-school pupils – the main contingent that University students will deal with in their professional activities. When creating educational materials, the fact that foreign-language pupils (who arrived in the region for an exchange or moved here for permanent residence with their parents) will also work with these materials – it is especially significant for them to show the cultural and historical background of Pskov city place names. This is carried out due to the thematic lesson structuring on a motivational principle. For instance, to represent the topic “History of Russia (XIII-XIX centuries) in city place names” to schoolchildren, University students prepare material on the streets of
For younger pupils University students have developed the materials for the linguistic and region study Olympiad and recommendations for its organization, referring to the material of toponyms. For the same category of pupils there are educational materials for every lesson, where fictional characters accompany students on walks around the city’s attractions. Each of the five excursion itinerary sheets developed by students is dedicated to getting acquainted with the streets, embankments, squares of the city of Pskov, which names are also associated with the history and culture of Russia: “A walk along the Olginskaya embankment with the guide Barsik”, “Alexander Nevsky Street as viewed by the guide Snezhok” etc.
The itinerary material is grouped into categories that are marked with special graphic icons and include numerous photo illustrations in addition to the text. The first rubric reveals the origin of the street name or other urban object, for example:
The second rubric reveals the former name of the street, if it was renamed, for example:
The Notes provide a reference: *
The third rubric presents the location of the street: the district where it is situated, the streets that it connects. A fragment of the city map is also shown here. Pupils are asked to highlight the considered street on the map with a pencil. The fourth rubric contains information about various culturally significant objects located on this street. Pupils have the opportunity to view photos of these objects, and they imagine themselves as participants of a virtual tour:
The educational materials which are developed for schoolchildren and which represent regional toponymy in the linguistic and cultural aspect, are tested by students in the course of pedagogical practice in schools of Pskov, improving their professional linguistic and regional competence in its linguistic and methodical components.
If we are talking about foreign students, they should learn urban toponymy at the very beginning of the adaptation period in the region during the study of the topic “City and transport” (Vesnina, 2018). However, as already noted, the basic textbooks of Russian as a foreign language for preparatory faculties, with all their methodical elaboration, are not aimed at solving the problems of sociocultural adaptation of foreigners during the first weeks of their stay in the region of their study, which determines the need to develop and include in the educational process a special intensive regionally oriented adaptation course of the Russian language. In Pskov State University Master’s Degree students of “Russian as a Foreign Language” educational program specialization are involved into the development and implementation of such a course. The purpose of the course is to prepare foreign students for real engagement in dialogue with native Russian speakers within a limited set of topics. One of these topics is “The City of Pskov”. In addition to its traditional lexical content students begin to master the topographic space of a particular city.
Therefore, one of the sections of the bridging course is designed as work with a map of Pskov: foreign students, with the help of Master’s Degree students-tutors, learn to pronounce and read the names of the main streets and squares of the city, which they will also find on the front plates of city buildings.
City toponyms with a rich cultural background (
The list of appellative urban vocabulary mastered by foreigners at this stage of adaptation is expanding due to the words
Names with elements of the language game, creolization of the text will require special comment, which is recognized by researchers as one of the main trends in the modern city onomastic nomination (Lokhov, 2020): for example, the name of one of the bars in Pskov, “SKO-BAR”, is based on playing within the colloquial word
Coming back to the adaptive regionally oriented course of the Russian language for foreigners, we note that the conditional speech exercises in the “City” section are combined with the heading
Within the tutoring practice, the importance of which for future teachers is also emphasized by foreign educators (Sirotova & Michvocikova, 2019), Master’s Degree students specializing in Russian philology not only play the role of teachers, strictly following the plan, but also help foreign students solve everyday problems, optimize their integration into the educational the process, knowing it from the perspective of a student and from the perspective of a future teacher. At the same time, we appreciate methodical creativity and the development of experimental models for the representation of linguistic and regional, and linguistic and country study material, which testify to the high level of professional competence of the future teacher of Russian as a foreign language.
