Compound Words (Composites) In German As A Means Ofpersonal Denotation


This study is devoted to a comprehensive analysis of compound words in the German language, used to denotate a person. The complexity of the approach lies in the diverse consideration of this word–formation model: on the one hand, the identification of explicitly expressed lexical and morphological characteristics, on the other hand, the implicit semantic and syntactic relationships revealed during the transformation of composites, as well as the definition of the stylistic register and the mechanisms of their use as part of stable combinations. The productivity of the model allows you to identify certain patterns of their structure, syntax, semantics. As components of compound words, lexemes from differen tparts of speech are used. As a reference word, as a rule, the noun Paradepferd “boaster” appears, thea djective Hinterlistige “insidiousman”, thepronoun Garnichts “dummy” (aboutaman), the participle Erstgeborener “firstborn” areal so found. As a defined word, such parts of speech are used as the verb Schlafmütze “sllepyhead”, the adjective Feigherz “coward”, the noun Geldschneider “wastefulperson”, theadverb Gernegroß “social climber”, the pronoun Alleskönner “jackofalltrades”, the numeral Dreitonner “fatwoman”, the preposition Übertreter "lawbreaker", Neinsagerparticle "nihilist". In terms of the stylistic coloring of the composites, the scale varies from sublime vocabulary to derogatory familiarity. The most frequent are composites with a pejorative connotation: Januskopffam. "two-facedman, "Katzenbucklercoll. “sneak”,Schlaumeier“dodgyman”, Schlaufuchs “cunning” and others. At the heart of the nomination of such complex neoplasms are metaphorical and metonymic transfers.

Keywords: A defined worda reference wordcomposites-denotations of a personcompoundinginternal syntaxonym half-suffix


Compounding in German represents one of the productive word-formation models, which is associated not only with vocabulary, but also with phonetic, grammatical and stylistic patterns of the language system. Currently, there is a clear tendency towards an integrated approach to the study of complex words, including an analysis of the mechanisms of compatibility and distribution, in which the ultimate units of speech activity and expressing reality are the interconnected components of a complex whole unity, namely, syntagma in the broad sense of the term (Vinogradov, 1977).

Problem Statement

The classical direction of the study of complex words is characterized by the study of the nature of the meaning of the word and its structure, typology of meaning, external and internal valency of the lexemes underlying the word, their systemic relationships and the dynamics of the development of the vocabulary of the language. Structural and semantic research in word formation led to the emergence of directions that clarify the cardinal concepts of word composition from the point of view of syntactic, transpositive and nominative processes, "which indicates the deep processes of inter-level interaction of units of the language system" (Muryasov, 1987, p. 24).

Research Questions

In German, compound words, which are formed, as a rule, by merging two or more lexical units into one complex word, are formed as determinative (Determinativkomposita), in other words, they include a reference (main) and defined (subordinate) word or as copulative composites (Kopulativkomposita), in which lexical units are equivalent in the compound word. This study analyzes personal denotation compound words.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to identify the grammatical and semantic features of composites - the names of persons that serve to detonate persons by profession, occupation, characteristics of their activities, actions, preferences, lifestyle.

Research Methods

In the analysis of empirical material in the work are used such methods as component and semantic analysis and the transformation method, which made it possible to identify inherent in the formal structure of the composite names and meaningful features in the composite structure names.


Morphological analysis allows the authors of the article to conclude that the dominant part of speech presented in composites as a supporting element is the noun: Campingreund coll. "lover of caravanning"; There is also a substantiated adjective: Gerneklug coll. "smart ass"; the negative pronoun Garnichtsderog. “empty place” (about a person); Communion Erstgeborener «firstborn».

