Research Of Development Of Communicative Competence Of Future Managers Pre-School Educational Institutions
The article presents the characteristics of the primary section of the development of communicative competence of future leaders of preschool educational organizations. The relevancy of the research topic resulted from a growing tendency of communication development in managing sphere, therefore, communicative competence of the management sector specialists is an essential requirement for their profession. The improvement of the vocational education quality is one of the essential issues of not only Russia, but also for the world society, as at the present time that countries, which prioritize the increase in High Technology and information and intellectual development of people, reach the success. Under such conditions pedagogical education intends to provide their graduates narrow background skills as well as the development of competences, especially communicative skill as a fundamental one. Though, the existing system of student's training in higher educational institutions could be described by the poor focus of educational process on the development of communicative competence among students, also lack of the system of essential managerial and pedagogical conditions needed to provide the development of it, limited usage of communicative potential and experience of students, while organizing the educational process by a teacher.
Keywords: Communicationcommunicative competencemanagement of preschool educationpreschool educational organizationspeechspeech development of children
The result is: being involved into professional activities for the first time a manager-graduate suffers from some particular difficulties in operating with professional tasks based on communication with colleagues in a pre-school educational institution Competence, as well as competence which is included into the process of communication, becomes one of the components of a high professional level in almost all spheres of activity, as any specialist participates in information exchange, interacts with others. But there is a number of professions, where communication is the core activity, and the communicative competence stands for the chief constituent of the vocational education.
The management relations could be characterized by agility, that is why a variety of problematic situations could be solved only by the qualified professionals (Bozina, 2013). Pre-school education is the first step of general pedagogical system. As a state public institution, the preschool educational institution is developed by the society for specific purposes and is therefore obliged to fulfil the modern social order. In recent years, the system of preschool education in Russia is bearing significant changes. Among such changes could be observed not only positive trends, but also negative ones to be solved. The development of the pre-school education system is determined by the level of management effectiveness and implementation of contemporary academic advances in the sphere of management into pre-school education processes. The focus of the entire system "inter-kindergarten control" (Boronilova, Ivanova, & Kohan, 2018, p. 37) at the final pedagogical results not only requires special motivational and goal targeted attitude of PSEI headmasters, but also a new approach to the information provision, pedagogical analysis, planning, organization, control and regulation of all activities.
The practice and results of the research works held in preschool educational institutions depicts that plenty of problems of the modern system of preschool education are caused by the lack of competence among the headmasters and the absence of the development system in organizations of that type. Despite the previous prior targets in education, the transition from state aims to personal, pedagogical researches still do not touch upon the subject of nature, structure, development policy of communicative competence of headmasters, in accordance with the recent environment of preschool educational institution, the requirements for their job. The various aspects of management in education are being discussed in the pedagogical, psychological and sociological literature. The regularities of pedagogical management are described in the research works of many scholars. Some scientists looked upon pedagogical management as a kind of social management. Others studied the issues of development of the head personality of a new type. Another group of scholars dedicated their works to the Improvement of managerial skills of heads of educational institutions, including the pre-school educational institutions. Among the works on systematic description of the managerial activities in education, the interest arouses on the research of managerial professionalism, competence and professional development of the manager. The management of PSEI and the content of managing activity of the headmasters were observed in the studies of K.Belaya, T.Danilina, L.Kiseleva, T.Lagoda, V.Maslov, E.Nikitina, E.Tonkonogaya, P. Tretiakov, L. Falyushina and others (as cited in Shabaeva & Tanyukevich, 2017, p. 240).
The analysis of the monographic research, dedicated to the personality and activity of the PSEI Heads, the examination of the data on history of pedagogy and education illustrate that the Head of a preshool educational institution is most commonly observed as an instrument for executive decision-making and bearing the responsibility for the final result as the duty of a Head (Kovardakova, 1990, p. 67). Therefore, particular importance is rewarded to the problem of development of communicative competence of a Manager in the management of PEI, which is caused by the modern social order, the objectives of preschool education, as modified by the functional business leaders, new ways of management activities and professional conduct. Analysis of dissertation research and other scientific literature on the development of communicative competence suggests that communicative competence is a widely studied phenomenon from the point of view of different sciences. The philosophical aspect of the problem of communication is also presented in many works. In psychological and pedagogical science the problem of communication was considered from the point of view of activity approach; personal approach. In a broad socio-psychological context, the problem of interpersonal communication was studied by N. Kazarinova, V. Kunitsyna, V. Pogolsha and others (as cited in Morozova, 2000, p. 114).