Non-native speakers students who speak Russian at the level of A2-B1 and seek to integrate into the Russian-speaking youth society, are particularly interested in unofficial city names, playful transformations of urban place names. Such material is actively developed by onomatologists in linguistic and cultural and sociolinguistic aspects (Klimenko & Ruth, 2018; Kachalkova & Ruth, 2019).
Pskov students, specializing in Russian Philology, are involved in the development of materials for the upcoming linguocultural dictionary of unofficial Pskov toponyms, where the context of the use of these units will reflect the lively speech of local youth, and linguistic and historical commentaries will reveal the motives of the official names of urban objects, their sociocultural significance and the mechanism of the language game, used in the formation of slang urban toponyms. Here are examples of dictionary entries developed by students as part of an elective workshop on lexicography at the Experimental Dictionary Laboratory of the Pskov University and tested on pedagogical practice in groups of foreign 4th year Philology students and in senior classes of a linguistic gymnasium:
Such a dictionary, developed by future teachers of the Russian language as part of the concept of forming a regional component of their professional competence, will be interesting and useful not only to foreign students and high school students, but to other categories of youth, as well as those who work with youth.
Formation of professional competence of a teacher based on regional phraseological material
The linguistic country study and linguistic regional study potential of phraseology can also be realized by a teacher of the Russian language when working with schoolchildren in multi-ethnic classes, and with foreign students studying in Russian universities.
In the system of preparation for this type of activity, we are expanding the professional linguistic and cultural competence of our students as part of the elective courses “Cultural and historical aspects of the educational representation of Russian phraseology” and “Linguistic and cultural and linguistic and regional aspects of educational phraseography”.
Replenishing the luggage of linguistic and historical knowledge, students study the methods of reconstructing the image of the region on the basis of proverbs and sayings (Mokienko, 2018), assess the cognitive potential of paroemias in interregional zones of contact among languages and cultures (Lomakina & Mokienko, 2016). Particular attention is paid to the comparative analysis of ethnoculturally marked phraseological units, which is carried out both on the basis of phraseological analogues (Kuznetsova, 2018), and on the level of single image components of phraseological units (Kuznetsova, 2019). The lexicographic aspects of working with regional and regionally marked phraseological material are also reflected in the training system of the Russian language teacher.
According to our concept, a philologist must not only gain practical skills of usage, but also learn how to write dictionary entries, which will help to improve not only the lexicographic, but also the linguistic and historical component of his professional competence. With this goal, future teachers of the Russian language were involved in working on materials of the forthcoming publication of the “Complete Dictionary of Folk Phraseology”, a large-scale lexicographic project developed by Pskov lexicographers together with scientists from St. Petersburg University. The dictionary will unite phraseological units of different Russian regions and by the amount of material it will have no analogues in Russia (Mokienko & Nikitina, 2018).
In the alphabetic-core part of the dictionary, where phraseological units will be combined into macro-entries under figurative cores, it will be possible to observe differences in phrase-forming activity of these core components and regional features of their associative potential. Students should reflect this regional specificity of expressions in the comments that they learn to develop along with interpretations of phraseological units. So, for a macro entry with the heading FOX, where all-Russian phraseological units are presented, as
The unique figurative cores of phraseological units have also been identified, the functioning of which is explained by regional interlanguage contacts:
Having mastered the ways of semantization and linguistic and region study commentary on phraseological units, students begin to take on linguistic and methodical tasks – working out the educational materials that reveal the ethnocultural and regional cultural background of phraseology in its representation to schoolchildren and foreign students. For senior pupils, a dictionary is composed, titled “Proverbs and sayings of the native land”, designed to attract pupils to the language and culture of the Pskov region. In this dictionary, the Pskov materials most relevant for the current sociocultural situation will be developed at a level appropriate for schoolchildren and selected for the “Complete Dictionary of Folk Phraseology”.
