The article deals with the theoretical framework on the topic “readiness of educators for constructive interaction with the preschool-aged children”. The Author interprets the meanings of the concepts "psychological and pedagogical support-counselling", "readiness for constructive interaction with preschool-aged children". The authors provide their personal definition of these particular concepts, discuss the basic structural components of readiness, as well as unfold their relevance for the future professional activity. The authors also mention the relevance of the study for understanding the mechanisms of development of future educator's alertness for constructive interaction with preschool-aged children. They provide the contents and results of the research of bachelors, studying preschool education, before and after the execution of a programme that studied psychological and pedagogical support-counselling of future educators for constructive interaction with children. The authors have made an attempt of grounding the results of the research. The conditions of psychological and pedagogical support-counselling of formation of readiness of future educators has been defined. As a methodological basis for the organization of psychological and pedagogical support-counselling, it is suggested to use practice-oriented approach. The author assumes that psychological and pedagogical support-counselling of students, within a matter of the educational process, will improve the success and quality rates of developing the specifics of the teaching profession. The author presumes that psychological and pedagogical support-counselling of students, within the educational process, will prepare them for constructive interaction with children.
Keywords: Alertnesscomponents of alertnessconstructive interaction with preschool-aged childrenpsychological and pedagogical support-counsellingstudents
The present-day stage of social development is connected with the change of the requirements applicable to the quality of training of future educators. Such training is aimed at mastering modern pedagogical techniques, methods of self-knowledge or self-development and professional self-improvement, which allows educators to apply varied practice-oriented approach to solve problems related to the training of future educators in the field of pedagogical activity.
Nowadays, the issue of staff development with the benefit of having the certain set of practical methods of constructive communication with the child in the system of preschool education is particularly sensitive. The increase of requirements for the maintenance of professional activity and teachers working with preschool-aged children is discernible in the regulatory documents within the system of preschool education.
In the occupational standard under the name of "Pedagog" (pedagogical activity in the sphere of preschool education) the main points are: the labour function, oriented on the arrangement of constructive interaction with children in different types of activities, the arrangement of "free choice" conditions for children to select activities, teamwork participants and materials.
The Federal state educational standard of preschool education emphasizes the ability to find an approach to each child, respect pupil's personality and properly assess children's abilities. The Federal Law "On education in the Russian Federation" highlights the unified approach in the development of the future teacher. The analysis of regulatory documents defining requirements to the teacher of preschool education, allows to draw a conclusion that on one hand the importance and relevance of the pedagogical profession is emphasized, on the other, future teachers' mechanisms of developing the constructive interaction with children are insufficiently exposed. The development of readiness for constructive interaction with children in such sphere as preschool education becomes essential, since preschool childhood is the most sensitive period in the development of the child.
In psychological and pedagogical researches the issue of interaction between the teacher and the child is presented in the works of many scholars. Practical reasons are described in the works of another group of scientists and is considered in the perspective of improvement of children's aggressive behavior as a tool of interaction between the teacher and students.
The practical objectivation of this issue in the perspective of improvement of children's aggressive behavior as a tool of interaction between the teacher and students is reflected in the works of A. Konova, R. Vetchinkina, A. Mozdykova, etc. (as cited in Syirtlanova, 2018, p, 42)
The functions of professional-pedagogical interaction and possibilities of using professional training during the interaction with the child are discussed in the researches of A. Bodalev, A. Gordin, V. Kan-Kalik, Y. Kolominskii, A. Mudrik, etc. (as cited in Syirtlanova & Valeeva, 2013, p. 154)
The functions of professional-pedagogical interaction and possibilities of using professional training during the interaction with the child are discussed in the research works of A. Bodalev, A. Gordin, V. Kan-Kalik, Y. Kolominskii, A. Mudrik, etc. (as cited in Syirtlanova, 2018, p, 53)
The constructive type of interaction with children through empathy is reflected in the works of N. Afanasev, S. Tsarev, etc. (as cited in Syirtlanova, 2018, p, 57)
The analysis of the above mentioned approaches to the study of constructive interaction in psychological and pedagogical researches showed that the most popular topic is the formation of the personality of the educator and their professional training. However, there are few special studies focused on the conditions of psychological and pedagogical support-counselling in the formation of readiness of future educators for constructive interaction with children in the process of educational practiсe.
The content of the contradiction allows to formulate the issue of the study: what is the level of psychological and pedagogical support-counselling of future teachers’ development of readiness for constructive interaction with the child in preschool educational organization?
