Psychological And Pedagogical Follow-Up For Prospective Educators Aiming At Their Willingness’ Formation
The present paper is devoted to the issues of educators’ willingness to interact effectively with preschool children. The authors clarify such concepts as ‘psychological-and-pedagogical follow-up’, ‘willingness to effectively interact with preschool children’. The authors provide the original definition to the given concepts, examine basic structural components of willingness, explain its significance while performing professional activities. The study submitted is required to understand the process of formation of willingness of prospective educators to establish effective interaction with preschool children. The paper demonstrates the content and the findings of the study performed by the undergraduates before and after implementing the program of psychological and pedagogical follow-up for prospective educators aiming at formation of their willingness to establish effective interaction with children. The study was conducted by the students whose major is ‘Preschool education’. The authors attempt to validate the findings of the study. They have determined the conditions necessary for psychological and pedagogical follow-up aiming at formation of willingness of prospective educators. As a methodical basis for psychological-and-pedagogical follow-up implementation, practice-oriented approach has been chosen. The authors presume that psychological -and-pedagogical follow-up of students within the educational process will help to increase the progress and quality of an educator’s profession mastering. The authors presume that psychological -and-pedagogical follow-up of students within the educational process will help the students to prepare for effective interaction with children.
Keywords: Prospectivepsychological and pedagogical follow-upwillingness
The present stage of society development is connected with changing requirements for the quality of prospective educators’ training. Such a training is aimed at mastering modern teaching techniques, methods of self-knowledge, self-evolution and professional growth, which helps to apply an unconventional practice-oriented approach to the training of prospective educators.
Nowadays there is a major problem of training specialists who possess a particular set of methods helping to establish an effective communication with a child, which exists in the system of preschool education. Preschool education regulatory documents contain a growing number of requirements for performing professional activities by an educator working with preschool children.
The occupational standard, which is called ‘Educator’ (teaching activities in the field of preschool education) contains a job function aiming at organizing an effective interaction of children while performing various types of activities, establishing of favourable conditions for children’s free choice of a type of activity, participants of a joint activity and items (Amirova, Boronilova, Mustayev, Mustayeva, & Shayakhmetov, 2018).
The Federal State Educational Standard for preschool education emphasizes the ability to approach each child, to respect their personality and be able to assess their abilities. The Federal Law ‘On Education in the Russian Federation’ requires the use of a unified approach to training of a prospective educator. The analysis of there gulatory documents setting the requirements for a preschool educator lead us to the conclusion that, on the one hand, the significance and relevance of the role of educators is emphasized. On the other hand, the mechanisms of formation of methods to establish effective interaction with children in prospective educators are inadequately treated. The formation of willingness to interact with children effectively is particularly important for preschool education as preschool childhood is considered to be the most ‘sensitive’ period in a child’s development (Batarshev, 2015).
The psychological and pedagogical studies represented in the works of many scholars consider the problem of interaction between an educator and a child. The practical substantiation is given in the works by the scholars, who are considered from the point of view of modification of children’s aggressive behavior and are thought to be a tool of interaction between an educator and pupils. The functions of professional pedagogical interaction and the possibilities of professional training within the process of interaction with a child are considered in the studies by other scholars too. The effective interaction with children through empathy also is reflected in the works of other scientists.
The analysis of the approaches to the study of effective interaction in psychological and pedagogical studies mentioned above has shown that the interest to the formation of an educator’s personality and their professional training has increased recently. However, the number of special studies devoted to the issue of creating conditions for psychological and pedagogical follow-upwhile forming the prospective educators’ willingness to effectively interact with children in the process of educational activities are insufficient.
Nowadays there is an obvious
The essence of this contraction has helped us to define the problem of the study: what kind of psychological and pedagogical follow-up on formation of prospective preschool educators’ willingness to interact with a child effectively is necessary? (Boronilova, 2016)
The problem of psychological and pedagogical follow-up on formation of a prospective educator’s willingness is widely represented in modern studies. They are the psychological and pedagogical follow-up of a prospective educator within the process of professional training (Novoselova, 2007); the psychological and pedagogical follow-up of a prospective educator within the process of further education (Belyakova, 2012); the use of competency-based approach in the activities of research laboratory of the preschool educational science department of M. Akmullah BSPU (Syrtlanova & Valeyeva, 2013).
