The relevance of the problem is due to the fact that according to the socio-cultural and socio-economic transformations of modern society and to the intensive development of the modern job market, the entire education system is being actively updated and optimized, which implies a fundamental change in its content, requirements and creation of effective mechanisms to achieve new educational results at all stages of the educational process. After the Federal State Educational Standard of Primary General Education, which describes extracurricular activities as a mandatory component of the educational process, was introduced, the question of its functionality and content has become particularly relevant, as extracurricular activities of primary school students contribute to the development of basic cognitive processes. The purpose of the article is to explain the universal educational activities of primary school students in the implementation of extracurricular activities for general intellectual development. The leading method is a pedagogical experiment which involved teachers and primary school students of Municipal Budgetary Institution of General Education (MBIGE) Lyceum № 5, Ufa, MBIGE Lyceum № 21, Ufa. The study was conducted on the basis of the Research laboratory for testing the Federal state educational standards of the new generation and for solution of other relevant problems of the educational system of Miyakinskiy district, created within Municipal Budgetary Institution (MBI) "Department of education of the Administration of the municipality Miyakinsky district of Republic of Bashkortostan" and the Department of Pedagogy of "Bashkir State Pedagogical University named after M. Akmulla".
Keywords: Extracurricular activitiesprimary general educationuniversal educational activities
The society requires the education system to train a competent professional and researcher, who has flexible and open mind and methods, critical and creative thinking.
The Federal State Educational Standard of Primary General Education (FSES PGE) states new requirements for students, emphasizing the need for highly educated citizens who are able to adapt to different situations and show their independence, mobility, creativity. The standard focuses on preparing students for real life, which allows them to take an active position in society, to successfully solve problems in life, to cooperate and work in a group, to be ready for the rapid changes in the requirements of the modern job market. These circumstances cause new requirements for the outcome of the work of educational institution, which is possible only if curricular and extracurricular activities are coordinated. In this article we explain the aspects of the organization of extracurricular activities of general intellectual development in primary general education, contributing to the effective development of universal educational activities of primary school students.
The essential characteristics of extracurricular activities, requirements for its organization, historical background of the origin of institutions for the development of extracurricular work are described in the works of Kazarenkov (2003), Sukhomlinskij (as cited in Gleizer, 2002); implementation of extracurricular activities in the framework of FSES PGE is studied by Gladkova (2015), Grigoryev and Stepanov (2011), Yangirova (2011) and others.
Based on scientific studies and our own experience, we consider extracurricular activities of general intellectual development to be a special kind of educational activities performed differently from the class activity, aimed at the achievement of planned results of development of basic educational programs of primary general education, in which the children reveal their creative potential, form an interest in learning and researching new knowledge, learn new methods of cooperative activities.
However, the study of the current way of implementation of extracurricular activities of general intellectual development in primary general education showed that the formation of universal educational activities of primary school students is not given enough attention. At the same time, we can state that some experience has been accumulated, on the basis of which our study is conducted.
We note that, according to the FSES PGE, extracurricular activities are also aimed at the achievement of results of studying of basic educational program, but, more importantly, at the achievement of personal and intersubject results, where students must learn to act, feel, make decisions etc. This is the way the students learn basic universal educational activities as a set of different research methods.
FSES PGE sets four types of universal educational actions: personal, regulatory (including the actions of self-regulation), cognitive, communicative.
Personal universal educational actions include actions on self-determination of the person (professional, personal), actions of logic, moral and aesthetic evaluation, as well as self-realisation of social roles and interpersonal relations.
Consider the example of the organization of extracurricular classes "Young researcher", "Grow up to discoveries!", implemented in the framework of experimental work for students of grades 1 to 4 of MBIGE Lyceum № 5, Ufa, MBIGE Lyceum № 21, Ufa, MBIGE GES №. 1, MBIGE GES №. 2 of Kirgiz-Miyaki of the Miyakinskiy district of the Republic of Bashkortostan.
This type of UEA (universal educational activities) combines the methods of action as skills: to see the problem, to put forward hypotheses, to present the results of their work.