Relative to the theoretical development and implementation of the communicative competence the issue of competence development of HEI students into practice is now the central subject of the research in dissertations on Pedagogy and Psychology.
In addition to that there is no sufficient argumentation supporting the conclusion on research maturity of communicative competence development of the headmasters in managing a preschool educational institution (Shabaeva, 2008, p. 36). With the vast variety of researches, dedicated to the communicative competence development of the future specialists, the problem of communicative competence development of the future PSEI Headmasters in educational process of pedagogical university has never been taken as a subject of the specified research.
To introduce the review on the primary results of the research on the communicative competence development of the future Headmasters of preschool educational institutions. Realization of the research goal is carried out on the basis of the following conceptual ideas.
Pedagogical management of communicative competence development among students in the educational process of higher educational institutions (HEI) - is an activity of an educator, which intrinsically targeted to create the complex of organisational and pedagogical conditions, which are aligned with the nature of communicative competence necessary for its further development (Shabaeva, 2009, p. 46).
The communicative competence of a future headmaster of a preschool educational institution (PSEI) is the ability of culture subject, which is determined by the type of consciousness, valuably and meaningfully implement the communication in the sphere of PSEI management.
The communicative competence development among students is a process of quantitative and qualitative modification of the state of all its components while transition from one level to another, carried out in the internal plan of the student under the impact of organisational and pedagogical conditions created by the educator in collaboration with students in the educational process. The development of the communicative competence of the future PSEI head is the quantitative and qualitative development of a complex structural personal education, the core of which is a professional-value attitude to communication, the collaboration of psychological and pedagogical knowledge of communicative activity, communicative and organizational skills, communicative qualities of speech, as well as the experience of using this knowledge and management skills in the management of a preschool educational institution.
The model for the development of communicative competence of the future PSEI headmaster provides a systematic and structural approach to the training of future specialists in the field of communication, reflects the peculiarities of the basic components' content (motivational, theoretical, practical) and is aimed at developing the managerial abilities of students in the field of communication, including speech development of preschool-aged children (Shabaeva &Tanyukevich, 2017, p. 242).
The efficiency of the communicative competence development of the future PSEI head could be achieved by adherence to the following specifications:
- implementation of intersubject communications in the development of communicative competence of the future PSEI head;
- the creation and implementation of program-methodological support for the development of communicative competence of the future head of PSEI;
- the organisation of teaching process in higher educational institutions, based on operation with active educational technologies, usage of teaching-exploratory tasks in different types of pedagogical practice.
-operating with complex psychological and pedagogical diagnostic (tests, revision tasks and questions, diagnostic check-lists etc.) involving analysis, self-assesment work, improvement of communicative skills development of students.
Purpose of the Study
The development of the communicative competence of the future headmasters in PSEI (preschool educational institutions) during the educational process in PHEI (Higher educational institutions). To characterise primary results of the research on development of communicative competence of the future headmasters in PSEI.
In order to confirm the relevance of the problem stated and to determine the most effective and appropriate ways to improve professional teachers' training on development of communicative competence of the future headmasters in PSEI we have conducted a pedagogical experiment: the research on the current state of PSEI teachers' training of communication activity of the educator in the field of speech development of preschool-aged children. We observed the condition of readiness the PSEI educators and students of 1-4 grade (full-time) 3-5 grade (distance form of education) studying at the department of the pre-school education to the management of the communicative competence development and verbal communication with preschool-aged children (Ushakova, 2017, p. 67). In order to get qualitative and quantitative data on readiness of educators and students to manage the work on speech development among children we used various mutually supportive methods, including mass questionnaire-based survey of educators, parents and students, the observation of didactic verbal communication of educators and students with children, self-assessment, expert evaluation, teaching practice documentation analysis. As well as a theoretical analysis of philosophical, psychological, linguistic, psycholinguistic, pedagogical literature on the problem of the research; questioning of the heads of PSEI, students; study of documentation of PSEI; observation and analysis of the activities of teachers, students, preschool children; the method of expert assessments and self-assessments of students' activities; pedagogical experiment (ascertaining, formative, control); modelling, quantitative and qualitative handling of research data.