The essence of the process of psychological and pedagogical follow-up of a prospective educator was specified in accordance with research field of the scholars of the Republic of Bashkortostan: The process of prospective educators’ professional training in the educational centers ‘school-kindergarten’ (Boronilova, 2016); the competence development in the system of higher education (Boronilova, 2016); multicultural focus of preschool education (Syrtlanova, 2018); the use of an expert and methodical competence center and an independent assessment and certification system for preschool educators (Boronilova, 2016; Shabayeva, 2016) and many others.
Within the process of a professional training in the system of preschool education the problem of formation of prospective educators’ willingness to professional development is of particular significance: the analysis of conditions for professional mindset formation in prospective preschool educators; professional training of prospective preschool educators (Taraskina, 1999a,b); the formation ofa prospective preschool educator’s mental set for professional interaction with a psychologist (Chikova, 2009).
Another fact which is quite important is that most of the scholars emphasize the idea of human resources formation for the educational process as an absolute priority of higher education. It is the training of prospective educators which lacks the sufficient preparation of specialists for their future professional activities. Unfortunately, prospective preschool educators don’t get enough training to master their professional skills: to be able to play and communicate with a child, cooperate with parents, to work on the problems of a family as a personal microenvironment for a child’s development. The essence of conditions for psychological and pedagogical follow-upofprospective educators’ willingness to establish effective interaction with a child is not revealed well enough.
The analysis of the preschool education studies has helped to plan the work in the field of training of prospective educators to cooperate with preschool children effectively in three stages: diagnostic, analytical, practice-oriented.
The study focuses on the conditions for psychological and pedagogical follow-up on formation of prospective educators’ willingness to interact with preschool children effectively. The subject of the study includes the analysis of such concepts as ‘psychological and pedagogical follow-up’ and ‘willingness to effective interaction’ (Amirova et al., 2018, p.15).
The concept ‘psychological and pedagogical follow-up’ of students in an up-to-date university can be considered as specially organized activities, which train the students to interact with children effectively through dealing with professional cases. This way prospective preschool educators learn to establish effective interaction with pupils and develop such professional competences as: the ability to use the resources of the educational environment to achieve personal, metadisciplinary and disciplinary results of education; willingness to interact with the participants of the educational process; the ability to perform pedagogical follow-up of social involvement and professional identity of pupils.
Thus, psychological and pedagogical follow-up on formation of prospective educators’ willingness for effective interaction at the university manifests itself as an interaction between university teachers and students with the help of support, motivation and help. This way students develop their pedagogical knowledge and skills which are necessary to interact with children.
Within the process of psychological and pedagogical follow-up inner and outer constituents of psychological and pedagogical follow-up are integrated. The inner one implements the development of pedagogical and personal qualities of a prospective educator, while the outer one includes the conditions for psychological and pedagogical follow-up on formation of prospective educators’ willingness for effective interaction with children.
Having analyzed all the ideas mentioned above, we suppose that psychological and pedagogical follow-up on formation of prospective educators’ willingness for effective interaction with children is a consistent, regular formation of and development of pedagogical experience as well as psychological and pedagogical personal qualities of a prospective preschool educator.
We have defined the prospective educators’ willingness to effectively interact with pupils as a basic condition for performing of a deliberate activity, which is aimed at development of intellectual and cognitive sides of a student’s personality.
Many studies define the willingness as a professionally important quality of a student’s personality; the combination of personal qualities, vocational aptitude of a prospective preschool educator; a component of effective performance (Miniyarov & Zudilina, 2011); the process of competence formation, the final stage of a training process (Zimnyaya, 2003).
We presume that the willingness for effective interaction with pupils should not have clear dividing lines of cooperation and co-creation with them. It should be aimed at stimulating motivation, extending pedagogical knowledge, practice-oriented skills of prospective educators, which will help them to develop skills of effective interaction with children (Batarshev, 2015).
The essence of the willingness for effective interaction with pupils can be observed through clarifying the following structural components: emotional-and-motivational; cognitive; volitional.
The emotional-and-motivational component includes professional qualities determining the attitude to professional activities, understanding and acceptance of tasks and goals of professional activities (Mazeina, 2014). The cognitive component involves knowledge, skills, necessary for performance of professional activities, the qualities which provide perception, processing and storage of the information necessary to perform professional activities. The volitional component provides planning, monitoring and assessment of their own professional activities.
The theoretical analysis of the essence of the components of the study subject has helped to formulate the following definition. The psychological and pedagogical follow-up on formation of prospective educators’ willingness is a complex of activities aimed at creation of conditions for formation of prospective educators’ willingness for effective interaction with children.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to evolve a program of psychological and pedagogical follow-up on formation of prospective educators’ willingness for effective interaction with preschool children.