As defined words in a compound word, a variety of parts of speech is revealed:

- verb - Jammerlappen coll. "crybaby", Schlafmütze "sleepyhead" and others.;

- noun - Korbmacher coll. “basket maker”, Giftzwerg coll. "scandalous man" and others;

- positive adjective - Krankenschwester “nurse”, Krankenbruder “male nurse”, Schwarzfahrer “ree rider”, Freigeist “Freethinker”, Schlaukopf “Dodgy man”, Schlaumeier “dodger”, Langehals “inquisitive man”, etc .; comparative adjective - Besserwisser “know-it-all” and others.;

-adverb - Gleichmacher coll. "leveller" and others.;

-pronoun - Draufgänger coll. “tear-off head”; Herausforderer coll. “contender for the title of champion”; Herumlungerer coll. "parasite" and others.;

-pronoun - Ichmensch "selfish", Alleskönner coll. "jack of all trades", Nichtsnutz rude "wretch" and others;

-numeral - Dreitonner coll. "fat woman" and others.;

-preposition - Durchgänger "truant"; Binnenschiffer coll. "inexperienced sailor" and others;

-particle - Jasager "sneak"; Nichtraucher "non-smoking"; Nichttrinker "non-drinker" et al.;

Separate compound words allow us to talk about the gender component. In particular, the formation of occupational names is very common to indicate the gender of an individual using the suffixes

-er for the masculine and -erin for the female. As a rule, these lexical units are formed from the verb stem and less often from the nominal one, to which the above suffix of the male or female gender joins: Automobil-Serviceberater / Automobil-Serviceberaterin “automobile services consultant”; Buchhalter / Buchhalterin "accountant". A composite can consist of three and four parts: Personalabteilungsleiter “HR

manager”, Jedermannsfreund “a person who makes friends with everyone”, Autoersatzteileverkäufer “auto parts seller”; The expansion of the English language in the world is reflected in the lexical composition of the German language, in particular on the composites: Expresschecker “a smart young man”, Selfmademan “a man who made his way,” Songwriter “songwriter”, Fitnesstrainer “fitness trainer”.

Compound words, as shown by the analyzed material, are either stylistic neutral: Gemüsehändler “vegetables trader”; Bankkaufmann “bank employee”, or stylistically colored lexical units with a positive connotation: Bankherr “bank owner” or with a negative connotation: Gemüsefritze “vegetable shopkeeper”, Bankfritze “bank rat”.

Since the word-formation system of the German language is characterized by high productivity of compounding, this leads to the involvement of onyms in this process, where they can act as a component of a compound word - a semi-suffix. It should be noted that the term “semi-suffix” as a basic element for the production of new complex words is interpreted ambiguously in modern German studies (Stepanova, 1975). In this work, the semi-suffix is understood as a transitional word-building element used, on the one hand, as a full-valued lexical unit in the language system, and on the other hand, as a constituent of the second part of the composite. Compound words with the second components - subjective assessment semi-suffixes - that correlate with personal names, are formed in modern colloquial speech using a single productive model, which can be represented as “producing basis + proper name”. At the same time onym loses the categorical meaning of “male name

/ female name” and acquires the generalizing meaning of “any male person”: Reklameaugust, Werbefritze, Werbeheini neglect. “Adman” (about an advertising specialist); Küchenkarl slang “cook” or “Any female person”: Filmjule neglect. “cinephile” (about a woman projectionist); Gemüseliese neglect. "greengrocer" (about the seller of vegetables); Bürotrine "office rat». Generally, any anthroponym can serve as a basis in colloquial speech for creating a situational education according to this model (Gabdullin, 2017, p. 647).

In colloquial speech, frequency models are used in which the personal name is used in the generalizing meaning of “person”, and the first component characterizes the action of this person, usually with a touch of irony, condemnation, and familiar colloquial coloring (Burkova, 2019): Plapperfritz “talker” (plappern coll. "Chatting"); Dösbarthel "sleep" (dösen coll. "doze off, nod"); Klatschhanne "gossip" (klatschen coll. "gossip"); Prahlhans "Boastful" (prahlen "boast"). In terms of gender, male personal names are used in composites to denotate males: August, Barthel>Bartholomäus, Emil, Friedrich, Fritze, Hannes> Johannes, Heini> Heinrich, Jan> Johannes, Karl, Kasper, Matz> Matthias, Maxe> Maximilian, Michel> Michael, Nickel>Nikolaus, Peter, Philipp, Sepp> Joseph, Steffen> Stephan, Toffel> Christoph; for women

- female personal onyms Anna, Guste> Augusta, Hanne> Johanne, Jette>Henrike, Jule> Julia, Liese> Elisabeth, Lotte> Charlotte, Marie, Resi> Therese, Suse> Susanne, Trine> Katharina (Dictionary of word-building elements of the German language, 2000, pp. 235-242).