The research was accomplished at several stages. The tasks for the 1 stage were: to give a complex assessment of future PSEI educators readiness to work on the development of the children's speech, to define the typical problems in management the speech behaviour of children, which exist in pedagogical practice; to find out the state of readiness of PSEI educators to the communication activity. We also analysed the state of readiness of future PSEI Headmasters to implementation of communicative activity in management of a preschool educational institution (Ushakova & Strunina, 2003). First of all we Identified: the understanding of the essence of communicative competence by the educators, their knowledge about speaking activity, communicative skills, the art of management the work on the speech development among children based on diagnostics. In order to solve the problem we used question-based survey, observation of the PSEI headmaster's and educators' activity, the documentation analysis and the headmasters interviewing. The analysis of the findings of the ascertaining experiment determined that only 5 (12.5%) of the respondents have a complete understanding of the essence of the communicative competence of the PSEI head, they could name the individual competencies that form the communicative competence; 19 (47.5%) educators do not use the knowledge of communicative competence in their activities; 26 (65%) cannot select the diagnostic methods that are proper to the studied parameters; 32 (80%) poorly understand the essential characteristics of child language acquisition, cannot use the results of examination of children's speech to manage the work on the development of speech. The survey showed that 48% PSEI educators suggest the need of gathered on diagnostic base in the management of the activity on children's speech development. However, the majority of educators could not give the definition to the terms "communicative competence", "pedagogical diagnostics of children's speech development". "the components of a communicative competence", "child language acquisition" etc. 11 (13%) educators who were interrogated gave the right answer (right, but not full, missing communication, one of the speech shades). Typical answers: "... coherent speech study...", "...determination of the vocabulary development level and pronunciation skills..." etc. 58 (66,7%) interrogated educators gave wrong answer and blurred descriptions, 17 people (20,2%) did not answer the question stated (Valeeva, 2013, p. 47). The analysis of the answers to the questions “What is the communicative competence of the Head of the preschool educational institution”, “Management of the work on the development of the preschool children's speech” allows us to conclude that most of the respondents have insufficient understanding of the essence and structure of these terms (Shabaeva & Syirtlanova, 2019).
The observation of the educators' examination of the children’s speech, the documentation of PSEI (annual plans of the leaders of the pre-school children, perspective and calendar work plans of the teachers) was studied simultaneously with the questionnaire survey. It has been established that although the plans of educators reflect the process of children's speech examination at the beginning and at the end of the school year, there is a serious drawback - the absence of a focused approach based on diagnostic information on the speech development of the child and the whole group, programs for an individual level of speech development of the preschool children are not developed, there are no core moments in managing work on the development of preschool children's speech, there are no forms of interaction with participants in educational relations in case of development of the communicative competence. We see formalism and a superficial presentation of the results of interaction with teachers, parents, children; speech examination minutes are poorly presented, there is an absence of managerial decisions in the case of children's speech development, also there is a lack of interaction with educators. The PSEI Heads do not conduct consultations with educators on the development of interpersonal skills, both of preschool children and employees, parents.
About 76% of the surveyed PSEI educators from cities and more than 90% of them living in the village considered themselves insufficiently prepared to carry out communicative activities based on diagnostics, and the PSEI Headmasters- to carry out managerial work on the speech development among preschool-aged children. In accordance with the analysis carried out according to the results of the questionnaire, the analysis of the documentation of PSEI, and the monitoring of the activities of [reschool educators, we identified the following shortcomings in their practical activities in the field of children's speech development managing on a diagnostic basis: lack of a clear and cpoint in understanding the essence and content of “Communicative competence”, “Management of the work on the development of children's speech”; the absence of the educator’s policy of diagnostic techniques usage for studying and assessing the level of speech development of children, its improvement or correction, seeking help fromPSEI Headmaster, and the lack of advisory assistance; non-compliance with the requirements for the procedure for diagnosing speech development of children (choosing the place and time for conducting a diagnostic examination, motivating the activities of children, selecting stimulus material, method of fixing the material, etc.); inability to analyze and interpret the results of diagnosis and to apply them in determinination of the managing work process in the development of children's speech; the lack of real alignment of pedagogical activity on the basis of the revealed data on the level of speech development of children with the help of diagnostic techniques; lack of data on the age dynamics of quantitative and qualitative indicators of the speech development of preschool children and, as a result, the formation of the educational process without taking into account age and individual psychophysiological characteristics (Yashina, 2007, p. 80).
