Competency-Based Training Model For Psychological And Pedagogical Support Of Persons With Disabilities


The article describes an approved bachelors' training model in the Special (defectological) education (special psychologists, defectologists, teachers of mentally handicapped children, sign teachers and speech therapists) for professional activities in the field of psychological and pedagogical support for persons with disabilities on the basis of the structural unit of the University Center for the Development of Professional Competencies “Workshop of Special Technologies for Inclusive Education”. The implementation of the proposed model of practice-oriented training of future specialists for persons with hearing and vision impairments, with disorders of the musculoskeletal system and speech, with intellectual disabilities and early childhood autism allowed to increase the level of professional competence of young specialists in the field of psychological and pedagogical diagnostics and correction of deviant development, education and training of persons with disabilities, to gain experience of cooperation and interaction with public organizations of persons with disabilities. The experimental study of motivation for a future professional activity and choice of profession among first-year students showed a lack of understanding of the specialists of psychological and pedagogical support role in the General system of both special and inclusive education. The choice of a future profession in most cases was due to the desire of the parents of freshmen or the advice of friends. The proposed model of practice-oriented training of students involves a gradual immersion in professional activities, which allows not only to improve the quality of academic performance, but also generally trains a competent specialist, competitive and in demand in the market labor.

Keywords: Bachelor trainingcompetenciespsychological and pedagogical support


In the Republic of Bashkortostan over the past five years, there has been a trend towards an increase in the number of persons with disabilities and special health needs. So, for example, on January 1, 2014 their number amounted to more than 300 thousand people, of which more than 14 thousand are children. To date, the number of disabled people from the total population of the republic is 8.0%, more than 74 thousand people with disabilities are registered in Ufa. The number of disabled children has increased markedly: 63 families with two or more disabled children live in the city, as well as 305 families with bedridden children. There is also a trend towards combined complex defects and heterogeneous developmental disabilities, accompanied by a complete lack of speech of organic origin, early childhood autism, and intellectual disability.

Currently, one of the priorities of the state policy in the field of education of persons with disabilities and special health needs is their development, education, training and subsequent socialization on an equal basis with healthy peers in the Russian Federation. A set of strategic tasks related to the development of special and inclusive education has been identified and is being implemented, the need for solving which is determined by the requirements of domestic legislation and international legal instruments ratified by the Russian Federation in this area, in particular the Federal Law “On Education in the Russian Federation” (Federalny zakon…, 2012), Convention on the Rights of the Child (Konvenciya o pravakh rebenka…, 1989), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (Konvenciya o pravakh invalidov…, 2006), State Program “Accessible Environment” (Postanovlenie Pravitelstva RF…, 2011), etc.

At the same time, in connection with developing a system of inclusive education in the Russian Federation, with the expansion of the network of educational institutions, implementing training and education of children with disabilities, increases the need for deep training of specialists of the service of psychological and pedagogical support focused on this population of students, developing and implementing optimal options for their effective training.

In order to implement a practice-oriented approach in the bachelors' Special (defectological) education training, it became necessary to revise the forms of organization of training and independent work of students, bringing them as close as possible to labor actions in a working environment. This in turn served was the creation of the Center for the Development of Professional Competencies “Workshop of Special Technologies for Inclusive Education” on the basis of the University at the Department of Special Pedagogy and Psychology (Amirova & Boronilova, 2018). It identified the need to develop and implement an optimal model of inclusive educational space, a modular diagnostic and didactic-developing environment that allows students to master the necessary special competencies at a practical level for subsequent effective psychological and pedagogical support, training, socialization and professional self-determination of persons with disabilities.

The developed educational and methodological complex of psychological, pedagogical and social rehabilitation of persons with disabilities, taking into account their individual psychophysical differences and the requirements for individualization of the correctional development process, recommendations for the differentiated and effective use of special correctional development technologies and technical alternative teaching aids are widely used in educational process of students. This helps throughout their entire period of study at the University to their maximum inclusion in the working professional environment and the formation of their motivation and necessary competencies in the field of psychological and pedagogical support for persons with special needs in psychophysical and intellectual development, willingness to interact with their families and in general to be in demand, competitive specialist.

