Innovative Preparation Of Students For The Preschool Children Speech Development

Abstract

The article determines strategy for organization of innovative training for the speech development of preschoolers under conditions of network interaction. A brief description of the organization of network interaction of some structural units of the university and kindergartens - innovative platforms of the department on the speech development of children is provided. The innovative projects of the Department of Preschool Pedagogy and Psychology of the Bashkir State Pedagogical University named after M. Akmulla (BSPU) are listed and briefly described in the format of network interaction on speech and examination of children's speech. Characteristic of the tested system of forming students’ readiness for pedagogical diagnostics of preschool children speech development in the higher education system is proposed. Specific nature of developing the model for the formation of students’ readiness for pedagogical diagnostics of preschool children is justified, substantive description of its basic components (motivational, theoretical, practical) is provided. Set of pedagogical conditions conducive to the effective formation of students’ readiness for speech development and pedagogical diagnostics of preschool children speech development is identified and experimentally verified, tested. Issues of training and advanced training of teachers of preschool educational institutions (PEI) are currently becoming particularly relevant.

Keywords: Competency-based approach to educationnetwork interaction of participants of educational relationsprofessional innovative trainingspeech development of preschool children

Introduction

Significant changes have taken place in the system of preschool education: the Federal State Educational Standard for Preschool Education (FSES PE) came into force; the “Professional Standard of a Teacher (Educator)” was approved. Introduction of new regulatory documents requires renewal of the content of PEI operation, and, consequently, improvement of the teaching staff (Makarova, 2011). The current situation in the field of education places pedagogical staff under entirely new conditions: involvement in the development of the main educational programme of an educational institution, syllabuses, development of a model for organization of educational activity and its options, etc.

The relevance of the research issue is based on the key trend of modern education, which consists in transition to the implementation of a new educational paradigm. The personality-centered interaction, that underlies organization of the pedagogical process in preschool educational institutions, considers acquaintance and study of children by a teacher, identification of manifestations of individuality and understanding their professional mission to provide pedagogical assistance and support to children (Mihaylyichev, 1991). Qualitative renewal of the content of preschool education, increasing requirements of the society and parents to the system of preschool education actualize the problem of innovative training of specialists able to settle the issues of pedagogical diagnostics of preschool children at high theoretical and methodological level. Study of the theory and practice of preparing future teachers for implementation of pedagogical diagnostics allows us making the conclusion that this problem is studied in several aspects. The first aspect is disclosed in papers of domestic and foreign scientists dedicated to the study of the phenomenon of pedagogical diagnostics itself, its content and application.

The role of pedagogical diagnostics in organization and realization of the educational process is disclosed in papers of many scientists. Another aspect of the problem concerns particularly the issues of university training of students for the performance of pedagogical diagnostics. Researchers refer to the development of fundamentals of a teacher training for diagnostic activities performance, content and methods for the development of diagnostic culture of future teachers, development of diagnostic skills of future teachers. Peculiarities of preparing primary school teachers for carrying out pedagogical diagnostics are disclosed in papers of V.M. Yangirova and others (Yangirova, 2000).

The authors consider pedagogical diagnostics in the system of improving professional activity of a teacher and provide diagnostic and technological support of the pedagogical process. Analysis of recent studies showed closer attention to the training of future specialists of preschool education, to the pedagogical diagnostics in preschool educational institutions. Preparation of students for management of methodological work in PEI on a diagnostic basis is considered by Morozova (2000); development of the diagnostic culture of PEI teachers in the process of continuing education; development of the skills of PEI methodologists for the arrangement of research work in kindergarten.

Problem Statement

Formation of readiness for work on children's speech development on a diagnostic basis is essential in the process of professional training of students. Moreover, it is a mandatory component of preschool teachers professional development, due to the social significance of speech and its role in the development of higher mental functions and personality development. Acquisition of native language as the means and way of communication and cognition is one of the most important acquirements of a man (Shabaeva & Syirtlanova, 2019). Among many goals of upbringing and education of preschool children in kindergarten, teaching mother tongue is one of the main ones. Speech is a combination of pronounced or perceived sounds having the same sense and the same meaning as the corresponding set of written characters. Speech is one of the complex higher mental functions. According to A.N. Leontiev, the process of speech development is not the process of quantitative changes, expressed in the increase of child’s vocabulary and associative connections of the word, but the process of qualitative changes, leaps, i.e. it is the process of actual development, which, being internally connected with development of thinking and consciousness, covers all functions, sides and connections of the word (as cited in Shabaeva, & Kondrateva, 2019, p. 384).