To get a primary idea of the readiness of educators to manage the work on the development of speech, we interviewed headmasters, methodologists of the pre-school educational institutions on the issue studied. It was proposed to assess the readiness of educators to work on the development of speech and communication according to 5-point system, to indicate the limitations in the work of educators to guide the speech development of children and their reasons. Headmasters of pre-school educational institutions noted that the majority of educators have a high (5 points - 26,8%) and sufficient level of preparation (4 points - 41,8%) to the communication with children and work on the development of their speech, as well as to carry out communicative activities. However, the readiness of 29% of educators was assessed at 3 points, and 2.2% of educators were assigned to the critical level of readiness (below 3 points). 35.7% of educators, successfully teaching children speech in special classes, find it difficult to organize didactic speech communication with them in other activities. Speech activity of educators themselves is estimated as insufficiently developed. Among the typical limitations in the work of educators on speech development, the heads of the pre-school educational institutions noted the following: the authoritarianism of educators in dealing with children (indicated 20.8% of managers); the inability of educators to use expressive means of language in their speech, which is a model for pupils (18.7%); the lack of teachers desire to improve their professional knowledge and skills in the field of communication (17 %); lack of emotional aspect of educators' speech (15.1 %); the form of presentation of information, not interesting for children and parents, without regard to motivation, cognitive and speech activity (15.1 %); underestimation of the importance of studying the features of speech development of children for the implementation of systematic work (8 %). The reasons for these limitations are diverse, but the most common, according to managers, are the following: pedagogical stereotypes (especially among educators with long experience) 24.5 %; speech deficiencies of educators, low speech culture (poor vocabulary, spelling mistakes, the presence of dialect, lack of voice expressiveness) 24.5 %; social and economic factors (underestimation of the social significance of the profession of educator, low wages) - 22.6%; lack of knowledge in the field of communication, methods of communication and speech development - 17 %; lack of experience - 17%; reduced sociability of educator - 5.7 % (Yashina, 2016).
In order to identify the difficulties experienced by educators in communicating with children, we asked them to answer the following questions: "Do you have difficulties in organizing communication with children? Employees?"If so, name them." "What are these difficulties connected with?"34% of educators pointed such difficulties as: difficulties of objective and subjective nature. The first group includes the following: individual characteristics of children (adults) (negative traits, characteristics of temperament, emotional state, condition of illness, the disadvantages of the behavior) noted 37.9% of educators reporting difficulties; working conditions (a large number of children, "difficult" families, the shortcomings of the material base, lack of manuals, literature) - 31%; other objective circumstances and situations (for example, the difference in age) - 3,4 %; lack of knowledge (General and teaching) - 20,7%; poor development of communicative skills - 55,2%; r individual features of character - 10.3% (Yashina, 2018).