As frequency semi-affixes in the composition of compound words Stepanova and Chernyisheva (1962) consider components -mann and -frau. V. Fleischer attributes these word-building components to “young suffixes”, which are highly productive formants (as cited in Stepanova, 1975, p. 55). The French linguist S. Bally emphasizes that the German language does not establish a “clear boundary” between complex and suffix words: many second members of compound word acquire the meaning of a suffix.

In modern German, individual compound words with the -mann component function as family onyms that apply equally to both men and women: Frau Hartmann, Herr Hartmann. However, at the dawn of the formation of the anthroponymic system of the German ethnosocium, they denotated the profession or occupation of a man: Ackermann “landowner”, Zimmermann “carpenter”, Hofmann “courtier”, Schneidermann “tailor” or characterized him: Hartmann “zealous man”, Dünnemann “thin man” , Großmann "tall man", "Kittelmann" "a man constantly wearing a jacket", Stolzmann "proud man». In modern word formation, the semi-suffix -mann is used, as a rule, as a supporting component: Ehemann “Spouse”, Gefolgsmann “follower”, Weltmann “secular man”. Its presence as a defined component allows us to stylistically differentiate lexical units: Mannsbild “Man”; Mannsperson (commonly) "male", Mannsperson fam. "A shrimp of a man". Compound words Froschmann coll. "scuba diver" and Medizinmann "voodoo" (about the doctor) function with a touch of ridicule and irony).

The presence of half-suffixes -mann and -frau forms a binary opposition in the language: masculinity/femininity. When denotating professional affiliation, graduation of the profession by gender is observed (Pereverzeva, 2016, p. 200). For example, the following so-called “male” professions are represented with the -mann component: Feuerwehrmann “fireman”, Seemann “sailor”, Staatsmann “statesman”. The -frau component is found in the following denotations: Hausfrau “housewife”, Kochfrau “woman cook”, Badefrau “midwife”, Putzfrau “cleaner”, Wartefrau “nurse”. It should be noted that in the so-called “male” professions, the noun usually acts as a defined word, while in the “female” professions the verb stem prevails: kochen “cook”, baden “swim”, putzen “clean”, warten “wait” (Küpper,1997, p. 343).

Some compound words with semi-suffixes-mann and -frau can be gender-opposed lexical units: Amtmann - Amtfrau “Mail civil servant - female civil servant”, Geschäftmann – Geschäftfrau “Businessman

– businesswoman”, Hausmann – Hausfrau “male housekeeper – female housekeeper”. It should be noted that some of the compound words do not have a “female equivalent” in Russian, that is, they equally mean

both a woman and a man: Parteimann - Parteifrau “party member”, Staatsmann - Staatsfrau “statesman”; Kameramann - Kamerafrau "operator", Barmann - Bardame "bartender", Hotelfachmann –Hotelfachfrau - "specialist in the hotel business” (Murjazov, 1994, p. 70).

The -frau component is often found as a defined word, for example, to refer to a group of female persons: Frauenherrschaft “matriarchy”, Frauenwelt “women”, Frauenbelegschaft “collective workers”, Frauenvereinigung “female association”. With a negative connotation, composites function in the German language: Frauensleute “womenfolk”, Frauenmensch “sissy”, Frauenzimmer “chicklet”. In colloquial terms, the Hausfrau gender-rephrased unit in relation to a man (from Hausmann is “Homeowner”) Is derogatory (Trempelmann, 1987, p. 33).

