The solution to the problem of re-socialization of convicted juveniles released from prisons is proposed through their inclusion in the system of self-employment, individual entrepreneurship and small business. Lack of work and livelihood leads to recidivism. The formation of entrepreneurial literacy will allow integrating the exempt into the new social environment, and adapting it to its norms, rules and requirements. Education of convicted juveniles in the basics of entrepreneurship in one of three areas of small business - agriculture and processing of agricultural products; construction and industry; trade and services - helps them to provide themselves with the future workplace. The solution of the problem of resocialization due to its fragmentation into three tasks is substantiated. The first task is to help convicted juveniles, while in custody, choose an individual entrepreneurial training path. The second task is to give convicted juveniles relevant competencies in the fields of law, economics, finance, ethics, communications, necessary for doing business. The third task is to motivate adolescents held in an educational colony to obtain entrepreneurial competencies demanded at large as a factor in their further adaptation and resocialization. The positive experience of the Sterlitamak educational colony of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia in the Republic of Bashkortostan is described.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial literacyconvicted juvenilesre-socialization
A quarter of a century that has passed since the beginning of political and economic changes in Russia, led to cardinal shifts in many areas of social life, changed not only the whole country, but also the life of every citizen. The difference in income between the “haves” and “have-nots” exacerbated the criminal situation in the country, which actualizes the problem of re-socialization of persons serving sentences. The return of this contingent to creative production is a difficult task and requires significant time and material costs. Therefore, the development and implementation of new methods of pedagogical impact in order to re-socialize prisoners and their positive entry into socio-economic relations seems appropriate. The pedagogical problem of the formation of entrepreneurial literacy of convicts lies in the context of the problems of formation of the economic culture of the individual, and with respect to minors - in the context of the problems of economic socialization.
Entrepreneurial literacy should be considered not only as the basics of economic culture, but as a sociocultural phenomenon that exists at three levels: at the levels of general, special and individual. At the idea level (general), it appears as a definition. At the level of sociocultural reality (special) - as the implementation of this idea in the activities of social strata and groups with different vectors of sociocultural activity. As a unit, it manifests itself at the level of individual educational institutions, in particular, the penal correction system. Meanwhile, the theoretical and methodological foundations of the formation of entrepreneurial literacy of prisoners in general, and juvenile prisoners in particular, have not been sufficiently developed to date.
The solution to the problem of resocialization of persons released from places of detention is seen through their inclusion in the system of self-employment, i.e. small business. One of the factors contributing to the successful adaptation of a convicted juvenile to life after his release is his training in small business - entrepreneurship. Training of convicted juveniles "on businessmen" already during the time they are serving a sentence helps them to organize and run small businesses, thereby providing themselves with future workplaces. Based on the development and testing of a model of the educational process under conditions of serving a sentence, this will reveal the pedagogical potential of entrepreneurial literacy as a factor in the re-socialization of convicted juveniles.
The formation of entrepreneurial literacy of convicted juveniles as a factor in their re-socialization requires the solution of the following issues:
1) a disclosure of the concept of "entrepreneurial literacy" in the system of categories of pedagogical science;
2) a determination of organizational and pedagogical conditions for the formation of entrepreneurial literacy of prisoners as a factor in their re-socialization;
3) a development and testing of the methodology for the formation of entrepreneurial literacy of prisoners, conducive to their successful resocialization after release.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to consider theoretical problems and summarize practical experience in forming the entrepreneurial competencies of convicted juveniles during their stay in the penitentiary system, which makes it possible for a young person who has been released to become an independent subject of economic activity (Baryisheva, 2010). Achieving the stated goal involves assisting convicted juveniles in choosing an individual entrepreneurial training path in one of the three areas of small business - agriculture and processing of agricultural products; construction and industry; trade and services. In addition, it is necessary to give convicted juveniles relevant competencies in the fields of law, economics, finance, ethics, communications, without which entrepreneurial activity is impossible. This will allow to motivate adolescents held in an educational colonies to obtain entrepreneurial competencies that are in demand as a factor in their further re-socialization.