For example, the task "Tell us about the traditions in your family." The task allows the child to collect information in various ways and methods. There is direct communication with family members, the formation of personal qualities, as well as the opportunity to show creative skills in presenting the collected information and telling the classmates about the traditions that are inherent only in their family. Also, the realisation of the project "Games of my grandparents" contributes to the productive formation and development of personal universal educational activities, through different tasks such as: the survey of parents, grandparents ("Does the progress change the games?", "How does the game affect health?", "What outdoor games do you know?"), the collection of drawings, photographs of various games for the organization of the exhibition "Games for the family", which develops the emotional part of the student’s personality.
The block of regulatory actions includes the actions that help students to organise their educational activity: goal-setting, planning, forecasting, control, correction, assessment. It should be noted that the selected elements are typical for educational and research activities. In pedagogy, this unit is usually called organizational general educational skills and is considered as the most important - and basic.
In our study, primary school students created the project "Our feathered friends", aimed at organizing and planning activities to collect materials on the topic, where collectively the project participants specified the most important activities for the project: making feeders, filling out a detailed diary of observations of the life of birds, the design of the research project of the group.
For effective realisation of the project students were divided into groups according to their individual tasks:
the first group studied the ornithofauna of the Miyakinskiy district of the Republic of Bashkortostan;
the second group studied the musical abilities of birds;
the third group prepared the final quiz "What bird is it?";
the fourth group made and installed bird feeders, watched the feeding and watched the appearance of wintering birds;
the fifth group made a report "The Importance of birds in the culture and life of the Bashkirs";
the sixth group after joint discussion classified the collected material and made the book "Our feathered friends".
At the third stage, each group worked with the collected information, conducting its analysis, and made a book with photos and drawings of birds of the region.
At the fourth stage, the groups presented the collected material and explained the most important parts of the project: how they made the feeders and placed them in the school yard, how they observed the behaviour of birds and their life, how they created the detailed diary of observations, how they designed the group project.
At the fifth stage, the group made a report, their activities were analysed collectively.
The universal actions of cognitive orientation include general educational (setting of educational goals, tracing the necessary information, using the methods of information search, the ability to structure knowledge, to present their thoughts in oral and written form consciously and willingly, etc.), universal logical operations (analysis, synthesis, comparison, classification, explaining the concept, making conclusions, seeing the cause and consequence, ability to think logically, to prove statements and hypotheses), setting and solving problems, including creative thinking (Kovaleva & Loginova, 2009).
We will consider this unit of actions through the prism of performing tasks for the development of logical operations:
"Тюльпан - tulip from the point of view of a linguist, a gardener, a bee". Each group is to analyze the object in the proposed aspect (the first aspect – тюльпан (tulip) is a noun, nominative case, singular, masculine, 2 declension. The phonemic analysis of the word is as follows:
The word тюльпан (tulip) consists of 2 syllables, the 2nd syllable is percussive. For the second aspect, tulip is a genus of perennial herbaceous bulbous plants of the Lily family; for the third aspect, bees pollinate tulips. The aroma of tulips attracts bees. Then the groups draw conclusions and summarize the information.
"Wizards", they need to turn the word "река" (river) into the word "море" (sea) (through a chain of words, река-рука-мука-лука-лужа-ложа-лоза-поза-пора-гора-горе-море), where each new word in the chain differs from the previous in one letter;
"Coder", "Secret letter" where students learn the techniques of encrypting a text with numbers, geometric shapes, in which the word is encrypted by any sign or pattern, etc.
For example, one of the third graders chose the topic "Bar coding of goods" for his research, and developed his methods of work with signs and symbols, expanded his knowledge and learnt new concepts: "bar code", "marking", "QR code", etc.
The fourth set of universal educational actions – communication actions: planning educational cooperation with a teacher and classmates; setting goals, functions of participants, ways of interacting; statement of problems – cooperative search for information; conflict resolution; agreement with the partner; ability to express their thoughts according to the objectives and conditions of communication with sufficient completeness and accuracy; the ability to use monologue and dialogue forms of speech.