The authors of this article note the presence of enantiosemy in individual compound words when two opposite and sometimes mutually exclusive meanings are combined in one complex word-denotation: Expresschecker, Dickbrettbohrer, Blitzbirne “smart - stupid”. In addition, one and the same composite is able to represent different connotations: Kirchendiener "a minister of worship in the church - the holy"; Fliesenleger "wealthy man" - "grabber". Actualization of a particular meaning is revealed in a specific speech situation.

In a slightly different version, this semantic opposite is manifested in the following German compound words: Volksmärchenheld “hero of folk tales” and Bierheld “drunkard, bouncer, bragging”, Gamaschenheld “pedant”, Weiberheld “womanizer, skirt”, Pantoffelheld “henpecked”, Raufheld "drachpecker, brawler, rowdy”, where the connotation of the lexical unit depends on the word being defined (Kukushkina, 2013, p. 107).

In German, compound words are characterized by “the presence of an internal syntax” (Muryasov, 1987), which makes it possible to establish at a deep level the presence of grammatical signs of collateral relations, although both in form and in content they are not completely identical to their free syntactically unfolded transforms: additions express agent attributes, and sentences - actions, processes, states, assessment. By fair remark of L.P. Katlinskaya, “the formula for describing the meaning of a derivative usually comes down to standard syntactic constructions, where significant words are correlated with the meaning of a derivative word and at the same time reflect the nature of real relations between the corresponding objects or phenomena of reality, the names of which are motivationally connected” (Katlinskaya, 1995). The considered compound words in German are “microsyntactic formations” and in their internal structure implicit signs of the morphological trinity “agent-predicate-patient” are revealed (Muryasov, 1987): Tennisspielerjemand, der (Agens) + Tennis (Patiens) + spielt (Prädikat), Wolfjäger, Kulturschaffender, Goldschmied.

The internal syntax of composites is built: 1) on the basis of subject-object relations in which the agent affects patience: Blutspender “donor” - jmd., der/das Blutspendet “the one who donates blood”; 2) based on the circumstantial connection of the components with each other in the sentence: Zaungast “onlooker” - jmd., der hinterdemZaunstehtundzusieht “the one who stands behind the fence and peeps” (Gabdullin, 2017, p. 650);

3)based on attribution: Faultier “lazy person” - faules Tier “lazy beast”.

An internal analysis of German compound words shows that the semantic features of collateral values or other types of syntactic relations are stored in latent form in the surface structure of a compound word. In this regard, Muryasov (1987, 1989). notes that in the nominalization, the agent and patient appear in a syntactically transformed form, and the combination of grammatical and lexical meanings of the generating basis is one of the important design factors that determine the semantic structure of the derived unit.

Speaking about the semantics of the studied composites, it should be emphasized its more complex nature compared to root lexical units. Particularly vivid semantic potential is revealed in the names of persons, where each of the elements of a complex word carries explicitly or implicitly expressed, stylistically diverse information about the subject:

1.Professional activities: Anwaltsgehilfe “assistant lawyer", Balladendichter "author of ballads", Bankfritze coll. “banking rat”, Bartkratzer coll. "hairdresser", Faltenbügler "plastic surgeon”;

2.Occupation: Antiquitätensammler "antique collector", Regierungsheini coll. "bureaucrat (about a government employee)", Kupplungsingenieur coll. “pimp”;

3.Hobby: Bergfex coll. "avid climber", Pistensau coll. "skier", Münzensammler "coin collector»;

4.Age: Milchtüte coll. "tiny tot", Jungtier coll. “teenager, youngster,” Knasterbart "old man", Kindergartenschwänzer coll. "a man who looks young»;

5.Place of birth: Krähwinkler "provincial living in the outback"; Ackerfresse coll. "redneck looking young”;

6.Education: Ackertrolle coll. "bumpkin”;

7.Appearance: Mondgesicht coll. "chubby", Nabelküsser “shorty,” Mückenbein “a man with thin legs,” Dickbauch coll. "paunch", Dreitonner coll. "fat woman”;

8.Intelligence or lack thereof: Expresschecker coll. "smart", Gerneklug coll. "wise guy, know-it- all", Müllgurke coll. “man without fantasy,” Blitzbirne, Durchblickologe coll. "slow-witted”;