The study was put into practice on the basis of the Competence development center named ‘Child Development Center Kotoff Kids’ (hereinafter, CDC CDC ‘Kotoff Kids’). CDC CDC ‘Kotoff Kids’ was established at the Preschool education science and psychology department of M. Akmullah Bashkir State Pedagogical University. The goal of the center is the development of professional competences of undergraduate and graduate students in conditions of the working environment and immediate interaction with preschool children. This work was performed within the students’ individual work days and involved lectures, tutorials and skill building sessions with the students.
The purpose of the study has defined the following tasks:
-to run a diagnostics to detect the level of students’ willingness for effective interaction with children;
-to provide conditions for psychological and pedagogical follow-up on formation of the students’ willingness on the basis of CDC CDC ‘Kotoff Kids’.
-to conduct quantitative and qualitative examination of the results after implementing the program of work.
To achieve the stated purpose the following research methods have been applied: testing, analysis, integration, an educational experiment. The methods employed were used in accordance with the succession of research stages. While conducting the research we also compared the test data (interpretations) as relating to the subject of research.
The experimental research on the problem of psychological and pedagogical follow-up on formation of prospective educators’ willingness for effective interaction with a child was divided into three stages. The purpose of the first stage was to detect the level of students’ willingness for effective interaction with children. The research was conducted among 49 full-time students (from the first up to the fourth year of study), whose major is Preschool education. To detect the level of emotional-and-motivational component a personality questionnaire was used. There are five factors in the questionnaire (extraversion-introversion; attachment-detachment; self-control, self-abandonment; emotional stability-emotional instability; expressiveness-pragmatism). The results according to all the factors are high level.
According to the factor extraversion-introversion 16 (33%) of the students under test are sociable, easygoing and optimistic. They are quick-tempered and aggressively inclined. While working they are mostly focused on the speed of tasks performance, prefer to work with people, are able to extract the information from their memory quicker, are better at performing tasks under time pressure.
According to the factor attachment-detachment high results shown by the students 38 (78%) demonstrate their positive attitude to people. Such people need to interact with other people. They are kind, responsive, they can understand other people’s feelings well, feel their personal responsibility for other’ people’s well-being, are tolerant to other people’s imperfections. Such people are usually held in respect in the group.
Only 2 people (4%) of all the students had low results which demonstrates that they want to be independent and self-sufficient. Such people are inclined to keeping the distance, to treat other people indifferently. They usually can’t understand people they communicate with.
According to the factor self-control-self-abandonment the students have shown top results, which is 31 students (63%). The main component of this factor is a volitional regulation of behaviour. The most important values here are such features of a personality as conscientiousness, responsibility, binding nature, accuracy and orderliness in business. Such people follow moral standards, do not violate generally accepted norms of behavior in society.
According to the factor emotional stability-emotional instability 33 students (67%) have shown high results. These are usually people who are unable to control their emotions and impulsive behavior. Their self-esteem is usually quite law. Their behavior commonly depends on the situation.
For this category of students, the program of psychological and pedagogical follow-up involved methods and forms of work aimed at formation of emotional stability.
According to the fifth factor, which is expressiveness-pragmatism the students have shown a high level – 39 students (80%). Those who have shown high results according to this factor satisfy their curiosity by showing interest to various aspects of life and are easily teachable.
To detect the level of the cognitive component development, the test developed by Liri was used. This is the test of ‘The subject’s representations about himself/herself based on three aspects: ‘real ‘I’, ‘ideal ‘I’, ‘I’ as a prospective educator’. The top level of ‘real ‘I’ position was represented by the ‘Incredulous and skeptical’ type (20%). Judgments and actions of this style are realistic. Their personal characteristics are detachment, restraint, affirmations rigidity, critical mindedness to other people’s opinions, discontent with their position in the microgroup, suspiciousness, hypersensitivity to criticism.
The highest result for ‘ideal ‘I’ position was represented in the ‘Independent-dominating’ sector (18%). This position is characterized by independence, authority, lack of flexibility, rivalry.
‘I’ as a prospective educator’ position has the top results for ‘Independent-dominating’ (20%) and ‘Responsible-benevolent’ (20%) types. The second type of interpersonal relations demonstrates a high level of willingness to help other people, lofty sense of responsibility. Such people are sociable, benevolent, try to perform activities useful for all people; show mercy, are inclined to charity, have a missionary personality.