Younger pupils are offered the materials for the phraseological quest in paper variant, which is developed by students as part of the elective course mentioned above. Pupils (also within the framework of pedagogical practice) will be offered itinerary lists representing 10 stages of the cognitive game. At each stage, pupils have to master one of the culturally valuable Russian phraseological units. Mastering a phraseological unit, the quest participant goes through several levels, as in a computer game – the meaning of a phraseological unit, the history of its origin, use in speech. At each level there are interesting text fragments and cognitive tasks. The stages of the quest are united by a plot story – its virtual participants (schoolchildren) gather in the Pushkin Hills, where the mysterious Chief Guardian of Phraseological Secrets invites them to participate in the quest, they meet with the characters of their favorite books and films – experts in phraseology, and, passing the stages of the quest, they pursue the aim – to meet the Chief Guardian of Phraseological Secrets (which then turns out to be a phraseological dictionary).
The regional aspect of the phraseological representation to schoolchildren is enhanced by that the quest action takes place against the background of the culturally significant realities of the Pushkin Hills Museum Reserve and in the Pskov urban sociocultural context. The format of the cognitive game allows to include into the text a large amount of regional and local history information. Here is a fragment of one of the itinerary lists, working with which pupils master a phraseology unit
Well, it rushed in all the shoulder blades (at full speed)! Whoa, Pegasus, here we are! The coachman shouted.
In all the shoulder blades? So this is our phraseological unit!
So, after all, this are the Connoisseurs in phraseology - Sharik-the-dog and Matroskin-the-cat from Prostokvashino! – The coachman-Sharik takes off his hat, and Matroskin jumps out of the travell bag:
Congratulations! – The coachman said. – You have become participants in the stitch-up of “The Riddle of Phraseologism IN ALL THE SHOULDER BLADES”.
Next, the participants of the quest are invited to tell a story about the history of the Pskov hippodrome and the equestrian clubs of Pskov, and then an etymological generalization and the next level of development of phraseology are given.
The methodics for the representation of phraseological units and paroemias against a linguistic and historical background is also being implemented in the developments prepared by Master’s Degree students of the “Russian as a Foreign Language” educational program for their teaching practice. The name of their group linguistic and methodical project is “Proverbs and Sayings in the Stories of Pskov and the Pskovites”. The result of the work will be a selection of texts for regional study reading, where the trigger for the story is a phraseological unit or a proverb.
Here is a fragment of one of these stories:
The use of such regional study texts in the practice of teaching Russian to foreigners allows us to optimize the process of their sociocultural adaptation in the region of study. And the development of such training materials by future teachers of the Russian language is one of the ways of forming their professional competence on phraseological material.
Thus, the research reveals that the regional component of the professional competence of the Russian language teacher is knowledge about the history and culture of the region, which form the cultural background of the language units that the teacher must transmit during the Russian language training to different categories of students – schoolchildren of different age groups and foreign students of different levels of Russian language proficiency. Professional skills, which are also parameters of this competency, include the skills of educational representation of this regional linguistic and region study information (semantization, linguistic and culturological commentary, lexicography and textual representation of regionally labeled language material).
The city’s toponyms have rich linguistic and cultural potential, containing in their motivations information about the culture and history of the region and the country, as well as phraseological units and paroemias that allow interpretation of their origin and functioning against the wide socio-cultural background of the region. Based on the material of urban toponymy and phraseology, regional aspects of the formation of professional competence of future teachers of the Russian language can be successfully implemented.
An effective form of linguistic and methodological training of Russian Philology students for their professional linguistic studies with schoolchildren and foreign students is the development of lexicographic materials of various genres, educational texts and entertaining practical tasks based on toponymy and phraseology. Testing the materials worked out by students in the classroom during pedagogical practice allows checking the effectiveness of educational material and the level of formation of practical regionally-oriented pedagogical skills.