Organizing classes for the development of communicative universal educational actions, we emphasize the importance of activity of primary school students for creating cinquain and analysing the fairy tale "Teremok" and "Legend of the Kuray" with the method of "Six hats", where each team develops the ability to prove their statements, to accept and understand the opinions of their classmates, to cooperate according to the “color” of their hats: white – facts, red – emotions, black – doubts, yellow – benefits, green – new ideas, blue hat – assessment of ideas of other groups.
Also while studying the theme "Logical presentation. Introduction. Drawing the conclusion" students had to analyze a text with mistakes made on purpose: the logic of the text was broken, introduction or conclusion was omitted, etc. The students found these mistakes and corrected them, proving their point. Then we asked the questions: "What is a conclusion? What is an introduction? What is their role in the scientific text?" The students answered together in the form of a conversation.
We note that while analyzing different items, students described their properties in written form in "The Research Diary" (a workbook, where students write down the necessary points of classwork and homework related to research activities). In the process of the research the students listed the properties of objects that were offered to them (or they chose themselves): a sheet of coloured cardboard, chalk, pen, ruler, etc. The students named the following properties: colour, size, shape, material, flat/volumetric, purpose, taste, smell, hard/soft, flexible/inflexible, floats/sinks, animate/non-animate, its parts, etc. Later in groups, the children performed a similar task studying an object and determining its properties. This work is very interesting and entertaining for students, they enjoy it and feel interested. At the end of the work, we invited the groups to present the result of their research, while the others listened attentively and made their own notes, additions or asked their questions.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of our study is to identify, explain and prove the effectiveness of the model of formation of universal educational activities in extracurricular activities, in particular of general intellectual development, taking into account the pedagogical conditions.
One of the important structural units of the model is a set of methods, forms and means of education aimed at the formation of universal educational activities in primary school students in the process of extracurricular activities of general intellectual development.
In pedagogical science, there are different definitions of the concept of teaching method, but most of the authors understand it as a way of organizing educational activities. We agree that teaching method is an orderly way of interaction between teacher and students, focused on the tasks of the educational process (Pidkasistij (1998) and others).
In accordance with this definition, while choosing teaching methods, we were focusing on the goal, ways of understanding the content and nature of the interaction of the subjects of the planned process. We think that a complex combination of traditional teaching methods (heuristic, presentation of problems) and interactive methods (brainstorming, project method) is optimal for our study.
The study was conducted in primary school of MBIGE Lyceum № 5, Ufa, MBIGE Lyceum № 21, Ufa, MBIGE GES №. 1, MBIGE GES №. 2 of Kirgiz-Miyaki of the Miyakinskiy district of the Republic of Bashkortostan (Ibragimova, 2015; Sandalova, 2015).
According to the purpose and objectives of the experimental work we determined the following methods: "Incomplete sentences" by M. Newtten in the modification of A.B. Orlov (as cited in Gosudarev, 2009), "Ladder of motives", "Definition of memory type", "Study of logical and mechanical memory", "Learning to switch attention", "Assessment of concentration by method of correction tests," "Simple analogies", "Exclusion of irrelevant", "Incomplete sentences, or Your attitude to research activities", "Tracking of teaching and research skills", "Test of reflexivity" by Karpov (2003) and a set of tasks for primary school students, based on the material of subjects "Russian language", "Mathematics", "Environmental studies", "Culture of the Republic of Bashkortostan", surveys for primary school teachers "Possession of research skills."
Based on the results of experimental work, determining the average value of the indicators, it should be noted that:
in the experimental group, the low level of formation of educational and cognitive competence decreased by 11.25%, the average level increased by 2.75%, the high level increased by 8.5%;
in the control group, the low level of formation of educational and cognitive competence decreased by 3.25%, the average level increased by 1.25 %, the high level increased by 2%.
From here it follows that the results confirm important differences in the experimental and control groups.
There is observed a positive dynamics of development of universal educational actions through the organization of extracurricular activities of the general intellectual development in the experimental group in comparison with the control group after carrying out the forming stage of experiment.