Problem Statement

The analysis of the motivational component of freshmen to the chosen specialization showed a lack of understanding of the essence of future professional activity and a low willingness to collaborate with children with special psychophysical and intellectual development during educational practices in the first and second courses.

The assessment of the professional readiness of graduate students showed a fairly good level of theoretical training of bachelors, possession of an arsenal of psychological and pedagogical diagnostic methods and knowledge of special correctional and developing technologies. At the same time, the results of their practical activities in the course of industrial pedagogical and undergraduate practice on the basis of educational institutions of a special and inclusive type indicate some difficulties in analyzing the results of studies of deviant development in people with disabilities, in some cases, with combined disorders, difficulties in determining defect structures, primary and secondary symptoms. Accordingly, graduates had difficulty in selecting the most effective technologies and corrective-developing techniques.

The state of the labor market and high competition in the employment of specialists (Vinogradova, 2014), including services of psychological and pedagogical support, the reluctance of employers to accept graduates with no practical experience in the organization, identified the problem and allowed to determine the subject, purpose and objectives of this study, to develop, test and implement a model of practice-oriented training of students.

Research Questions

The subject of this study was the professional readiness of graduates of Special (defectological) education to carry out psychological and pedagogical support of persons with hearing and vision disorders, with disorders of the musculoskeletal system and speech, with intellectual disabilities and early childhood autism in educational institutions of a special and inclusive type.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was: to strengthen the practical orientation of the preparation of bachelors of Special (defectological) education based on the creation at the department of special pedagogy and psychology of the University of the Center for the development of professional competencies “Workshop of Special Technologies for Inclusive Education” and the organization of a special working environment conducive to the implementation of activity-competent and practice-oriented approaches in the formation of professional competencies as educational of the result in terms of higher education institutions (Konobeeva, 2010).

The tasks of the teachers of the department of special pedagogy and psychology at this Center included:

  • the formation of students' competencies, professional ability and readiness for correctional-diagnostic and correctional-pedagogical activities, in accordance with the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education in the field of training Special (defectological) education of undergraduate level - 44.03.03 (Prikaz Ministerstva obrazovaniya…, 2018);

  • development and testing of new technologies for teaching students, in particular, the design of the educational process from the educational results formulated in the Draft Professional Standard of the Teacher-Defectologist (Proekt Prikaza ministerstva…, 2016), the introduction of a new system of organization and control of students' independent work;

  • internship and improvement of skills for the implementation of the main types of professional activities during the direct psychological and pedagogical support of children, adolescents and adults with hearing, vision, speech, musculoskeletal disorders, mental retardation, mental retardation and early childhood autism.

  • development of cooperation skills with families raising persons with disabilities;

the implementation of vocational training in basic and additional educational programs taking into account the interests of the educational system (Asadullina, 2018).

Research Methods

At the first stage of the experimental study, a survey of first-year students was organized in order to identify the motivation for choosing a profession and ideas about future professional activity, testing of graduates using modular funds of evaluation tools to determine the degree and quality of formation of professional competencies.

The survey involved the choice of Express answer to the following questions:

What determines the choice of future profession?

a) I wanted to help children with developmental disabilities and dreamed of this specialty;

b) friends advised to work in this specialty;

c) parents insisted, arguing the relevance of the specialty in connection with the wide practice of inclusive education.

2. What kind of activity is associated with the future profession?

a) raising children with special needs;

b) with the education of children with special needs;

c) with supporting children with special needs as a tutor;

d) with correctional and developmental assistance to children with developmental disabilities.

3. What do you mean by psychological and pedagogical support?

a) comprehensive diagnosis of deviant development;

b) comprehensive diagnosis and correction of deviant development;

c) support of a child with disabilities at home as a tutor;

d) support of a child with disabilities in an educational organization as a tutor.