The issue of psychological and pedagogical support-counselling of formation of readiness of the teacher is widely presented in present-day researches: psychological and pedagogical support-counselling of the future teacher during the process of professional training (Novoselova, 2007); psychological and pedagogical support-counselling of the future teacher during the process of additional education (Belyakova, 2012); the use of competence approach in the practiсe of the scientific laboratory of the Department of preschool pedagogics of BSPU named after M. Akmulla (as cited in Syirtlanova & Valeeva, 2013).
The main point of the process of psychological and pedagogical support of the formation of the teacher was refined by us towards the practise of researchers of the Republic of Bashkortostan: the process of preparing teachers for their professional practise in educational centres "school-kindergarten" (Boronilova, 2016, p. 50); the development of competency in tertiary schools (Boronilova, 2016, p. 54); multicultural orientation of pre-school education (Syirtlanova, 2018); the use of expert-methodical centre of competency and the independent system of examination and certification of pre-school education teachers (Boronilova, 2016, p. 55) etc.
Within the frame of professional training in the system of pre-school education, the problem of development of readiness of the future teacher for professional formation becomes particularly relevant: the analysis on conditions of professional thinking development of future educators of preschool centre (Taraskina, 1999); the preparation of future teachers-educators for professional practice" (Novoselova, 2007); the formation of psychological readiness of the future educator for professional interaction with the psychologist (Chikova, 2009).
Must not be ignored the fact that in almost all works the idea that the primary highlighted aspect is that the absolute priority of higher education is the formation of human resourcing of the pedagogical process, there is a trend in which future educators do not master practical professional skills, precisely in the training of pedagogical personnel : to play and interact with a child, cooperate with parents, work on the family issued as a personal microenvironment of child development (Amirova et al., 2018, p. 15). The content of the conditions of psychological and pedagogical support of readiness for constructive interaction with a child is not sufficiently disclosed.
The study of researches in preschool pedagogics allows to develop a work on the topic of "the preparation of future educators for constructive interaction with preschoolers" in three stages: diagnostic, analytical, practice-oriented.
The subject of the study are the conditions of psychological and pedagogical support of future teachers' ' readiness for constructive interaction with preschool children. The subject of the research includes the analysis of the terms "psychological and pedagogical support" and "readiness for the constructive interaction".
The term "psychological and pedagogical support" of students in a modern institute of higher education could be envisaged as a specifically organized activity, which requires solving the problems of individual readiness for constructive interaction with children through the studying process by means of professional situations. With the help of them future teachers learn to organize constructive interaction with the students and, at the same time, form their professional competences, such as: the ability to use the opportunities of educational environment in order to reach personal, meta-subject and subject learning outcomes; readiness to interact with the members of educational process, capability to embody the pedagogical support of social adaptation and professional identity of students.
Thus, psychological and pedagogical support-counselling of the formation of readiness of future teachers for constructive interaction in university is manifested in the interaction between teachers and students with the support, encouragement, assistance. That is the way how the formation of students' pedagogical knowledge and skills, which are the basis of experience in interaction with children, occur.
Both internal and external components of psychological and pedagogical support are integrated during the process of psychological and pedagogical support-counselling, the internal component is the development of pedagogical and personal qualities of the future educator, the external component includes the conditions of psychological and pedagogical support of readiness of the future teacher for constructive interaction with children.
To sum up, we believe that the psychological and pedagogical support of the future teacher's readiness for constructive interaction with children should be the consistent logical formation and development of pedagogical experience and psychological and pedagogical qualities of the future teacher's personality.
The readiness of future teachers for constructive interaction with students is defined by us as the basic condition for the implementation of conscious practice and is aimed at the development of intellectual and cognitive aspects of the student's personality.
In many studies, readiness as a concept is defined as a professionally important quality of the student's personality; a set of personality features, the indicator of suitability for the activities of the teacher; component of effective practice (Miniyarov & Zudilina, 2011); the process of formation of competencies: the final stage of the learning process (Zimnyaya, 2009).
We believe that the readiness for constructive interaction with students should not have clear boundaries between cooperation and co-creation. It must be aimed at increasing the motivation, the level of pedagogical knowledge, practical skills of future teachers to get the skills for constructive interaction with children.
The characteristics of the content of readiness for constructive interaction with students emanates through disclosure of structural components: emotional and motivational; cognitive; conative
Emotional and motivational component includes professional qualities that determine the attitude to professional activity, understanding and acceptance of tasks, goals of professional activity. The cognitive component contains knowledge, skills necessary to perform professional activities, qualities that ensure the perception, processing and preservation of information necessary to perform professional activities (Batarshev, 2015, p. 18). And the conative component that provides planning, control, evaluation of their own professional activities.