The educational process in primary general education is the base for all subsequent education, which provides for cognitive motivation of students, for their ability to cooperate, for the formation of the base of social behaviour. This provision is stated in the Federal state educational standard of primary general education. A primary school student in the modern educational process acts as a subject of self-development and a variety of activities.
One of the most important conditions for the implementation of the GSES PGE is the organization of extracurricular activities. The most effective direction of extracurricular activities for the formation of universal educational activities in primary school students is the general intellectual development, facilitating independent and productive cognitive activity.
Based on the above, extracurricular activities of the general intellectual development on the formation of universal educational activities in each year of primary school should solve certain tasks:
introduction of the concept of the research activity;
maintenance of research activity of pupils on the basis of their background knowledge;
development of abilities to state problems, make assumptions, observe, make subject models.
To solve these problems, it is possible to use the following forms and methods of activity: studying the interests of students, teaching to draw up schemes on certain topics, concepts, modelling of specified objects, making observations, going to excursions to collect material for research in the classroom; creating projects together with parents to deepen and expand knowledge of the material.
In second grade:
studying new ideas about the research activity;
development of skills to determine the topic of research, to analyze, compare, draw conclusions, state the results of the study;
maintaining the initiative, activity and independence of students.
At this stage, the following forms and methods of activity are used: excursions, individual preparation of models and schemes, mini-reports, experiments; observations according to the plan, conducting experiments together with a teacher, mini-studies, creating projects under the guidance of adults. It is substantial to focus on those actions that provide for better understanding of the information and facilitate the analysis and learning of the necessary information: forecasting, finding the main idea and supporting words, explaining their ideas and others.
In third grade:
enrichment of research experience of students through further accumulation of ideas about research activities, its means and methods;
understanding the logic of research;
development of research skills;
formation of goal-setting skills.
Compared to the previous stages of studying, the activity becomes more complicated as the research tasks are more complex, the education process is based on the formulation and independent solution of research tasks by students, the way the students think should be more logical and complex, they should sum the information up and make conclusions. It is advisable to use the following forms and methods of activity: excursions, mini-reports, experiments; educational discussion, collective preparation of the research plan, conducting experiments under the guidance of a teacher, independent creation of projects according to a given plan, their explanation.
In fourth grade:
mastering the algorithm of research activities;
application of the formed skills of research activity in practice.
This stage can be considered final in the formation of universal educational actions of primary school students. It involves independent activity of students, the ability to present and explain the result of the study, the project. We consider it necessary to use the following forms and methods of activity: excursions, experiments, participation in scientific conferences; independent planning and research, independent conducting of experiments and summing up, independent creation of projects on their own plan and presentation of the project. The solution of the tasks for the formation of research skills at the first stage of education by the end of grade 4 will allow primary school students to:
accept and maintain the goal of cognitive activity;
plan their actions in accordance with the objective;
carry out step-by-step and final control of their activities;
search for the necessary information using the textbook, library resources, the Internet;
compare the information presented in different sources, analyze it, summarize, use it in their projects;
build a logical chain of reasoning based on the analysis of information from various resources;
find cause-and-consequence relations of changes occurring in the world; simulate the processes occurring in the environment;
to generalize observations of the objects under study, to formulate conclusions;
to systematize information on a given topic, to be able to publicly present it, to generalize, to draw conclusions.
Thus, the prediction and implementation of extracurricular activities of general intellectual development in primary school students contributes to the formation of universal educational activities, universal attitude to the cognitive process, functional competence, gaining experience in self-management. This activity is successful if a teacher takes measures to emphasize the main parameters of the activities, to determine their impact on the content of the organization of activities, the use of quantitative evaluation of them on a scale, the establishment and description of their interaction and interdependence.
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15 November 2020
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Teacher, teacher training, teaching skills, teaching techniques, special education, children with special needs, computer-aided learning (CAL)
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Fatkullina, L., Sandalova, N., Ibragimova, G., & Schepina, V. (2020). Aspests Of Organisation Of Extracurricular Activities In Primary Education. In & I. Murzina (Ed.), Humanistic Practice in Education in a Postmodern Age, vol 93. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 977-984). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.11.101