4. Where can the specialists of the psychological and pedagogical support of persons with disabilities work?

a) in special educational institutions;

b) in educational institutions of inclusive type

c) in health care institutions;

d) in social protection institutions;

e) in public and private development centers.

5. What category of children, adolescents and adults do specialists of the psychological and pedagogical support service work with?

a) persons with sensory impairments (vision and hearing);

b) with persons with speech disorders;

c) with persons with impaired motor development;

d) persons with intellectual disabilities.

In order to evaluate the formation of professional competencies of graduates, modular evaluation funds was used, which is a complex consisting of test tasks with open-response or closed-choice of the proposed options, a case-task with the definition of the problem field and the solution brought to a situation and a practice-oriented and analytical tasks (Novikova & Krymkova, 2015).

Here is an example of one version of the assessment of professional competence associated with the determination of the potential of persons with disabilities and the use of adapted educational and special correctional programs:

Case-task. Generalized formulation of the task: a child of preschool age with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is included in the preschool group of mass preschool educational institution in the conditions of inclusion. Get acquainted with its characteristics on the basis of psychological and pedagogical examination.

1. General section

1. Basic passport data of the child: Timur Ivanov, 5 years old 3 months.

2. The main complaints of parents: difficulties of education, behavior disorders, developmental delays, speech disorders.

Anamnestic data, results of examination by other specialists: birth Weight-2900 g, height-43 cm, Apgar score 6-7 points, hypoxic-ischemic CNS lesion, F 83 mixed specific disorders. They are consulted and periodically treated by a neurologist.

He visits individual classes of defectologist for the third year, a special (correctional) preschool institution - for the third year (currently attending a preparatory group for children who have delayed psychological development). He works with an ABA therapist for more than six months. The results are positive. Disruption of classes through affective outbreaks ceased, the child is able to study within 45-55 minutes. The child’s communicative abilities have increased: he greets, says goodbye, answers questions, comments on observed situations that aroused his interest, but he rarely takes initiative in communication. The intensity of manifestations of fears and anxiety decreased, and the tolerance to the sounds of technical devices increased.

3. Description of the child’s appearance and behavior during the examination : makes contact, enters into formal speech communication (question – answer), but instructions are not always followed due to lack of understanding of speech, he quickly distracts, in the process of distraction — inadequate laughter, motor disinhibition. Self-care skills are formed (dresses and undresses, fastens and unfastens clothes and shoes, eats, etc.), the sequence of actions in self-care is occasionally broken, and actions can be corrected from the outside by an adult.

4. Formation of regulatory functions: the emotional regulation of behavior and activity is not formed enough; in case of misunderstanding of the instructions - fear, sometimes screaming, crying. Manipulations of actions and behavior of adults (usually mothers) through screams, emotional outbursts, and sometimes physical actions are characteristic. Attempts to introduce a system of incentive rewards in the process of completing a task lead to a positive result.