Theoretical analysis of the components' content of the subject of the study allows to develop the following definition. Psychological and pedagogical support-counselling of readiness of future educators is a set of actions, aimed at creating conditions for the formation of readiness of future educators for constructive interaction with children.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is the development of the "psychological and pedagogical support-counselling of future teachers' readiness for constructive interaction with preschool-aged children" programme.
The study took place at the centre of competency development under the name of "The child development centre of Kotoff Kids" (hereinafter "Kotoff Kids" centre). "Kotoff Kids" centre was established with the help of the Department of preschool pedagogy and psychology of Bashkir State Pedagogical University named after M. Akmulla. The purpose of this centre is the development of professional competencies of undergraduate and graduate students in production environment and direct practice with preschool-aged children. The work was carried through within the framework of methodological days, which included both lectures and practical classes with students.
The purpose of the study defined the following tasks:
- creating conditions for psychological and pedagogical support-counselling of formation of readiness of students on the basis of "Kotoff Kids" centre.
- quantitative and qualitative analysis of the results after the application of the work programme.
To fulfil the purpose of the study, further methods were practiced: testing, analysis, generalization, pedagogical experiment. The methods used were applied in accordance with the sequence of stages of the study. Also, while realisation of all research stages there was a comparison of empirical data (interpretations) held towards the subject of study.
The experimental study on the problem of psychological and pedagogical support-counselling of formation of readiness of future educators for constructive interaction with the child was divided into three stages. The purpose of the first stage is identifying the level of the development of students ' readiness for constructive interaction with children. The study involved 49 full–time course students from 1 to 4 course, studying preschool education. The questionnaire for testing personality was used to identify the level of emotional and motivational component (Vereschagina & Fayzullaeva, 2017). The questionnaire highlighted five factors (extroversion-introversion; attachment-isolation; self-control-impetuosity; emotional stability-emotional instability; expressiveness-practicality). The results for all of the factors are quite high.
According to the extroversion-introversion factor, 16 (33%) probationers are characterized by sociability, carelessness, optimism. They are inclined to hot temper and aggressiveness. During work, probationers are focused on the speed of fulfilment; they prefer to work with people, as well as quickly extract information from their memory and complete complicated tasks much better in a situation of time shortage.
According to the attachment-isolation factor, high results of 38 probationers (78%) indicate positive attitude to people. Such people suffer the need to be close to other people. They are kind, responsive, and they also understand other people well, feel personal responsibility for their well-being, are tolerant about the drawbacks of others. In a group of people such individuals are usually respected.
Only 2 probationers (4%) received low results, indicating a desire to be independent and self-reliant. This group of probationers tend to keep distance, treat other people coldly, do not understand those with whom they communicate.
According to the self-control-impulsivity factor, the highest results have 31 probationers (63%). The main content of this factor is the volitional regulation of behaviour. There are such personality features as conscientiousness, responsibility, following the obligations, punctuality and accuracy in different businesses at the pole of high values. The behaviour of probationers shows that they adhere to moral principles; they do not violate the agreed standards of behaviour in society.
The emotional stability-emotional instability factor shows that 33 probationers (67%) have high results. High values for this factor characterize individuals who are unable to control their emotions and impulsive attractions. Self-esteem is often underestimated, and their behaviour is, by and large, caused by the situation.
For this category of students, the program of psychological and pedagogical support-counselling included methods and forms of work aimed at the formation of emotional stability.
The fifth factor of expressiveness-practicality has the high level of 39 (80%). Probationers with high values on this factor satisfy their curiosity by showing interest in different aspects of life, and it is easy for them to learn.
The test, created by T. Leary, under the name of "The Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality" was used to identify the level of development of the cognitive component: I am real, I am perfect, I am a future educator." The maximum level of the position "I am real" is represented by the type "Inconsistent-sceptic" (20%). Perceptions and actions are realistic for this style. Personal characteristics include isolation, insularity, rigidity of attitudes, critical attitude to any opinions except their own, dissatisfaction with their position in the micro-group, suspicion, hypersensitivity to critical remarks.
The position "I am perfect" shows that the maximum result is represented in the sector "Independent-dominant" (18%). This position is characterized by: independence, authoritarianism, lack of flexibility, rivalry. This position is characterized by: independence, authoritarianism, lack of flexibility, rivalry.