The study used methods of abstraction and idealization; comparative analysis of the content of regulatory documents and scientific publications; analysis of existing points of view on the problem and the conceptual apparatus of research; questionnaire survey method; the method of reflection and generalization of personal empirical experience related to the formation and development of entrepreneurial literacy. The study is based on the author's experience of teaching (Benin & Gareeva, 2016).
The pedagogical problem of the formation of entrepreneurial literacy of convicts lies in the context of the problems of formation of the economic culture of the individual, and with respect to minors - in the context of the problems of economic socialization. In our view, which is the basis of economic culture, entrepreneurial literacy should be considered at three levels - at the level of general, special and individual. At the general level, entrepreneurial literacy is an idea reflected in a specific definition. At the special level, this is sociocultural reality as the realization of this idea in the activities of social strata and groups with different vectors of sociocultural activity. As a unit, it is the implementation of the named idea at the level of individual educational institutions, in particular, educational institutions of the penal system. Meanwhile, the theoretical and methodological foundations of the formation of entrepreneurial literacy of prisoners in general, and convicted juveniles in particular, have not been sufficiently developed to date (Pedagogical Encyclopedic Dictionary, 2002). As a result, there is no corresponding practice, although the issues of training and upbringing in the conditions of the execution of sentences for penitentiary pedagogy are not new (Cullen, Jones, & Woodward, 2007).
Thus, at the socio-pedagogical and methodological levels, the presence of obvious contradictions can be noted. At the socio-pedagogical level, there is a contradiction between the society’s need to transform educational colonies for convicted juveniles into educational centers for perpetrators of juvenile delinquency, which follows from the Concept of Development of the Criminal Executive System of the Russian Federation until 2020 (The concept of development of …, 2010) and noted in literature by the lack of development of the modern pedagogical system of correction of convicted juveniles (Tyugaeva, 2015). At the methodological level, there is a contradiction between the educational opportunities for teaching convicted juveniles the basics of small and medium-sized enterprises as a factor in their successful resocialization and the lack of relevant experience and program-methodological support for the penitentiary system staff.
One of the solutions to the problem of resocialization of releases from places of detention is seen through their inclusion in the system of self-employment, i.e. small business. One of the factors contributing to the successful adaptation of a convicted juvenile to life after release is his/her training in entrepreneurship. Training of convicted juveniles "on businessmen" already during the time they are serving a sentence helps them to organize and run a small business, thereby providing themselves with a future workplace. Knowledge of the fundamentals of entrepreneurial activity can, firstly, lead to a decrease in the level of recidivism and, secondly, partially solve the problem of employment.
Based on the pedagogical understanding of literacy as a certain degree of a person’s possession of reading and writing skills in accordance with the grammatical norms of the mother tongue, we define entrepreneurial literacy as the initial (basic) degree of a person’s skills in economic activity, which allows him/her consciously and purposefully participate in the social processes of production, exchange and consumption of material goods (Gareeva, 2018). This means the ability to participate in elementary business processes in accordance with established norms of the economy and law.
Theoretically, achieving the stated goal is based on publications on economic education and upbringing (Baryisheva, 2016), and on labor and economic socialization of adolescents (Benin & Gareeva, 2016), on research by representatives of penitentiary pedagogy as Soviet and the post-Soviet periods (Evgrafov, 1970; Tretyak & Nizovets, 2012). But if in the works of the Soviet period the main emphasis was placed on the ideological education of convicts (which is clearly illustrated, for example, by Evgrafov (1970, 1971), then modern scholars are more attentive to statements of sociologists, that “in the conditions of market relations there is a pragmatization of value consciousness, not so much social as personal landmarks become more important” (Yureva, 2005, p. 155).
Prison teachers regularly turn to the issue of re-socialization of prisoners. In our approach, we share the position of those authors who understand by re-socialization of convicted juveniles “the process of consciously resuming previously lost or weakened as a result of asocial behavior of a person’s socio-psychological qualities (responsibility, empathy, tolerance, communicativeness) and assimilation of socially accepted norms, values, behaviors, which are necessary for the full functioning in society” (Tretyak & Nizovets, 201, p. 63). One of the ways to solve the problem of resocialization of releases from places of detention is seen in their inclusion in the system of self-employment, i.e. small business.