5. Assessment of the child’s activities at various points of examination and correction, especially the development of cognitive functions: general motility is not impaired, fine motor skills of the fingers are not formed enough, graphomotor skills are lagging behind in development, weakness of lines is observed when drawing - he does not have sufficient age-appropriate action painting, drawing, cutting, etc. manual skills. Draws people, designs them from material for construction (sticks), there have been cases of painting the faces of people in the figure. Understanding of speech is far behind in development and does not correspond to the level of development of active speech: he basically understands monosyllabic instructions, in an unfamiliar situation, when attracting new material, the child needs repetitions, the use of pointing gestures. Active vocabulary is limited and irrational: high-frequency words may be absent, while low-frequency (rare in use) are present. He constructs simple phrases independently and according to the model, and complex sentences with the help of an adult based on questions. Pronunciation is not really bad, especially when pronouncing words with complex structure, prosody is not broken. The level of thinking is visual-figurative, tasks with collapsible toys (visual-effective level of development of thinking) are also easy to perform. In the process of corrective exercises, the level of visual thinking increased, the child from the method of tests is able of visual correlation actions. He has an idea of ​​the color, shape and size of objects, can identify, classify objects according to these signs, with the introduction of two or more signs, attention is disorganized. Functional classification is carried out with the organizing role of the teacher. Initial mathematical representations are not well formed, he distinguishes the concepts of “one - many”, names the total number of collections from 1 to 10, compares subject sets by the number of “more - less”, it is difficult to understand the words “several”, “a little”, etc. , with great pleasure carries out ordinal counting, using both direct and reverse, sometimes even more successfully than quantitative counting, which is a distorted version of the formation of counting skills. Begins to master the actions of solving examples and arithmetic problems within 2-3. Able to accept help in solving intellectual problems, both guiding and educational, practically does not respond to stimulating help, the situation of success by itself is not recognized by the child without material incentives. Compared to other cognitive functions, memory has a relatively developed character, visual memory is better developed than auditory speech, has ability of meaningful memorization with the help of a teacher. Attention requires significant correction: it is often distracted in the classroom, in conditions of even slight emotional arousal, it is not able of focusing attention.

2. Special part

1. Conclusion : the retardation of cognitive activity with a predominant underdevelopment of the components of the emotional regulation of behavior and activity, combined with impaired attention. The development of active speech is ahead of the development of passive (understanding of speech), monologic speech in terms of development exceeds dialogic speech, although the gap between monologic speech and dialogical speech has been narrowing over the past six months.

2. A probabilistic forecast of development: in the context of correctional care, it showed the dynamics of mental development, especially in terms of speech and in terms of the development of regulation of behavior and activity. However, insufficient formation of regulatory functions complicates the process of corrective work. In the conditions of complex (medical, speech therapy, defectological and psychotherapeutic) help in the conditions of a special (correctional) educational institution, further progressive development of the child is possible.

Suggested solutions to the problem

1. Recommendation of the specialists of the AVA center: the child should be included in the preschool group of the mass preschool educational institution in the context of inclusion. In the future, he should plan his schooling in the mass class.

2. Conclusion of the psychological-medical-pedagogical commission: the child should continue to be educated in a preschool correctional educational institution in a group for preschool children with mental retardation with the systematic assistance of a defectologist, speech therapist, and psychologist.

3. The recommendation of the teacher-defectologist who examined the child: further corrective and pedagogical assistance in organized conditions, subsequent training in a class with low occupancy, together with healthy peers with an individual approach.

Key task: develop an individual educational and correctional program for a child for one of the escort specialists (speech therapist, defectologist, teacher-psychologist), taking into account the characteristics of the child and a critical analysis of the proposed solutions to the problem.

Test task option:

1. What is a complex defect (select one answer)?

a) a combination of two or more psychophysical disorders in one child;

b) the defeat of several functions within one system;

c) persistent social maladaptation;

d) lack of ability to perceive information.

Variant of a practice-oriented task: develop a consultation plan for teachers and parents of children with disabilities who are raising or studying in an inclusive environment on the topic: “Ways to integrate a child with complex impairments into the educational environment”.


This experimental study was conducted from the 2016-2017 academic year for three years among full-time students. During the questionnaire, totally 113 first-year students were enrolled who entered the special (defectological) education and 85 graduate students.