Thus, summing up all the results represented above, we can conclude that the students under test are not unanimous in their concept of an educator’s image. Each person adduces judgements based on the image they have in their mind, conditions of their upbringing, life experience, awareness of the essence of the profession and the requirements applied to it. The professional image of a preschool educator reflects the awareness of a student of their prospective occupation image. The image of a preschool educator includes the values, personal traits, the meaning of educational activities, interaction with children and a specific mindset of an educator. The image of a preschool educator is an inner criterion of a student’s personality development.
The emotional component of willingness to perform professional activities was determined with the help of Buss-Durkee hostility inventory. The most strongly marked reaction was negation. Its average value was 2.9 points out of 5 maximum possible; feeling of guilt is estimated at 5.9 points out of 9 maximum possible; verbal hostility is estimated at 7.6 points out of 13 maximum possible. The index of total hostility with average 17.4 points is within the limits of standard, which is 21±4. The average value according to physical aggression reaction is 5.3 points out of 10 maximum possible, displaced aggression is estimated at 4.4 points out of 9, annoyance – 5.6 points out of 11, offence – 3.6 out of 8 and suspiciousness – 6.5 out of 12.
Thus, having conducted the research described above we have found out that this group of students under test is not inclined to hostile acts. However, the average value of hostility index, which exceeds the standard by 0.1 points, demonstrates the tendency to showing of such kinds of responses as suspiciousness and offence.
To estimate the level of volitional willingness biofeedback training (volitional stability level detection) was implemented. Biofeedback training was used in order to increase mental stability, emotional stability, to overcome internal tension.
After the analysis of the obtained research results of detection of the level of prospective educators’ willingness for effective interaction with preschool children, the program of psychological and pedagogical follow-up on formation of students’ willingness for effective interaction with children has been developed. This was the purpose of the second stage of our research. The program developed provides conditions for psychological and pedagogical follow-up of each component of willingness for effective interaction with children and was accomplished in three stages.
The first theoretical stage implicates lectures with the use of interactive methods (problem, with data visualization and others). The second stage which was practice-oriented was accomplished under the following conditions:
1.Development and testing of training programs. The use of training sessions in education helps to form practical skills and techniques, develop personal qualities, form the methods of contacting a child. The personal interaction with an educator is considered as a tool of personal support and contributes to self-understanding development.
2.Supervision as the condition for professional skills improvement. During the process of supervision students acquire new techniques, methods ways of work with children, get an opportunity to experiment with the skills acquired and styles of behavior. As the result of it, students learn how to assess their professional resources, use positions within the interaction with preschool children.
3.Quasi professional activity as a teaching model of a role behavior, which corresponds to professional positions and values of a prospective preschool educator.
The use of various types of quasi professional activities (training sessions, in the process of teaching, business simulation games, self-survey lesson, project planning, events simulating) helps to transform to professional activities in real-life conditions.
Quasi professional activities detect the degree of a student’s conformity with professional requirements, the degree of willingness to effectively interact with a child. Thus, studying the professional distinctiveness, students transform from learning to professional activities and understand their degree of compliance with professional requirements and of professional responsibility of a prospective specialist.
The psychological and pedagogical conditions for follow-up of the willingness of a prospective educator to effectively interact with children that we have determined become the basis of a professional training. It is possible when the process of training is properly organized, when a positive attitude to prospective professional activities with obligatory mastering of professional knowledge and skills is developed, when professional problems, which can be faced at the stage of a preschool educator’s professional activities formation, are reconsidered and analyzed.
The third stage of the program involves the students’ independent work during their interaction with children in the role of an educator. The interaction with children in various types of activities is of a particular significance in the process of willingness formation. At the same time the university teachers serve as a role model for a prospective preschool educator. This way, on the one hand, they perform their professional function and, on the other hand, they act as a source of information which helps to perform educational activities in a group of children.
The environment where the student is functioning specifies their activities in the process of educational experience acquirement as it is closely connected with effective interaction with a group if children. It is obvious that the progress of psychological and pedagogical follow-up on formation of prospective educators’ willingness for effective interaction with children is determined by the possibilities of the system of vocational education. It is possible to organize such educational activities if teachers, students of the given years of study and preschool children as the subjects of education will be included into these activities.
The purpose of the third stage of our research is quantitative and qualitative examination of the results of a repeated diagnostics. Having compared the results after the work in CDC CDC ‘Kotoff Kids’ we noticed that the results have shifted to a higher level.