Monitoring the quality of educational activity and its results becomes an integral part of teacher's work. The professional standard “Teacher” (pedagogical activity in the field of preschool, elementary, general, secondary general education) (educator, teacher)” (Shafikova, & Cyirtlanova, 2013, p. 133) provides for the use of such labor functions and actions of a teacher as standardized methods of psychodiagnostics of personal characteristics and age peculiarities of students, development and implementation of individual educational routes, individual development programmes, taking into account childrens' personal and age peculiarities (Shabaeva & Boronilova, 2016, p.136). Considerable experience of developing diagnostic skills of students in universities and colleges has been accumulated thanks to the traditions of teaching national theory and methodology of speech development and teaching native languages to preschool children. System of tasks for students has been developed, involving examination of different aspects of children's speech, obtained data analysis and subsequent preparation of individual development programmes for children (Alekseeva & Yashina, 2016).

Research Questions

In real university practice, students are rarely involved in the process of examining children's speech, subsequent elaboration of the plan and performance of pedagogical work with children during the period of pedagogical practice. One of the reasons is that university professors do not have scientifically-based and experience-tested system for the formation of readiness for pedagogical diagnostics of the preschool children speech development level, and as a result, students have insufficiently formed skills to study, analyze, assess and develop preschool children's speech. This is confirmed by the materials of studies conducted by us - 43.07% of the examined university students have critical level of readiness for pedagogical diagnostics of children's speech, expressed in lack of knowledge in the field of children's speech ontogenesis, lack of skills for correct interpretation of the survey results and development of individual speech development programme for a child, provision of speech education on a diagnostic basis. Readiness for pedagogical diagnostics of children's speech development is considered by us as a synthesis: positive-emotional attitude to the study of children's speech in the pedagogical process of PEI, understanding the importance of preschool children’s speech development and organization of speech education on a diagnostic basis; psychological and pedagogical knowledge about the peculiarities of speech development in ontogenesis and methods of children's speech studying; skills for studying and identifying individual characteristics of children's speech development in order to optimally determine the content and methods of pedagogical work with children. Pedagogical diagnostics of children's speech development is considered as an obligatory component of preschool education. Its main goal is pedagogical assessment of speech development, as well as selection of the method for further work on it. The pedagogical diagnostics of speech development takes an intermediate integration position between the system of methods of pedagogical influence and the system of methods of pedagogical studies, acting simultaneously as the means for identification of the level of speech development and means for its transformation and correction (Ushakova, 2015, p. 75). The end result of pedagogical diagnostics of speech development is forecasting the educational process, corresponding to the level of preschool children’s speech development.

Formation of the readiness for pedagogical diagnostics of children's speech development is carried out by the Department of Preschool Pedagogy and Psychology of the Institute of Pedagogy of the BSPU in the process of students’ studying major subjects and “Pedagogical Diagnostics of Preschool Children Speech Development” special course organized on the basis of principles of active, interactive educational technologies, including the system of educational-research tasks in various types of pedagogical practice, as well as during performance of tasks for individual work of students on the basis of kindergarten and simulation of the kindergarten in the mobile laboratory of the department. The provided works of Shabaeva (2009) study the quality of readiness, the level of diagnostic competence development of the university graduates and practitioners required for pedagogical diagnostics of children's speech development. The study involved 149 students of 3 - 4 full-time and part-time courses, 84 preschool workers (including 46 specialists with secondary level education (55%) and 38 (45%) with higher pedagogical education). The study involved 320 children of senior preschool age, 149 students of 1 - 4 full-time and part-time courses, 84 preschool practitioners and 10 professors of the university and teacher training college of Ufa, Belebey, Salavat, Kumertau, Beloretsk, Mesyagutovo village of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Teachers' understanding of the essence of children's speech development, diagnostics of speech development, mastery of examination methods, skills of interpretating examination results and using them in educational process became visible. It was found that 19 (52%) teachers do not use diagnostic methods in their work to determine the level of preschool children’s speech development and to prepare an individual speech route; 26 (68%) cannot select diagnostic methods suitable for the studied parameters; 27 (70%) unreasonably apply techniques used in psychology, speech and language therapy and defectology; 32 (84%) poorly understand the essential characteristics of speech ontogenesis, cannot use the results of examination of children's speech for subsequent development of the programme of children's speech development (Shabaeva, 2009, p. 154). The data obtained by means of combined application of diagnostic methods let us draw the conclusion that diagnostic actions, diagnostic competence in the field of children's speech development and diagnostic type of thinking are not developed in the process of direct pedagogical activity, but require special, focused work on their development in the process training of future specialists at the university. Thus, analysis of the scientific literature and of the state of pedagogical practice showed contradictions between the society’s need for pedagogical staff capable of carrying out activities for children speech development and pedagogical diagnostics of preschool children speech development, and under-preparation of university graduates for studying children's speech; the need to prepare future specialists at the university to identify peculiarities of preschool children speech and lack of scientifically based, innovative system of the formation of students’ readiness for children's speech diagnostics under conditions of network interaction of all participants of educational process.