The annual analysis of the survey results showed fairly stable results for each year of admission. In general, the choice of a future profession for 61.5% of first-year students was mainly determined by the decision of parents, focusing on the relevance and demand for specialties related to special psychology and pedagogy. 26.5% of students were influenced by the example from their immediate environment, in particular, relatives and friends who already worked in the service of psychological and pedagogical support for people with disabilities. And only 12% of the total number of first-year students had a choice of a profession that was quite conscious, in connection with the objective desire to help children with special psychophysical and intellectual development. This was explained either by the presence of special children in the family, relatives or acquaintances and by the desire to provide targeted assistance, or by the presence of the developmental features of the students themselves, in most cases sensory or motor nature, from mild to moderate severity. When choosing a professional type of activity, all surveyed students represented the future scope of their work in the field of correctional and educational training for people with disabilities, which is generally true. Similar results were recorded on the question of understanding the content of psychological and pedagogical support, i.e. 100% of students associated their future profession with a comprehensive diagnosis and correction of deviant development. However, the students didn’t have an unambiguous view about the place of their future work: 37% of the respondents chose inclusive educational institutions, 30% of the students preferred the choice of work in a special or inclusive education, 17% of the first-year students connected their future profession with healthcare institutions, 10% of students expected to work in public and private development centers and 6% of students related the future profession to work in the field of social assistance. Preferences also were divided in the choice of the category of people with whom the specialists of the psychological and pedagogical support service work, possibly focused on the personal desires of the students themselves. For example, most of them preferred children with speech impairment - 30%, with hearing and visual impairment - 29.5%, fewer respondents chose to work with children with developmental disabilities due to motor and intellectual impairment, in the first case - 22% of students, in the second - 18.5% of freshmen. Thus, it is possible to state an insufficient motivational component for the future profession for the majority of those who entered the training with a fairly good idea and character of professional activity.

During the initial assessment of the formation of professional competencies, graduate students of the 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 academic years took part in the number of 59 students who did not undergo practical training and internships at the Professional Competence Center “Workshop of Special Technologies for Inclusive Education”. The evaluation criteria were developed indicators that are correlated with the levels of graduate competency model formation determined by the points-rating system: increased - from 91 to 100 points, basic - from 71 to 90 points, satisfactory - from 50 to 70 points and insufficient - less than 50 points. In general, an analysis of the results showed the presence of an increased level of professional training in only 18% of graduates. All the tasks presented were carried out using knowledge from a variety of sources, both basic (recommended by the teacher) and additional and in accordance with the methodological requirements, in some cases, a creative approach was noted when modifying correctional and developing technologies. The materials of the presented tasks can be fully recommended for use by teachers and specialists working with children with disabilities. The basic level of developing professional competencies was noted in 51% of students, their answers traced the knowledge gained from literary sources recommended by the teacher in an exemplary educational program, used mainly in the reproductive way of learning and corresponding to methodological requirements. The materials of the tasks completed can partially be used by teachers and specialists working with children with developmental disorder. A satisfactory level of readiness for professional activity was found in 31% of students. When using a small number of sources, the answers generally met the methodological requirements, but there were errors of both informational and methodological nature. The results of the work performed cannot be used by teachers and specialists working with children with disabilities without serious processing.

The results of the study indicated the need to review the classical training of students in the direction of Special (defectological) education. The formation of professional competencies among students only during the production practice provided for by the curriculum (Lingevich, 2016) was not sufficient to develop the maximum readiness for psychological and pedagogical support for persons with disabilities. Strengthening the practical orientation of direct professional orientation should be associated with interactive forms of training (Plotckaya, 2012) and new approaches to the organization of students' independent work. In this regard, at the University, the Department of Special Pedagogy and Psychology in the 2016-2017 academic year created the Competence Development Center “Workshop of Special Technologies for Inclusive Education”, in three classrooms of which a special educational environment was equipped, as close as possible to the productive activity. Zoning and equipment of classrooms with technical teaching aids and didactic materials was carried out according to the principle of a leading defect in development and involved the creation of separate modules aimed at the psychological and pedagogical support of persons with visual, hearing, musculoskeletal and speech disorders, intellectual disability. In the first year, the second year students were included in the experimental training, in the second year - the second and third year students and in the third year - the second to fourth year students.

The main forms of organization of the educational process at the “Workshop of Special Technologies for Inclusive Education” were practical and laboratory classes of teachers with students involving children with special needs, accompanied by parents or their legal representatives, as well as independent individual work of students: performing and practicing exercises and actions to form skills for working with technical teaching aids, accompanying and conducting individual correctional and developing classes with assigned child. Technological operations performed by students at the Competence Development Center suggested:

  • development of diagnostic and training technologies;

  • independent modeling of classes and their elements using correctional-educational and computer technologies, technical teaching aids;

  • conducting individual and group correctional and developmental classes with persons with disabilities;

  • providing support to families in matters of education and training of a disabled child (counseling, development of individual development routes, training in methods of social adaptation and correction of behavior at home).