For instance, the higher degree of emotional stability a prospective educator possess, the higher his self-assessed degree of sociability, self-consciousness and the more they appreciate such quality as an intellect which is important for their future profession.
This result can be explained by the fact that prospective educators of this type appreciate the profession they have chosen and think that the main outcome of the study at the university is a conscious attitude to their prospective professional activities.
For instance, an extrovert type of personality appreciates openness, the quality which is necessary to interact with children (the results shift by 11%).
Emotional stability; self-assessment of real professional qualities (self-assessment of developed qualities) are important for an introvert type. They highly appreciate such indicators as their health condition, reflexive and tolerant capabilities. They consider emotional sensitivity to be an indispensable quality in an educator’s professional activities. It can be explained by characteristic features if this type. Such people are usually shy, self-conscious, cautious.
A detached type (they are in the minority of 4%) do not want to listen to others, they are reserved and indifferent to other people. Their activities are aimed at satisfaction of their own needs.
A high level of attachment (the shift by 20%) demonstrates that a student under test is a positive, sociable and cheerful person. Such people can experience a variety of colourful emotions, they are easygoing and ready to cooperate. Such students are good mixers and are eager to take part in public events.
The students who have a high degree of self-control (the shift by 9%) are self-confident, calm, stable, demonstrate a better willingness to perform the given tasks successfully.
The reduction of the number of points according to the factor ‘Expressiveness-pragmatism’ by 9% demonstrates the decrease in the tendency to leadership and dominating while interacting with preschool children.
Thus, taking into consideration the results of the questionnaire we can conclude that most of the students under test are persistent and shy. While such qualities as emotional sensitivity, tender conscience, sensitivity, anxiety and tenseness are normal in most of the students.
According to the method of aggression and hostility degree detection developed by A. Buss and A. Durkee we saw the decrease by 0.5 points according to physical aggression scale; quick temper and rudeness indices (annoyance scale) have decreased by 0.6 points; negation as oppositional behavior decreased by 0.2 points. The degree of offence (high level) has decreased by 0.4; verbal aggression by 0.4 The decrease of levels according to all the scales demonstrates the changes in attitude to the process of educational activities while interacting with children (Vereshchagina & Fayzullayeva, 2017).
We may confirm that the students hold on to an effective position aimed at cooperation while working with preschool children.
According to Liri test we have examined only the third ‘I’ as a prospective educator’ position as it reflects the cognitive component of prospective educators’ willingness. The dominating and leading (by 2%), forthright (by 6%) and skeptical (by 6%) types have undergone the most substantial changes. It means that after the work performed the students have reconsidered their understanding of a preschool educator image. They see an educator as an emotionally stable, tactful, strong-willed, self-rigorous, ready for cooperation, meeting the needs of children, able to establish an effective interaction with a child person.
Summing up the results of the research aimed at detection of the level of prospective educator’s willingness to effectively interact with children, we come to the conclusion that psychological and pedagogical follow-up, which is implemented on the basis of CDC ‘Child Development Center Kotoff Kids’ contributes to the formation of practice-oriented skills in everyday learning activities. It helps to develop indispensable professional qualities of a preschool educator, increases the level of contentment with the process of work, improves the understanding of forms of interaction with a child and establishes a sensitive basis for the development of the qualities significant for a prospective preschool educator.
The problem of psychological and pedagogical follow-up of prospective educators’ willingness to interact effectively with a preschool child has become the subject of theoretical and practical study in modern psychological and pedagogical researches. However, this problem has not been studied sufficiently.
The given complex of psycho diagnostics means helps to detect the level of willingness constituents formation. They are: emotional and motivational, cognitive and volitional components.
To form the prospective educators’ willingness to interact effectively with children the program of psychological and pedagogical follow-up was developed and introduced on the basis of CDC ‘Child Development Center Kotoff Kids’. The program of psychological and pedagogical follow-up is based on a practice-oriented approach, which helped to establish necessary conditions for psychological and pedagogical follow-up on formation of prospective educators’ willingness to interact effectively with children. The educational experiment has resulted in the increase of the level offormation of prospective educators’ willingness to interact effectively with children, which is reflected in the development of such components as cognitive, emotional-motivational and volitional.
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15 November 2020
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Akchulpanova, A., Pilipenko, E., Valeeva, L., & Panova, L. (2020). Psychological And Pedagogical Follow-Up For Prospective Educators Aiming At Their Willingness’ Formation. In & I. Murzina (Ed.), Humanistic Practice in Education in a Postmodern Age, vol 93. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 22-32). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.11.3