The position "I am a future educator" has maximum results in types: "Independent-dominant" (20%) and "Responsible-generous" (20%). The second type of interpersonal relationship has a good level of willingness to help others, a good sense of responsibility. Such people are sociable, easy-going; they seek practice which is useful for all people; they show manifestation of mercy, charity, missionary personality.
Thus, summing up all the results of this technique, it is obvious that there is no consensus about the ideal image of the educator among the probationers. Each brings opinions based on the prevailing image, conditions of education, life experience, knowledge of the profession and the requirements demanded for it. The professional image of a teacher-educator reflects the student's comprehension of the image of their profession. The image of the teacher includes values, individual qualities, meanings of pedagogical practice, interaction with children, as well as a special style of the teacher's thinking. The image of the teacher is the internal indicator of the development of the student's personality.
The emotional component of readiness for professional practice was determined with the help of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory. The most distinct reaction was negativity, the average score of which is 2.9 of a maximum possible number of 5; guilt is 5.9 points out of 9 and verbal aggression is 7.6 points out of 13. The index of general aggressiveness with an average score of 17.4 is within the allowed rate of 21±4. The average score for the reaction of physical aggression from is 5.3 of 10, indirect aggression is 4.4 out of 9, irritation is 5,6 out of 11, resentment is 3.6 out of 8 and suspiciousness is 6.5 out of 12.
Thus, as a result of the study, we found that this group of probationers is not characterized by aggressive manifestations. However, the average value of the hostility index, exceeding the norm by 0.1 points, indicates the tendency to manifest such reactions as suspicion and resentment.
Biofeedback training (identification of the level of volitional stability) was used to identify volitional readiness. The biofeedback training was used to improve mental stability, emotional stability, overcoming of internal stress.
Based on the analysis of the study results of identifying the level of readiness of future teachers for constructive interaction with preschool-aged children, the programme of psychological and pedagogical support counselling for the formation of students' readiness for constructive interaction with children was developed. This became the aim of the second phase of the study. The developed programme implements the conditions of psychological and pedagogical support-counselling of each component of readiness for constructive interaction with children. The programme was carried out in three stages.
The first theoretical stage consists of conducting lectures using interactive methods (problematic, data visualization, etc.). The second stage, practically, was implemented under the following conditions:
1. Development and approbation of training programmes. The training format of learning forms practical skills, develops personal qualities, forms ways of establishing relation with the child. Personal contact with the teacher is evaluated by the student as a mean of individual support; it contributes to the development of self-understanding.
2. Supervision as a condition for improving professional skills. New techniques, methods, ways of working with children, as well as the opportunity to experiment with acquired skills or behaviours are learned during the process of supervision. As a result, the student learns to evaluate their professional resources, apply positions in communication with preschoolers.
3. Quasi-professional practice as a learning pattern of role behaviour, which corresponds with professional positions and values of the future educator.
Using types of quasi-professional practice (trainings, business games, self-study lessons, designing and simulating situations) allows us to make the transition to professional practice in real life.
Quasi-professional practice determines the degree of compliance between the student and their profession, the formation of readiness for constructive interaction with the child. Consequently, learning more about the specifics of the profession, there is not only a transition from educational to professional practice, but also understanding of how the student corresponds with professional requirements. The professional responsibility of the future specialist is also formed.
Being allocated by us psychological and pedagogical conditions of support-counselling of formation of readiness of the future educator for constructive interaction with children become a basis of occupational training (Mazeina, 2014). It is possible when it comes to the qualitative arrangement of educational process, formation of positive attitude towards professional practice with the required mastering of professional knowledge and skills, with comprehension and analysis of professional issues that may apper at the stage of formation of professional practice of a teacher-educator.
The third stage of the programme includes students' individual work during the interaction with the children's environment, in which they act as educators. Interaction with children in various activities plays a special role in the formation of readiness. Teaching mentors, in their turn, act as an example of true educator for the future teacher, on one hand, performing their professional function, and on the other, acting as a source of information on how to build future pedagogical work in the children's collective.
The environment, in which the student is included, determines their activity in the acquirement of pedagogical experience, as it is associated with constructive interaction with the children's group. It is obvious that the success of psychological and pedagogical support-counselling of formation of readiness of future teachers for constructive interaction with children is defined by capabilities of the vocational educational system. Arrangement of such educational practice is possible with the help of include educators, students of these courses and preschool-aged children as the subjects of the education.
The aim of the third stage of the study is quantitative and qualitative analysis of the secondary diagnostics. Comparing the results after working in "The child development centre of Kotoff Kids", they paid attention to alteration of the results to high and medium levels.