From the analysis of questionnaires, it becomes obvious that tutors are inclined to see the reasons of difficulties not in themselves, but outside, thus they recognize a lack of knowledge and abilities of communication with children, and also with adults. 68 % of educators subjectively do not experience difficulties in the organization of communication with pupils. There are educators, who find the authoritative style of teaching pedagogically effective (23,5 %). 33,4% of educators ether choose the style of communication intentionally, which according to their view is less effective but familiar, or have no pedagogically effective style of communication. Comparing these data with the PSEI Heads' opinion, we are inclined to believe that many educators recognize their way of organizing and the style of communication with children and employees, parents as the only acceptable and do not notice the drawbacks, and it is an alarming symptom of pedagogical conservatism. We have used overt observation in order to determine general features of the verbal communication of educators with children. This method allowed us to fix the cases of didactic verbal interaction of the educators with children in different types of activity. The activities of ten educators were monitored. Each of them was in the field of view of the researcher for 1-2 hours 2-3 times. The indicators characterizing features of oral communication of educators with children and interaction between them which were fixed in the course of supervision were: the reference of tutors to children (their number, contents, means and methods of expression, subject); the reference of children to the tutors. The analysis of the research data showed that most of the messages provided by educators to a group of children are aimed at teaching and establishing discipline, expressed in a rigid (imperative) form: a command, an order, a specific reference, a threat. Negative references prevail over positive ones. They also have a poor nonverbal arsenal: a stern look, a pointing gesture, a reproachful shake of the head, a stroking of the child's head. Among the recorded references those that were aimed at improving the speech of children were analysed separately. The amount of them was very small- 4.7 % (Zaharova, 2015). Data on the degree of satisfaction of children with communication with educators, the desire to engage with them into verbal interaction were obtained from the analysis recorded in the course of observations of speech references of children to adults, and conversations with children.
At the next stage, the task was to identify the level of the development in readiness and its dynamics among students of preschool Department. This stage included 2 series of experiments. The first part provides us with the motives of first-year students to choose the profession of a teacher, their self-esteem of their pedagogical, communicative, and speech abilities, students' perception of professional readiness for communicative activity before studying a special course. Part 2 suggested the study of the dynamics of motivational, theoretical and practical readiness in the process of studying the course and the level of formation of all components of professional readiness being a result of training. Proceeding from the understanding that the most important element of readiness for communicative activity is the value aspect of orientation towards the profession, the nature of the attitude to the child as the main object of the teacher’s activity, it was necessary to use methods that, even before the beginning of the study of special disciplines by first-year students, depict the characteristics of their professionally motivational sphere. For this purpose, we applied a questionnaire-based survey method, which was also used in the diagnostics of educators, supplemented by an essay. Among the motives to enter a pedagogical university, students put these statements on the first place: love for children (24.6%), the ability to work with children (23.2%), a dream, interest in the profession itself (18.5%). It should be noted that 16.6% of students indicated randomness, utilitarian choice (parents made them, it is easier to enter and study there, nowhere else to go, etc.). 73.4% of the students surveyed believe that communication with children will be the leading part of pedagogical work for them, 82.1% of students wrote that they can communicate with children, and only 28.6% of those who doubt their skills or unable to communicate, indicated a lack of knowledge. The analysis of these data depicts that empirical and superficial acquaintance with the communicative aspect of pedagogical activity creates the appearance of ease and accessibility for students and prevents the development and improvement of their professional attitudes to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary for educational communication.
At the same time, the effect of illusion that they are ready to interact with children and adults becomes distinctive This is also confirmed by the fact that students evaluate their speech abilities below communicative, but, in fact, they mostly ensure the success of communication. 6.3% of students do not remember the facts of the text, story, speech; 46.9% find it difficult to choose the right words, exact expressions; 21.1% find it difficult to concentrate on the main thing, cannot speak out logically; 14.1% are not able to "read" the audience, to address speech to specific listeners; 30.1% cannot foresee the result of their speech, the response of the audience. As a result of the analysis of short essays, we found out that the orientation of students towards a child differs in purpose (upbringing or education), position in relation to the child (above or with the child) and in relation to him as a subject or object of educational influence. The analysis showed that by the second year students are more focused on education than on upbringing (in 48% of questionnaires), in the future work they are more likely to be an assistant to the child, a friend, not overwhelming the child, but cooperating with him. Only 36.7% of students find the position “above the child” closer, and in 76.5% of cases the pupil is considered as a person, who has personal traits to be reckoned with. In 23.5% of essays the child is described as an object of educational impact of an adult (“a small interesting object”, “like a toy”, “looks like a doll”, “it's nice to look at and take care of him”) (Yashina, 2016, p. 43).