Purpose of the Study

These contradictions determined the problem of our study: What are the pedagogical conditions contributing to the effective formation of students' readiness for examination of preschool children’s speech development? Settlement of this problem was the purpose of the study. The object of the study in the proposed scientific article is professional innovative training of students in a higher educational institution for work on preschool children speech development under conditions of network interaction. Subject of the study: process of forming students' readiness for pedagogical diagnostics of preschool children’s speech development. Nowadays the problem of interconnections and integration of education levels is particularly relevant: effective development of the innovative activity of PEI is impossible without close connection with modern science in the field of preschool education. To solve this problem and improve the quality of modern preschool education in the Republic of Bashkortostan, such integration is particularly required: solution of problems relevant to the practice of preschool education is possible only in close interconnection of educational institutions, theory and practice, system of training and improvement of the level of professional competence of educators. In 2015, the Department of Education of the Administration of Ufa city of the Republic of Bashkortostan and the BSPU named after M. Akmulla signed the agreement on the development of cooperation, development and implementation of the project “Basic educational institutions of BSPU named after M. Akmulla”. The agreement is designed to realize the project of such cooperation. The Department of Preschool Pedagogy and Psychology (DP&P) under the direction of I.G. Boronilova initiated the interaction with PEI of Ufa city and of the Republic of Bashkortostan: cooperation in the field of scientific-research and methodological work with the department helps to effectively solve the problems facing each preschool institution. For the current year, priority tasks were settled and the following areas of cooperation were implemented: the mechanism of network interaction of the DP&P with PEI of the Republic of Bashkortostan, development of the regional system of formation and improvement of professional competence and professional mobility of teachers, supervisors of PEI and university graduates, provision of professional education in accordance with the world standards and supply of the Republic of Bashkortostan with highly qualified specialists. On the basis of agreements on cooperation and practical training during the year students of the department worked as interns and conducted the course and graduation studies at the request of kindergartens in Ufa city and the Republic of Bashkortostan on relevant issues of a particular PEI. Their studies included speech development of children. Experimental work was also carried out on the base of 15 innovative (experimental) platforms of the department; methodological interaction was carried out with 3 basic PEI of the department (PEI № 107, 157, 182, etc.); 3 branches of the department were opened in the PEI (PEI № 21, 32, 164) in Ufa city; the format of cooperation between PEI and the DP&P was updated. The mechanism of scientific and methodological interaction was developed and implemented: developing system of training teachers in the field of preschool education, development of the unified information and scientific-educational environment ("Open School", "Electronic Kindergarten", "Center for Family and Childhood Support", simulation educational center "Mobile Kindergarten"), joint scientific - research activity on the basis of grants, format of the expert council for operation of innovative (experimental) platform was updated – the council for preschool education was created; opening of the competence development centre, creation of training platforms for preparation of participants of national competitions (including the World Skills national championships), conduction of master classes, training courses, seminars, and continuing education courses for preschool educators are in the process of realization.