In the context of the foregoing, we believe that one of the effective ways for the re-socialization of convicts (especially those in places where juveniles are sentenced) is the general educational methods of forming the foundations of entrepreneurial literacy in them. This assumption is based on the psychological specificity of the third period of a person’s stay in the conditions of the execution of punishment, which is known to specialists, which is associated with the expectation of release. At this time, the prisoner is suppressed by uncertainty about the future, difficulties in adapting to a new world, learning a new life strategy. Difficulties of future readaptation are envisaged” (Krotova, 2018, p. 253). Education of convicted juveniles “for businessmen” helps to remove fear of the uncertainty of the near future and while serving the sentence, helps them organize and run their own small businesses, thereby providing themselves with future workplaces.
In this assumption, we relied on the results of a study by Baryisheva (2016), as well as her proposition that vocational guidance in the practice of educational colonies, in contrast to the usual help in choosing a profession, is designed to protect the human right to self-realization by choosing a profession. Career guidance is considered as a kind of resource activity, which, relying on the positive in the personality structure, its socially oriented interests, develops them, forming special knowledge and skills necessary for choosing a profession, work in a specific field, and largely determines the future (Baryisheva, 2016, p. 81).
The stated approach, in our opinion, corresponds to modern understanding that the most important area of activity with convicts is the organization of educational work, the creation of conditions for their education and self-development (Hrabrova & Chernyishenko, 2016), on the formation of the correctional institution of a special rehabilitating social environment, which is the most important factor in the development of personality and provides the solution to the problems of educational work with convicted juveniles (Hrabrova, 2015). It seems that the development of an appropriate system of vocational education, focused on the specifics of the Federal Penitentiary Service, has not only important socio-pedagogical, but also socio-economic importance.
One of the areas of professional training that promotes faster adaptation of a convicted person to life after release is education in running small business - entrepreneurship. In fact, entrepreneurship is a kind of craft, but only with the opening of an individual enterprise or something like that. In other words, the pilot project teaches the convicts “for businessmen” and during the time they serve, helps them to understand how to organize and conduct their small businesses, thereby providing themselves with future workplaces.
Of great importance for the prevention of new crimes by releases from places of detention is the organization at the local level of events for their social adaptation, assistance with labor and domestic devices and control over them. The solution to the problem of the employment of some of the persons released from places of detention is seen through their inclusion in the system of self-employment, i.e. small business. Forms of small businesses can be different. The feasibility of their choice depends on a number of factors - the level of business training, regional demand, support for loved ones, financial condition, desire and ability to create a team or desire to work alone. Adequate accounting for them helps convicts to find employment after release.
We emphasize that an adequate presentation of all aspects of the problem of the re-socialization of convicts is impossible without the recognition that many employers refuse to provide them with a job, firstly, because of a criminal record and, secondly, because of low qualifications. Few manage to find a job that is adequately paid. Lack of work and livelihood leads to recidivism. The formation of entrepreneurial literacy will allow to integrate the exempt into the new social environment, adapting it to its norms, rules and requirements.
Since the beginning of 2017, we have been implementing the project “Entrepreneurial Literacy as a Factor in Social Adaptation and Resocialization of Convicted Juveniles” among convicted juveniles located in the Sterlitamak educational colony of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia in the Republic of Bashkortostan. The aim of the project is the formation of entrepreneurial competencies of convicted juveniles during their stay in the penitentiary institutions, which, according to the research hypothesis, subsequently provides an opportunity for a released person to become an independent subject of economic activity. During the implementation of the project, three interrelated tasks were solved.
The first task is to help convicted juveniles, while in custody, choose an individual entrepreneurial training path in one of the three areas of small business - agriculture and processing of agricultural products; construction and industry; trade and services. Its solution required the scientific development of a system for the formation of entrepreneurial literacy as a factor in the social re-socialization of convicted juveniles and the identification of individual learning paths for students of entrepreneurial literacy based on their criminal law, socio-demographic and psychological profiles.