- Dziuba, Е. V. (2019). Kognitivnye strategii prezentatsii obraza Rossii v zarubezhnykh uchebnikakh po russkomu yazyku kak inostrannomu dlya nositeley slavyanskikh yazykov [Cognitive Strategies of Russia’s Image Presentation in Foreign Textbooks in Russian as a Foreign Language for Slavic Languages Speakers]. Philological Class, 1, 75-82. https://doi.org/10.26170/FK19-01-10 [in Rus.]
- Eremina, S. A. (2019). Spetsifika prezentatsii obraza Rossii v uchebnikakh russkogo yazyka kak inostrannogo dlya frankofonov [Specifics of the Presentation of the Image of Russia in Textbooks of Russian as a Foreign Language for Francophones]. Philological Class, 3, 96-94. https://doi.org/10.26170/FK19-03-12 [in Rus.]
- Gabidullina, F. I., Korganbekov, B. S., Makarova, V. F., Zakirov, R. A., & Kayumova, G. F. (2019). Concept «teacher» in language consciousness of students of philological faculty. XLinguae, 12(3), 45-54. https://doi.org/ 10.18355/XL.2019.12.03.04
- Ilyina, O. V., & Kablukov, E. V. (2020). Praktiki konstruirovaniya regional'noy identichnosti v mediadiskurse Tatarstana [Practices of Constructing Regional Identity in the Media Discourse of Tatarstan]. Nauchnyi dialog, 3, 52-66. https://doi.org/ 10.24224/2227-1295-2020-3-52-66 [in Rus.]
- Ivanova, E. E. (2019). Imena osnovateley ural'skoy promyshlennosti na karte Urala [The Names of the Founders of the Ural Industry on the Map of the Urals]. Philological Class, 2, 59-66. https://doi.org/10.26170/FK19-02-07 [in Rus.]
- Kachalkova, Yu. A., & Ruth, M. E. (2019). “Ideologicheskiye” urbanonimy i pereimenovaniye gorodskih obyektov [“Ideological” Urban Place Names and the Renaming of City Streets]. Voprosy onomastiki, 16(3), 179–192. https://doi.org/ 10.15826/vopr_onom.2019.16.3.038 [in Rus.]
- Kaksin, A. D. (2019). Toponimicheskaya sistema kak resurs izucheniya drevney istorii regiona (na primere Khakasii) [Toponymic System as a Resource to Explore the Ancient History of a Region: the Case of Khakassia]. Voprosy onomastiki, 16(1), 213–221. https://doi.org/10.15826/vopr_onom.2019.16.1.012 [in Rus.]
- Khrisanfov, V., & Turygina, N. (2020). Russkaya diaspora v Bolgarii: problemy ucheta migrantov mezhvoennogo period [The Russian Diaspora in Bulgaria: Issues of Migration Registration in the Interwar Period]. Quaestio Rossica, 1, 283-294. https://doi.org/10.15826/qr.2020.1.462 [in Rus.]
- Klimenko, E. N., & Ruth, М. E. (2018). Neofitsial'nye urbanonimy Ekaterinburga v sotsiolingvisticheskom aspekte [Unofficial Urbanonymy of Ekaterinburg: a Sociolinguistic Study]. Voprosy onomastiki, 15(2), 210–222. https://doi.org/ 10.15826/vopr_onom.2018.15.2.022 [in Rus.]
- Kuprina, T. V., Petrikova, A., & Mishenkova, M. (2019). Yazykovye i sotsiokul’turnye problemy uchebnoy migratsii v Rossii i Slovakii (na primere shkol g. Ekaterinburga i g. Preshova) [Linguistic and Socio-Cultural Problems of Educational Migration in Russia and Slovakia (on Example of Schools in Ekaterinburg and Preshov)]. Philological Class, 1, 89-96. https://doi.org/10.26170/FK19-01-12 [in Rus.]
