The article discusses the role of communication in the development of a child’s personality. Communication methods that influence the development of various personality traits and types of personal experience get the nomination of communicative education tools. The article presents a system of personality-developing situations aimed at forming the leading functions of personality - its selectivity, reflection, ability to grasp the meaning, volitional self-regulation, urge to make responsible decisions, etc. The author shows that relations are the dominant source of experiences and internal conflicts with other personalities. This suggests that it is communicative factors that act as the main source contributing to meaning formation as well as to designing many other components of the student’s subjective reality. The article regards communication tools for creating personality-developing situations. Being such a tool, the ways the student interacts with the so-called "communicative beacons" - real and virtual actors acting as the significant Other - are tested. Various personalities and images act as "beacons" at different stages of socialization. The most important means of personality development is the study and formation of the communication space, and the most important internal driving force of its formation is the need to ensure recognition in this space. The article also shows the special role of the teacher plays in the development of personality being the moderator of the communicative space, especially at the initial stages of its development.
Keywords: Personality-developing situationcommunication toolssignificant Other
Personal-developing situations are understood as such episodes (fragments, events, moments) of the educational process, in which students’ personal sphere is actualized – experiences, feelings, the search for new meanings, overcoming internal conflicts, choosing alternative values, making significant decisions for themselves (Serikov, 2012). This kind of situation is usually some extraordinary memorable phenomenon that makes an impression, makes the child think, and leaves a mark in his/her mind (Hodyakova, 2013).
The concept of educational situation can be probably close to the concept of "personality-developing situation" because a true educational situation is a situation that is connected with certain developmental changes of students’ personal sphere. This is how it differs from the act of learning, which can be limited to the growing information-cognitive component of the personality, without changing anything in the value-semantic sphere (Serikov, 2012).
We also point out that we do not necessarily refer to personality-developing situations that end up with students’ conclusions, the genesis of new meanings and values, and noticeable changes in behaviour. It can be merely actualizing a new state, experience, an episodic interest in an event, a born but not realized intention. In any case, these events are still benefitial. A student accumulates experience and this process is similar to the transition of quantitative resources to qualitative changes. The student will realise a new meaning, his/her position, and implement intention in real action. Creating such situations and supporting students’ internal efforts aimed at self-development, at “reconstruction” of their value-semantic sphere is the highest manifestation of pedagogical art (Vasilyuk, 1984).
There are a lot of psychological and pedagogical tools that can serve to create a personal-developing situation. We will focus on a group of so-called communication tools in this article. It is known that the dominant factors of personality development are proactivity and communication (Leont'ev, 2016; Petrovskij, 2010; Rubinstein, 2002; Vygotsky, 1999). However, educational practice witnesses teachers paying more attention to the organization of learning, research, artistic and creative activities of various kinds, while the space of their communication often develops spontaneously (Fajzullaeva, 2017; Il'in, 1987; Serikov, 2018; Sokolova, 2019). The problem of this article is searching for ways to improve the educational orientation to communication involving a personality being developed.
This research finds us trying to address the following questions: what personal situations and events should a child experience in order to develop as a personality? How do others influence a child’s personality development? Who acts as “communication beacons” at various stages of socialization? How can a teacher use communicative factors to create personality-developing situations in the educational process? Under which circumstances can communication with the teacher become a significant factor for the development of the child as a personality?
Purpose of the Study
The expected outcome of the study for us is designing a system of guidelines for teachers who work with children’s personal sphere. It is important to find out what communication tools a teacher can use to create optimal educational environment for children to develop such types of expertise that would indicate their personal maturation.
The key methodological idea on which the study is based is that the teacher does not have the means that would allow him/her to change something directly in the personal sphere of a student. This is possible when it deals with some more “simple” cognitive structures. For example, direct training allows to form a student’s skill e.g. performing a logical operation or object action. As for the value-semantic sphere, our prospects are limited: a teacher is only able to create circumstances under which skills can be accumulated (not necessarily) in a desired way, i.e. corresponding to the set pedagogical goals, which will result in forming a new student’s personality (Serikov, 2012).
This statement defines the research methodology: it is aimed at substantiating the circumstances under which a corresponding change in students’ value-semantic sphere is possible and at finding the means by which these conditions can be created. In our study, we test the possibilities of communication tools aimed at achieving personal development goals (Amiraghyan, 2016; Diloyan, 2017).