The second task is to give convicted juveniles relevant competencies in the fields of law, economics, finance, ethics, communications, necessary for running business. Its solution involved the implementation of theoretical training of students in the basics of entrepreneurial literacy and their practical specialization in one of the areas of small and medium-sized businesses (agriculture and processing of agricultural products; construction and industry; trade and services) based on individually-professional trajectories.
The third task is to motivate adolescents held in an educational colony to obtain entrepreneurial competencies demanded at large as a factor in their further adaptation and resocialization. This was achieved through the trainees’ development and presentation their copyright business projects with the subsequent certification for the educational program “Fundamentals of Entrepreneurial Activities”.
As a criterion for mastering entrepreneurial literacy, trainees’ business projects focused on practical implementation were evaluated by experts from among entrepreneurs, teachers, and employees of the Federal Penitentiary Service. After presentation, the most promising business projects were recommended to investors.
The work on the implementation of the project included three components - organizational, educational and practical implementations. In the organizational plan the colony leader approved the daily routine taking into account occupations in the units. Together with the headmaster of the colony secondary school, educational groups were formed and premises for theoretical and practical classes were determined.
Before starting classes, an anonymous survey of institution inmates was conducted to identify the degree of their awareness of the specifics of individual entrepreneurial activity and the desire to learn its basics. The questionnaire showed that the vast majority of respondents are interested in acquiring the knowledge and skills necessary for entrepreneurial activity (to the question “Would you like to receive knowledge and practical skills that will allow you to become an entrepreneur in the future?” The answer “Yes, I want” was given by 30 people, “Rather yes, than no” – by 17 people, answers“ More likely no than yes ”,“ I don’t want ”and“ Difficult to answer ”- by one person each). At the same time, many adolescents specifically indicated in which sphere of individual labor activity they would like to specialize in the future.
Another important organizational aspect was the agreement on the provision of information and consultation support to the project participants by the management of the Development and Small Business Support Fund of the Republic of Bashkortostan;
The educational part of the project was developed by teachers of the social and humanitarian faculty of BSPU named after M.Akmullah. The program designed for 54 hours (36 hours of theoretical classes and 18 hours of practice) consists of three parts. The first part is a general theoretical one, covering the basics of legal and economic knowledge necessary for running business. The second part considers the features of entrepreneurial activity in individual sectors of the economy (agricultural, construction, trade, services). The third part is practical. institution inmates are engaged in real production (growing seedlings in the greenhouse, woodworking, manufacturing souvenir products), while developing the skills necessary for doing business, such as calculating the cost of production, drawing up a business plan, etc.
In the theoretical classes, as part of the introduction to the basics of entrepreneurial activity, issues of legal regulation, economic, financial and resource support of small and medium-sized enterprises were considered, as well as features of taxation and public procurement system; reorganization and liquidation of organizations of various forms of ownership. At the same time during these classes, preparatory work was carried out in order to develop and write business projects;
In practical classes, the institution inmates prepared greenhouses for planting tomatoes and planted tomato seedlings in open and closed ground, made equipment for the production of paving slabs, and produced prototypes of souvenir products.
The result of the training was the development and presentation by institution inmates of individual practice-oriented business projects. As an example, let us demonstrate two of them.
Business project for the production of paving slabs.
Business project for the agricultural production.
The practical implementation of the project made it possible to really ensure the conditions for the effective formation of entrepreneurial literacy of convicted juveniles as one of the means of their re-socialization. The positive results obtained allow us to continue the work on the formation of entrepreneurial literacy in adult correctional institutions in Russia.
The study was carried out in the framework of the Bashkir Republican branch of the All-Russian Public Charitable Fund “Russian Children’s Fund” in conjunction with the Office of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia in the Republic of Bashkortostan, the open charity program “Beyond Bars for Children.”
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15 November 2020
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Benin, V., Gareeva, L., & Zhukova, E. (2020). Entrepreneurial Literacy Developmentof Convicted Juvenilesas A Means Of Their Re-Socialization. In I. Murzina (Ed.), Humanistic Practice in Education in a Postmodern Age, vol 93. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 159-167). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.11.17