In the framework of improvement of practical, competency-based orientation of future teacherst raining in bachelor’s and master's degree programmes, strengthening the connection of all components of the training content with the practical professional tasks of a teacher, as well as for working out by students and graduate students of their own labor activities according to the sample of supervisors activities, various events are systematically conducted, both off-site, on the base of kindergartens, and on the base of business incubators of the Institute of Family and Childhood, simulation centers, competency development centers of BSPU. The strategy of establishment of an innovation center, competency development center at the department of the university is aimed at raising the status and authority of the Department of Preschool Pedagogy and Psychology, creating its positive image, developing its educational services and introducing them into the labor market, implementing completely new requirements to the training of teaching staff and training of experts in the field of preschool education in business incubators of the innovative educational complex of the Institute of Family and Childhood of the BSPU for effective formation and development of professional competencies of students, including those in the field of preschool children speech development. Currently, on the basis of business incubator and simulated smart center for development of competencies, established at the BSPU, students have the opportunity to take part in the diagnostic work with children, during which the problem of preparing students for diagnostic activities is solved , as well as consulting work with parents and educators of children's educational institutions is carried out, which were reported and analyzed during the meeting of Children's speech development research group [6]. Also the authors: Professor V.I. Yashina, the Head of the Department of Theory and Principles of Preschool Education of the MSPU (Moscow), and G.F. Shabaeva, E.S. Nagimova (Mironova), the Associate Professors of the BSPU named after M. Akmulla (Ufa) (as cited in Shabaeva, & Kondrateva, 2019, p. 386), proposed and introduced an original system of organizing complex psychological and pedagogical support of different categories of families and children in consulting centers and centers of additional education. The system includes the work of specialists from various areas (psychologists, teachers, doctors, defectologists, genetics, etc.) in virtual and real living environment on the issues of children's speech development in the framework of carrying out scientific project "Psychological and pedagogical support of family and childhood" sponsored by the grant from the Republic of Bashkortostan. The authors explain the relevance of introducing complex approach to the work with family and child, in particular, through the system of laboratories (Shafikova & Cyirtlanova, 2013, p. 135), research centers, business incubators, network of sports and health centers, including the sports club Arslan, established on the basis of the BSPU.

Developed by us theoretical model includes three basic components reflecting psychological mechanism of integral formation of readiness for professional activity, as well as the content, forms, methods and means of training, based on theoretical and methodological basis of the study: provisions of philosophy and psychology about language as a product of social-historical development, as the most important means of communication and cognition; works reflecting various aspects of systematic, personality-oriented and activity-based approaches in the field of education; theoretical justification of consciousness and activity unity. The study is based on the development of diagnostic component of pedagogical activity, developmental diagnostics (Yangirova, 2000); theory of speech activity, concepts on the role of language in the process of child development; psychological and pedagogical research on the diagnostics of preschool children speech development (Alekseeva & Yashina, 2016), theoretical provisions on the study of children's speech from the point of view of correctional pedagogy.

The motivational component of the developed and tested model of readiness includes: positive-emotional attitude to the study of children's speech in the pedagogical process of PEI; sense making (understanding the role of preschool children’s speech development and arrangement of speech education on a diagnostic basis); focus on the diagnostic activities of students in the field of children's speech development. Content of the theoretical component of readiness includes psychological and pedagogical knowledge about the peculiarities of speech development in ontogenesis and methods of examination of different aspects of speech. Their final formation suggests that students should know: peculiarities of preschool children’s speech development, main lines of development of speech aspects at different age stages, scientific basis for the formation of speech activity, principles and methods of diagnostics of individual speech development of a preschool child. Conscious understanding of actions on the study of children's speech is occurred on the basis of psychological and pedagogical knowledge, and diagnostic skills in the field of preschool children’s speech development are formed. In our study we consider skills as the ability of conscious and independent determination of peculiarities of children's speech based on the acquired knowledge and experience.

The structure of the practical component of readiness for pedagogical diagnostics of children's speech development includes the following skills: ability to choose diagnostic technique depending on age and individual characteristics; ability to select criteria and parameters by which the level of speech development will be evaluated; ability to choose task system in order to carry out diagnostics of child’s speech; ability to perform diagnostics of child's speech development, making the process of task execution interesting for the child; ability to diagnose the speech aspects; ability to analyze data obtained in the result of diagnostics performance, establishing interconnections between individual elements of child's speech development; ability to determine reasons for speech characteristic, connecting it with peculiarities of personality development and activity of the child; ability to make conclusions regarding the peculiarities of child’s speech development and provide certain pedagogical recommendations for further work with the child. In order to assess the degree of forming readiness components, timely correction of the system of university training of students for the performance of diagnostics of children's speech development, we have developed a complex of psychological and pedagogical diagnostics: tests, questionnaires, individual readiness cards, workbooks-manuals, calendars of entertaining and cognitive activities for children's speech development, pedagogical training simulators, control questions and tasks, a diagnostic card that includes characteristics of critical, acceptable, sufficient, high levels of readiness in general and for each component, etc. Such complex allows you to provide control and self-control of the results achieved by students in dynamics ( Yashina & Maksimova, 2011, p. 32 ).