For example, the higher the future educator expressed features of emotional stability, the higher he appreciates the level of self-development in sociability, self-reflection, and the higher he appreciates such quality as intelligence in his future professional practice.
This result is explained by the fact that future educators of this type appreciate the chosen profession, and believe that the main result of studying at university is reflective attitude to their future professional practice.
Extroverted personality type, for example, appreciate the openness, and this particular quality is very necessary while working with children (the alteration of results 11%).
Emotional stability; self-assessment of real professional qualities (self-assessment of developed qualities) is significant for the introverted type. They highly appreciate the level of development of health indicator, self-reflective and tolerant abilities. Emotionality is considered as a necessary quality in the professional practice of the educator. This is explained by the characteristics of this type: they are very shy, insecure, careful.
Isolated type (and they are the minority - 4%) do not tend to listen, they are sceptical and indifferent to others. Their practice is aimed at satisfaction of their needs.
A high rate of attachment (the alteration of 20%) characterizes the probationer as emotionally warm, sociable, cheerful person. It is characterized by the affluence and brightness of emotional manifestations, naturalness, willingness to cooperate. Such students are active in establishing contacts; they readily participate in public events.
Probationers with a high rate of self-control (the alteration of 9%) are confident, calm, stable, and show better preparedness for successful tasks execution.
The 9% decrease in high-level results on the "Expressiveness-practicality" factor shows a decrease in the tendency to leadership and dominance in interaction with preschool-aged children.
Thus, based on the results of the questionnaire, we can say that most probationers are characterized by persistence and timidity. And such features as emotionality, conscientiousness, sensitivity, anxiety and tension are normal with the majority of respondents.
According to the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, we got a decrease of 0.5 on the scale of physical aggression; a decrease of 0.6 on the temper, rudeness (irritation scale); a decrease of 0.2 on the negativity as opposition manner in behaviour. The high level of offense was decreased by 0.4; The level of verbal aggression was decreased by 0.4. Decreasing levels on all scales indicates a change in the attitude to the process of pedagogical practice in working with children.
We can confirm that the constructive position is used, aimed at cooperation while working with preschool-aged children.
On the test, created by T. Leary, under the name of "The Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality", we considered only the third position, "I am a future caregiver," because it reflects the cognitive component of the readiness of future educators. The maximum change in the results peaks at the power-leading (2%), straightforward (6%) and skeptical (6%) types. This means that after the work was done, students have reconsidered their understanding of the image of the educator (Shabaeva, 2016, p. 339). The personality of the educator is perceived by them as an emotionally stable, tactful, strong-willed, demanding individuality, ready for joint practice, understanding needs of children, and is able to build constructive practice with the child.
Summarizing the results of the study for identifying the level of formation of readiness of the future teacher for constructive interaction with children, we believe that the psychological and pedagogical support-counselling, which was carried out on the basis of "The child development centre of Kotoff Kids", contributes to the formation of practical skills in daily educational practice. It forms the necessary professional qualities of the teacher-educator, increases the level of satisfaction with the process of their work, improves comprehension of forms of interaction with the child and creates a sensitive basis for the development of professionally important qualities of the teacher.
The problem of psychological and pedagogical support-counselling of readiness of future teachers for constructive interaction with the preschool-aged child has become the subject of theoretical and practical study in modern psychological and pedagogical research. But the issue of the research is insufficiently studied.
The selected complex of psycho diagnostics allows to define the formation of readiness components: emotional and motivational; cognitive; conative.
Under the auspices of "The child development centre of Kotoff Kids" a programme of psychological and pedagogical support-counselling was developed and implemented to form readiness of future educators for constructive interaction with children. The program of psychological and pedagogical support-counselling is based on the practice-oriented approach, which allowed us to create conditions for psychological and pedagogical support-counselling of formation of readiness of future teachers for constructive interaction with children. The result of the pedagogical experiment was the increase of the level of formation of readiness of future educators for constructive interaction, which is expressed in the formation of such components as: cognitive, emotional and motivational, conative.
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15 November 2020
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Teacher, teacher training, teaching skills, teaching techniques, special education, children with special needs, computer-aided learning (CAL)
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Boronilova, I., Pilipenko, E., Valeeva, L., & Akchulpanova, A. (2020). Psychological And Pedagogical Support-Counselling In Development Of Future Educator’s Alertness. In & I. Murzina (Ed.), Humanistic Practice in Education in a Postmodern Age, vol 93. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 252-262). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.11.27