The implementation of the educational process in a new format, in turn, made it possible to demonstrate to students at a practical level diagnostic and developmental technologies in the process of direct examination and corrective work with children with motor and speech, sensory and intellectual disorders, autism spectrum disorders with subsequent reflection, which makes it possible to assess the formation of a meaningful component of educational activity, operational-activity component of practical activity assessment and reflexive component of professional activity (Sheptenko, 2012), ie .:

  • firstly, to update the existing knowledge of students of an interdisciplinary nature and to identify a problem area for its additional in-depth study in the course of independent work in the framework of theoretical training;

  • secondly, during the monitoring of the diagnosis of persons with various disorders of psychophysical and intellectual development and their various combined options by the teacher, assess the structure of the defect, independently identifying and justifying the primary and secondary impairment of developmental disorders in each individual case, select certain optimal technologies for correctional education and plan for independent work developing the necessary computer and technical training tools, with a view to subsequent the use of alternative means of communication during the direct accompaniment of a particular child;

  • thirdly, to develop an individual developmental route for the child assigned to the student, a program of psychological and pedagogical correction with elements of their own design and technology modifications through the use of computer and technical training tools and, if necessary, to plan the development of additional educational advanced training programs and professional retraining within the framework of various profiles of special education.

Thus, each student had the opportunity to develop his or her own individual educational route (Yastrebov & Tsvetkova, 2014), the path of professional growth and implement it under the supervision of teachers of the department of special pedagogy and psychology on the basis of its existing structural unit of the Competence Development Center. At the “Workshop of Special Technologies of Inclusive Education”, as part of the educational process, in the first half of the day, students studied diagnostic and developing technologies, developed individual correctional and developing routes for children and adolescents with disabilities, whose parents turned to the Center for help. In the framework of independent work in the afternoon, students worked out professional competencies in the course of independent practical activity when conducting correctional-developing individual and subgroup exercises with children with health disabilities of different nosological groups.

At the end of the experimental training, in March 2019, through the modular funds of assessment tools, a procedure was organized for a preliminary assessment of the level of formation of professional competencies in 26 graduate students. The analysis of the results showed the high efficiency of the new form of training in the direction of Special (defectological) education, which is confirmed by the following indicators: the presence of an increased level of professional training was found in 34.5% of graduates, the basic level of developing professional competencies was noted in 58% of students, a satisfactory level of readiness for professional activity was found in 7.5% of students. In addition, among younger students, interest in future professional activities has significantly increased, and current performance has improved.


This technology of competency formation using an activity approach in conditions as close as possible to the real professional environment of a future specialist of the psychological and pedagogical support service for people with developmental disabilities, allows you to get a practice-oriented model of a graduate with high educational and research results, professional potential; motivated by self-education, professional and career growth, which in turn is confirmed by diplomas of basic and additional education, certificates of advanced training and certificates of professional internships on the basis of the Competence Development Center “Workshop of Special Technologies for Inclusive Education”.

The implementation of the project for the special training of the competency model of future specialists of the psychological and pedagogical support service for people with special needs also made it possible to identify relevant and demanded additional areas for training students and practitioners, to use the Competence Development Center as a basis for certification and attestation, organization and conduction of a demo exam.


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Teacher, teacher training, teaching skills, teaching techniques, special education, children with special needs, computer-aided learning (CAL)

Cite this article as:

Mustaeva, E. (2020). Competency-Based Training Model For Psychological And Pedagogical Support Of Persons With Disabilities. In I. Murzina (Ed.), Humanistic Practice in Education in a Postmodern Age, vol 93. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 743-754). European Publisher.