The process of forming students' readiness to identify peculiarities of the level of preschool children speech development and prepare programme of speech development on a diagnostic basis was carried out gradually, in a staged manner. At the first stage, readiness was formed in the process of studying disciplines of general professional and subject training, including, “Theories and Technologies of Children's Speech Development”. Particular attention was paid to the study of speech ontogenesis, main lines of preschool children speech development. The second stage included special course and laboratory workshop, tasks for individual work for students on the basis of PEI in this discipline, work in a student scientific research group on children's speech development. Successful acquisition of psychological and pedagogical knowledge on the peculiarities of speech development in ontogenesis, methods of examination of different aspects of speech, as well as the ability to study and identify individual peculiarities of children's speech development, realization of interconnection between theoretical and practical components of students' readiness was provided by systematic involvement of students in the real pedagogical process of PEI during the laboratory workshop on the basis of PEI, pedagogical practice, workout of hours for individual students work on the basis of kindergarten, in the process of preparation of course and graduation papers. Direct communication with children and parents, research approach to children's speech, interaction of students in the group, modelling the pedagogical process of PEI, network interaction with all participants of educational relations - with teacher trainers, with supervisors of the department and bases of innovative platforms of the department for children's speech development (Municipal Autonous Children Educational Institution kindergarten № 26 in Ishimbay city; MACEI kindergarten № 50, 107, MBCEI № 162 in Ufa city) - deals with the problem of improving the level of motivational-value-based attitude to the development of child’s personality, children's speech on a diagnostic basis, individual speech route.

The special course on speech development and diagnostics of children's speech development included lectures and practical exercises using active, interactive learning technologies. The applied methods: lecture-consultation, lecture with feedback, lecture-discussion, business games, quests, entertaining affairs, lessons-conferences, analysis of a certain situation, application of logical-semantic schemes, etc., stimulating students to discuss, conduct micro-studies, develop and simulate pedagogical work with children. Constant feedback, communication between teacher/ supervisor and students in a dialogue mode made it possible to gradually evaluate and control depth and completeness of material acquisition, as well as to create relaxed atmosphere allowing students to express different opinions, argue, collaborate, and to develop creative potential and communication skills of students. Use of various teaching aids (diagrams, models, etc.), presentations, videos of children's speech examination by experienced educators, audio records of children's speech with subsequent analysis provided high activity of students during the study. The programme provided gradual complication of practical tasks: from observation and analysis of PEI teachers activity to the individual examination of preschool children’s speech development on the basis of an adequately selected technique in order to optimally determine the content and methods of pedagogical work with children. Students fulfilled educational and research tasks (certification of methods, filling in decigrams of children’s speech development, creation and filling in the information base of the PEI "Preschool Children Speech Development" and application of their management system), etc. In the course of cooperation between teacher and students, was developed an algorithm for preparation of some kind of passport of the methods for children's speech examination, which was later used as the basis for the fulfilment of other tasks, for example, reviewing by students of methodological passports ( Yashina & Andryushina, 2005, p. 71 ). An important component of preparation for the diagnostics of children's speech development was individual work with students in the framework of research group and individual work at the competence development center of the Preschool Pedagogy and Psychology Department of the BSPU. The effective method for development of diagnostic skills, as experience shows, is to involve students to participate in socially significant projects on the study of the level of preschool children speech development under conditions of the region, in the examination of children's speech in preschool institutions, in the research groups devoted to the development of children's speech, in business incubators and simulation and consulting centers of the university and bases of practice of PEI (Assoc. Professor I.G. Boronilova, the Head of the Department of Preschool Pedagogy and Psychology, Ph.D. in Pedagogy) - innovative experimental platforms of the Department of Preschool Pedagogy and Psychology of BSPU: MAPEI № 50 of Ufa city of the RB (Z.N. Maksyutova, the Head of the MAPEI № 50 of Ufa city, E.E. Idrisova, the senior teacher.); MAPEI № 107 of Ufa city (Kazakova I.N. the Head, Astafieva O.I. the senior teacher), MBPEI № 162 of Ufa city (master of education Tanyukevich A.V. the Head of the MBPEI № 162); MAPEI № 26 «Ryabinka» of Ishimbay city (Mikhailova E.N. the Head, Adadurova I.A. the senior teacher) (as cited in Shabaeva, & Syirtlanova, 2019, p. 272)..