The study on the self-assessment of the readiness development components was carried out by analysing the individual student readiness cards, comparing their data with the assessment of competent judges. Difficulties and deficiencies in communication activities in the management of PSEI were obtained as a result of monitoring the progress of a psychological and pedagogical workshop in PSEI, teaching practice, studying the materials of teaching practice (documentation, speeches at conferences, reports of monitors, the problem group work). Individual maps of students' readiness for communicative activity included a list of the basic blocks of knowledge and skills in subject-related disciplines within the framework of communicative competence, which students should have mastered in the process of studying at a university. As well as a list of questions aimed at clarifying the attitude of students towards the study of disciplines and the special course "Communicative competence of PSEI Headmaster". Students were asked to assess their level of readiness by a four-point system in the indicated periods: during the study of subject-related disciplines, during the study of the special course "Communicative competence of PSEI Headmaster", before teaching practice, after teaching practice. At the same time, it was indicated that 1 point can be set, in case if this topic was not studied, the skill was not formed. Assessment increases with the assimilation of these sections of disciplines. According to the same principle, the experts assessed the real level of development of communicative competence. Nominally, we have identified that each component can be formed at four levels: high - 4 points; sufficient - 3 points; acceptable (level of limited formation) - 2 points; critical - 1 point. The procedure for determining readiness included evaluation of the average value for each component separately and determining the average value of readiness as an integral quality (in points). Two estimates (students and experts) were taken into account by finding their arithmetic mean value during determination of the average values. AT each stage we studied the assessments of attitudes toward the study of the special course “Communicative competence of the head of a preschool educational institution”, assessments of basic knowledge, assessments of basic communication skills, the dynamics of each component and readiness as an integral quality. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of students ' self-esteem shows the following: The average value of readiness as an integral quality complies to the acceptable, but does not reach a sufficient level at the final stage of the study of subject training disciplines; the self-assessment of the formation of skills is a bit lower than the self-assessment of knowledge.
Thus, a comparative analysis of the self-assessment of each component formation of readiness and the degree of confidence in their readiness suggests the need to improve the work on the development of communicative competence of future PSEI Heads. According to 49 students of the experimental group interviewed, the main reasons for the dissatisfaction with their readiness for communicative activity in the PSEI management are: Insufficient experience in establishing contacts (20 people - 41%); uncertainty in the formation of communicative skills (11 people - 22.4%); lack of theoretical knowledge (8 people - 16.3%); insufficiently responsible attitude to the study of disciplines (6 people - 12.2%); lack of interest in communication activities in the field of PSEI management, caused by unwillingness to work in their specialisation (4 people - 8.1%). Also, the analysis was subjected to the assessment of experts, it showed that: average value of readiness corresponds to the acceptable level; the positive dynamics of the theoretical and practical components of readiness while educational process; the greatest progress in the development of skills is observed during the teaching practice.
The problem of development of communicative competence of future heads of PEI has a wide field for further study. The process of experimental study included a variety of forms of educational activities: lectures, seminars, laboratory and research workshops, independent work of students, research problem group. Observation of the process of students ' participation in practical classes allowed to fix different attitudes to these forms of work: 47% of students regularly participated in the work, took the initiative, actively participated in the discussion of the results; 32.6% liked to participate in the training; 20.4% of students suffered some difficulties with the discussion of the results of the training exercises, they were shy to express their opinion. In prospect, we need to present the review to the following conclusions from an experimental study. Present a quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the level of development of managerial professional skills in communication: the ability to start, maintain and complete the communication process; the ability to manage one’s own emotions in the course of communication; to have the ability to influence on opponent in such a way that he would accept your point; the ability to communicate in various organizational forms, to speak calmly, spontaneously; the ability to predict the result of a statement; transmit information; the ability to delegate authority and share responsibility. Basic communication skills: ability to be a safe speech partner; ability to keep your strategic line; the ability to adapt to the dynamism of the situation in the process of conversation and managerial decision making; ability to organize events (conversation).
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15 November 2020
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Teacher, teacher training, teaching skills, teaching techniques, special education, children with special needs, computer-aided learning (CAL)
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Boronilova, I., Shabaeva, G., Syrtlanova, N., & Akchulpanova, A. (2020). Research Of Development Of Communicative Competence Of Future Managers Pre-School Educational Institutions. In I. Murzina (Ed.), Humanistic Practice in Education in a Postmodern Age, vol 93. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 241-251). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.11.26