- Kuznetsova, I. V. (2018). Slavyanskie ustoychivye sravneniya s semantikoy ‘ochen' pokhozhi’ na fone drugikh yazykov [Slavic Set Similes with Semantics ‘Very Similar’ Compared to Other Languages]. Studia Slavica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 63(2), 247-256. https://doi.org/10.1556/060.2018.63.2.6 [in Rus.]
- Kuznetsova, I. V. (2019). Orientalizmy-antroponimy v yuzhnoslavyanskikh ustoychivykh sravneniyakh [Oriental Anthroponyms in South Slavic Set Similes]. Studia Slavica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 64(1), 71-83. https://doi.org/ 10/1556/060.2019.64.1.7 [in Rus.]
- Lokhov, S. N. (2020). Piktografemy v ergonimakh g. Irkutska: osnovnye i chastnye funktsii [Pictographemes in the Ergonyms of Irkutsk: General and Specific Functions]. Nauchnyi dialog, 3, 113-126. https://doi.org/ 10.24224/2227-1295-2020-3-113-126 [in Rus.]
- Lomakina, O. V., & Mokienko, V. M. (2016). Poznavatel'nyy potentsial rusinskikh paremiy na fone russkogo i ukrainskogo yazykov [Cognitive Potential of Rusin proverbs Compared with Those in the Russian and Ukrainian Languages]. Rusin, 3, 119-128. https://doi.org/ 10.17223/18572685/45/9 [in Rus.]
- Marfil-Carmona, R., & Ortiz-Cobo, M. (2019). Representacion social y filosofica del inmigrante en los medios de comunicacion. XLinguae, 12(1), 192-206. https://doi.org/ 10.18355/XL.2019.12.01.15
- Mokienko, V. M. (2018). Sibir' v malykh zhanrakh russkogo fol'klora [Siberia in the Small Genres of Russian folklore]. Tomsk State University Journal of Philology, 53, 48–60. https://doi.org/10.17223/19986645/53/4 [in Rus.]
- Mokienko, V. M., & Nikitina, T. G. (2018). K kontseptsii polnogo slovarya narodnoy frazeologii: problemy makrostrukturirovaniya [To the Concept of a Complete Dictionary of Popular Phraseology: Problems of Macrostructuring]. Voprosy leksikografii – Russian Journal of Lexicography, 14, 80-106. https://doi.org/ 10.17223/22274200/14/5 [in Rus.]
- Sirotova, М., & Michvocikova, V. (2019). The importance of supervised practice teaching in university study of university students – future teachers of Slovak and foreign languages. XLinguae, 12(3), 228-239. https://doi.org/ 10.18355/XL.2019.12.03.17
- Vesnina, L. E. (2018). Prepodavanie leksiki russkogo yazyka kak inostrannogo: tema «Gorod i transport» [Teaching Vocabulary to Beginners at the Lessons of Russian as a Foreign Language: Topic «City and Transport»]. Philological Class, 1, 48-54. https://doi.org/10.26710/fk18-01-08 [in Rus.]
- Vesnina, L. E., & Kirilova, I. V. (2019). Obraz Rossii v kitayskikh uchebnykh materialakh po russkomu yazyku kak inostrannomu: aksiologicheskiy aspekt [Image of Russia in Chinese Textbook in Russian as a Foreign Language: Axiological Aspect]. Philological Class, 1, 83-88. https://doi.org/10.26170/FK19-01-11 [in Rus.]
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
About this article
18 December 2020
Print ISBN (optional)
Communication, education, educational equipment, educational technology, computer-aided learning (CAL), Study skills, learning skills, ICT
Cite this article as:
Nikitina, T., & Rogaleva, E. (2020). Regional Aspects In The Professional Competence Formation Of Russian Language Teachers. In O. D. Shipunova, & D. S. Bylieva (Eds.), Professional Culture of the Specialist of the Future & Communicative Strategies of Information Society, vol 98. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 200-211). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.12.03.21