Research Methods

To achieve the set goal, the following research methods were applied: observation, interview, testing, analysis, generalization, pedagogical experiment (ascertaining, educational, controlled). The applied methods were used in accordance with the sequence of study stages.

Findings

Participation of students, graduate students in socially significant projects on the study of preschool children speech development in our region was organized in the framework of the Moscow project “Studying child’s speech development readiness for schooling” under the guidance of Professor V.I.Yashina, the Head of the Department of Theory and Principles of Preschool Education of the faculty of Preschool Pedagogy and Psychology of the MSPU (Moscow) (Yashina & Alekseeva, 2016). Students were actively involved into implementation of socially significant projects on studying speech preparation of children for schooling in the region, with further consultations for parents and preparation of individual programmes of work with children. Full-time and part-time students were involved in the examination of speech development of 320 children of senior preschool age (128 rural and 192 urban) attending mass PEI. The overall level of speech development of children has been determined: 20.9% of children have high level of speech development; above the average - 40.6%; 29.2% have average level; below the average - 3%; low level - 6.3%. Let us present brief description of the results of a survey on the level of formation of different aspects of speech of senior preschool children in the field of speech readiness for schooling (methodology by Professor V.I. Yashina). The level of communication skills development is the following: 47.9% - high and above the average, 42.6% - average, 9.5% - low. The level of coherent speech: 32.3% have high and above the average, 53% - an average level, 14.7% - low. The level of lexical development: 33.2% have high and above the average; 59.8% - average level, 7% - low. The level of grammar skills development: 16.3% have high and above the average, 67% - average level, 16.6% - low. The level of the sound aspect of speech development: 53.8% have high and above the average, 41.4% - average, 4.8% - low. The level of practical perception of the elements of language and speech: 59% have high and above the average, 37% - average level, 3.8% - low level. The data of the performed survey of children's speech were uploaded by students in the information base of the PEI “Preschool Children Speech Development” based on the MicrosoftOfficeAccess database concept. Participation of students in this project contributed to understanding the social significance of speech education, establishment of professional-value-based orientations, application of the system of psychological and pedagogical knowledge and skills in the field of diagnostics of children's speech development.

Conclusion

Students training and improvement of professional competencies of PEI specialists in the field of preschool children’s speech development are realized in the process of their participation in international, all-Russian, regional conferences and seminars, master classes, which scientific and methodological support is carried out by the teaching staff of the department. These events contribute to the timely acquaintance of students and teachers with modern state standards in the system of preschool education, prompt provision of qualified consultative assistance in all areas of educational activity, possibility to share and transfer advanced pedagogical experience, practice of application of innovative technologies in the field of preschool children speech development. Only the integration of activities at all levels of education, centralization of resources according to the network model, based on the basis of mutual benefit, “bilateral usefulness” of social partnership of science and practice of modern preschool education in the Republic of Bashkortostan will allow providing effective support of the priority areas of modern preschool education, and solve psychological and pedagogical problems associated with peculiarities and content of the Federal State Educational Standards of preschool education, including in the framework of implementation of the educational field “Speech Development”.

The problem of organizing innovative training of students for preschool children speech development under conditions of network interaction has wide field for further study. We see directions for further research in determining content and technology of training on the base of competencies development center of the university and bases of innovative platforms of the department.

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15 November 2020

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Teacher, teacher training, teaching skills, teaching techniques, special education, children with special needs, computer-aided learning (CAL)

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Boronilova, I., Shabaeva, G., Syrtlanova, N., & Akchulpanova, A. (2020). Innovative Preparation Of Students For The Preschool Children Speech Development. In & I. Murzina, Dr. (1st Edition), Humanistic Practice in Education in a Postmodern Age, vol 93. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 230-240). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.11.25