9.Special skills: Alleskönner "jack of all trades", Allesbesserwisser coll. "nerd", Arbeitspferd coll. "hard worker", Fachidiot coll. "a fan of his craft," Kolonnenspringer coll. “a driver who often changes lanes when driving»;

10.Temperament: Draufgänger coll. "rip off the head," Autoraser coll. "scorcher”;

11.Verbal and non-verbal reactions to current reality: Affektmensch coll. “emotional person”, Bärbeißer coll. "grumpy man", Brummbär "grumbler", "chatterbox";

12.Physical qualities: Bärhart "strong man (like a bear)", Schlangenmensch "gutta-percha" man";

13.Appearance: Mistfink, Dreckmichel, Dreckpeter "untidy man”;

14.Preferences: Bierfaß coll. “Beer barrel”, Reisemuffel, coll. The Homebody, Bauchdiener coll. "glutton";

15.Financial situation: Bonzenkind coll. "major", Dressmann coll. "alphonse", Freibiergesicht coll. "dependent";

16.Family relationships: Rabeneltern coll. “cruel parents,” Sorgenkind coll. "difficult child";

17.Attitude of society towards the individual: Klassenaugust “clown (in the class)”, Klassenkasper “pea clown (in the class)”, Sündenbock “scapegoat”, Schiessbudenfigur coll. "the man everyone laughs at";

18.Health disability: Taubstummer "deaf and dumb", Stelzbein coll. "disabled person with a prosthesis", Schwerkörperbehinderte coll. "cripple";

19.Quantity (collective nouns): Menschenflut “flow of people”, Rasselbande “noisy company”, Stimmvieh coll. “gray mass of voters”;

20.Attitude to work: Pflastertreter, Lotterbube coll. "idler" (Stepanova, & Fleicher, 1984, p. 148-163).

Compound words expressing the individual's attitude to work occupy a special place in German linguistic culture. Labor in German society has always been praised and considered a source of well-being and affluence in the family. Evidence of this is made by such composites as Arbeitsmensch, Werktätiger, Arbeitspferd, etc. naturally, idleness and parasitism were scorned and reproached, which in turn found expression in the composites: Tagedieb, Eckensteher, Seitensteher, Taugenichts, Nichtsnutz, DaaultullerzFaer, FaulpherckFaer , Gassenläufer. Accordingly, a person leading an idle lifestyle is called Bummelfritze, Bummelheini, Bummelliese, Trödelfritze, Trödelbuxe, Nolsuse.

Compound words are also differentiated according to the type of activity performed by the individual. In particular, the constituents -macher / -hersteller “manufacturer, producer” are used to denotate persons performing physical work: Handschuhmacher “manufacturer of shoes”, Bogenmacher “gunsmith making bows”; Bürstenmacher “manufacturer of brushes”, Spielzeughersteller “manufacturer of toys”; Betonsteinhersteller “concrete maker”, Terrazzohersteller “mosaic floor maker”. In turn, the - fachangestellter component in the compound word speaks of a specialist, employee, employee engaged in non-physical labor in a specific industry (accountants, secretaries, engineers, representatives of the trade and services sectors): Justizfachangestellter “justice specialist”; Notarfachangestellter "notary public servant, notary assistant».

From the point of view of the completeness of the information about the denotated person provided in the structure of the composite, for example, Positivdenker “optimistic person”, and accordingly to “transparency” meanings endocentric and exocentric word formations are distinguished. The analphabetic notation of the person in endocomposites is presented explicitly (Kukushkina, 2013).

Exocentric compound words are idiomatic and do not contain a direct indication of the object of the nomination and its quality. This is because the total value of the composite is not derived from the sum of the values of its constituent elements. A new meaning arises as a result of a semantic shift, the main mechanisms of which are metaphorical and metonymic rethinking.

The basis of the metaphorical nomination for personal denotation is either the external and internal similarity of denotates, or similarity in function, for example: Bierfass “beer barrel”, Bockwurst “old grunt”, Elefantenbaby “child is big beyound his age”, Faschingsnarr “masked man”; Herdenmensch “herd animal” (about man), Fuchsblender “sneak”, Gehirnamputierter “brainless fool”; Tellertaxi “waiter”, Kräuterstreichler “active conservationist”, Phrasendrescher “dreamer, idle talk”, Begrüβungsaugust “chef”, Dachdecker “psychologist”, Datenpirat “hacker”, Faltenbügler “plastic surgeon”, Fliegenfänger "velcro" (about a man).

The names of people based on metonymic transfer are represented by the following types of synecdoche:

-“Man/part of the body”: Trotzkopf “stubborn beggar; stubborn woman", Babbelmaul "chatterbox";

-“Man/piece of clothing”: Geizkragen “mingy”;

-“Man/instrument”: Küchenbesen “cook”, Flintenweib “woman fighter”.

There is also a bahuvrihi, where the dominant sign of the denotation becomes its distinguishing sign: Kahlkopf “bald”, Mandelauge “scary woman with almond-shaped eyes”, Bleifuß “lover of fast driving”, Dickbauch “belly”.

The case of combining/mixing metonymy and metaphor seems interesting. In such atroponominants, the defined word is expressed by somatism, and the determinative is responsible for its characteristic by the associative-semantic correlation of similarities: Hasenherz - hare + heart - heart like a hare - coward, like Flattergeist “shatter brain”, Blitzbirne “slow-witted”.

As you know, the use of metaphorization and metonymization in composite formation is one of the methods of indirect nomination. First of all, with the help of a metaphor, there are synonyms of a

temporary (stylistic, poetic) or long-term nature (as a result of lexical-semantic word formation). In the first case, metaphorical transformation serves to create new basic concepts; in the second, a number of synonyms arise that serve as a substitute or refinement. These words are evaluative in nature, express the speaker's attitude to denotatus. (Pereverzeva, 2016). Most of the analyzed exocentric composites belong to them due to their axiological and expressiveness. Three groups of units can be distinguished here: 1) denotations with a positive connotation; 2) composites with a negative assessment of the called person; 3) neutral color composites.

1)The first group includes the names of individuals according to their characteristics of the mind: Expresschecker “smart young man”, physical properties and skills of the Bärhart individual “strong man”, etc.

2)The second group of anthroponominants with a negative connotation, as mentioned above, is the largest. They carry in themselves a condescending, ironic and often derogatory attitude to the denotated person, to his shortcomings and vices. Even quite harmless aspects of a person’s lifestyle are criticized or ridiculed, for example, a hobby: Badefrosch “a frog, a lover of bathing or swimming”, Pistensau “a skier”.

In the lexical-semantic field of a person formally represented by compound words, complex formations are frequent that negatively and pejoratively characterize:

-excessive talkativeness, verbosity: Faselhans, Faselheini, Faselmichel, Faselbruder, Flennliese, Schwabbelliese, Schwatzliese, Quasselschwester, Klatschbruder, Klatschfritze, Klatschtante, Flüsterlotte, Wasch;

-slander and hatred of anyone: Lästermann, Schandmaul, Lügemaul, Geifermaul;

-idle lifestyle: Lebenmann;

-employees of various institutions: Bürohengst, Paragraphenhengst, Schreibstubenhengst, Büromensch, Büromichel "paper-pusher";

-fear: Angstseele, Angsthase, Angstliese;

-greed and stinginess: Krämerseele “small-minded person”;

-excessively cheerful disposition or sad state: Lachmarie, Lachpeter, Tränentrine, Heultrine, Heulsuse;

-excessive addiction to anything: Blumennarr “passionate lover of flowers”, Kleidernarr “fashionist”, Musiknarr “melomaniac”, Weibernarr “womanizer”, etc.

It should be emphasized that modern composite neoplasms reflect events relevant to German linguistic culture, processes, for example, their relation to the nature of Naturfrevel “vandal”, Naturfreund, Naturliebhaber coll. "nature-loving", Kräuterstreichler coll. "An active tree-hugger". In addition, the semantic analysis shows a negative assessment of the phenomena that contradicts the traditional concept of the German ethnosocium, for example, about cleanliness and accuracy: Mistbolzen “slut”, Mistfink “untidy man”, Schmierlapp, Dreckspatz “dirty”, Felleule “girl with greasy hair ", Landpomeranze "a sloppy Meg".

3)The third group of compound words, neutral in terms of assessment value, includes many denotations of representatives of the professions - Anwaltsgehilfe “legal assistant”. Nevertheless, frequency colloquial compound words containing a negative assessment of a representative of one or another kind of activity, for example, Bankfritze “bank rat”, Regierungsheini “pen-pusher" (about a government employee) are satisfied. An interesting example is from youth jargon, which is a euphemistic denotation of the type of occupation condemned by society: Kupplungsingenieur “pander, pimp”.

In connection with the idiomatic nature of exocentric name compound words, especially colloquial ones, we cannot but speak of another group of complex words. They relate to the phraseology of the German language. Many rethought compound words are used:

1)as independent idiomatized units: Grünsnabel (lit. green beak) “yellow-green / young-green chick”, about an inexperienced young man, Bücherwurm “bookworm”, about a person who likes to read, Glückspilz (lit. happy mushroom) “lucky man, fortunate soul", (lit. resin + bird) "loser", Zierpuppe "muslin lady, impatient" (Zoidze, 2017, p. 94). Unlike exocentrics, which are stylistically colored synonyms of various concepts, these composites act as independent generally accepted figurative denotations of persons, in Russian they correspond to phraseological units with a phrase structure. Scientists do not yet have a single opinion on the status of these units but depending on the level of rethinking (towards the full) of both components in the composition of a complex word, proposals are made to consolidate them as lexical token idioms (Zoidze, 2016, p. 86).

2)as a part of phraseological units:

а) in combination with the adjective: einelangeBohnenstange "bean-pole" (lanky thin man), eindunklerEhrenmann "fraudster, crook, swindler; a bad egg”, einejungeEvastochter "a young flirty woman, anenchantress”, einrichtigesReibeisen "a real nagger”(about a grumpy woman), wandelndesFragezeichen -“ a person who does not have a desire to work hard, always asks the others how and what to do”;

a)in phraseological combinations in combination with the verb: den Bärenführerspielen “to be a leader, a ringleader”, den Hanswurstspielen “to play the fool; pretend to be a fool’;

b)as part of comparative phraseological units: wieeinBierkutscherfluchen “curse like a sailor”, wieeinScheunendrescheressen “to eat like there's no tomorrow”.

In the first group, compound words in the aggregate phraseological meaning fulfill the function of naming a person, in the second and third are constituents denoting an individual.


In the process of nomination, when evaluating the signified, as a rule, the combined action of thought and feeling is observed, since a person is an emotional being, able to create and modify a language, which is most clearly manifested in colloquial speech. The desire of the naming person to highlight and intensify the evaluative content of the language tool, attract the attention of the interlocutor and thereby have a pragmatic effect on him, leads to the fact that in colloquial speech expressiveness acquires special significance and becomes dominant (Burkova, 2017). The motive of the nomination may not always be obvious, it may not be understood by an outsider, it may be forgotten, erased, however, the internal form is the core of expressiveness. The morphological, syntactic, and semantic originality of the composite denoting the person depends on the degree of motivation of the composite value, while the significance of the determined and supporting constituents is motivationally inverse relationship. A comprehensive study conducted by the authors of this article makes a significant contribution to the further development of semantic research within the framework of word formation, to the study of the problems of internal and external valency of complex words, the syntagmatic functioning of additions.


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Burkova, T., Gabdullin, S., Galieva, G., & Minnigaleeva, A. (2020). Compound Words (Composites) In German As A Means Ofpersonal Denotation. In I. Murzina (Ed.), Humanistic Practice in Education in a Postmodern Age, vol 93. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 282-292). European Publisher.