The research features methods of introspective analysis, focus groups, creating simulation and modeling situations, along with pedagogical experiments. The study was conducted in different periods with a different contingent of students: from primary schoolers to University students (Serikov, 2018). School teachers and university professors, as well as our postgraduates and doctoral students from Volgograd State Socio-Pedagogical University (Volgograd) and the Institute of education development strategy with Russian Academy of Education (Moscow) engaged in the experimental work.
A personality-developing situation is a type of pedagogical situation which features a set of conditions that are created spontaneously or purposefully and require a student to manifest himself/herself as a person. The nature of a personality is its ability to take a certain position, to fulfill the function of the subject of its being (Rubinstein, 2002; Petrovskij, 2010), to be the subject of its life activity. It is manifested in its selectivity, reflection, sense formation, ability to act and take responsibility, will-regulation, creativity, etc. (Serikov, 2012). One of the most important characteristics of a developed personality is the ability to build relationships with another person, to realize the value and significance of the other (Karabanova, 2010; Yashin, 2015). As the prominent psychologist Petrovskij (2010) puts it, personal development is impossible without a “significant other” and without a “yourself being possibilities for the other”. This idea was expressed simply but vividly by the character of the famous novel by S. Lem “Solaris”: “a person needs another person...” What for? Today’s psychologists and teachers agree that almost all functions and characteristics of a person have an interactive nature, i.e. they appear in the process of communicating with another person. While a person is actively interacting with another one, this developing person does not copy another’s actions mechanically but creates their own image of themselves – individuality being the top stage of personal development (Korchak, 2002; Leung & Bond, 2002).
The ways of creating personality developing communicative situations make the subject of our research. The personal sphere of a human as the main regulator of life activity is a quite stable substructure of the psyche that dominates the changes in it and as a rule, it is the result of experiencing complex and sometimes critical life situations that have the status of events for a developing person (Serikov, 2018).
The purpose of the study is to determine the conditions under which the educational process contributes to forming the meanings of education, professional self-determination, orientation, etc. It is admitted by Rubinstein (2002) that “experience is the material that can form personal properties” (p. 586). If new formations in the personal sphere that have the form of new personal meanings are the product of the individual experiencing various critical situations (Vasilyuk, 1984), then this experience has its sources for the individual, as a rule, in relationships with other individuals (Serikov, 2018).
For example, the researchers of so-called “workplace conflicts” have come to the conclusion that there are no actual “workplace” conflicts. A conflict and related to it experience occurs when the situation goes beyond the “business framework” and begins to affect the interests, self-esteem, sociometric status of the individual, his/her views of the participants to the situation, their intentions, etc. (Magomedova & Salavatova, 2015).
Going beyond the “business framework” to the personal sphere can also have a positive side. For example, a teacher uses this technique when he/she wants a student to go beyond the scientific truths into the image and drama of the scientist who made this discovery. It helps develop a will and determination, gain the experience of collaboration with partners while a person is addressing a problem and searching for the right answer (Bordonskaya et al., 2017).
A personality-developing situation can a part of any activity, including learning. The main condition for its appearance is the realization of a certain conflict, task, problem, which actualizes individuals’ internal reflexive-transforming forces (Serikov, 2012). Life and pedagogical practice have already proved that the more socially significant, bright, and large-scale an event is, the deeper value-transforming experience it brings to its initiators and participants. As Rubinstein (2002) points out “A person has the life full of true experience for those not busy with their experience, but for the one who is involved in real great issues” (p. 562).
Taking this into account we form the strategic line of the teacher's work on actualizing personal and developmental situations in the educational process by choosing to create conditions under which “educational routine” will open up to the student in a new light. It will appear as a tense and exciting struggle for their own development and their future. This is the way we try to present this typology of personality-developing situations. The basis is formed by those personal functions that are realized in the process.
We emphasize the following situations:
- the situation of “discovering oneself” - a fragment of the educational process in which a student, having experienced success in performing a subjectively difficult task, “reveals" new abilities in himself/herself, which also affects the value-semantic attitude to learning, awakens the sense of confidence in one’s own abilities;
- the situation of “discovering a new meaning”, in which the student discovers a new meaning of learning, cooperation with a teacher, friendships with classmates, independent efforts while studying the subject. A student has the same episodic motive, which, according to Rubinstein (2002), is “a character trait in its Genesis” (Rubinstein, 2002);
- the situation of “choice and decision” is constantly present in the life of any person, only the scale of it differs. Some minor decisions have to be made constantly, others are decisive for a person in long-term perspective. Sometimes a new acquaintance dominates the future of the individual;
- the situation of “personal responsibility awareness” is a necessary stage of growing up, when a young person realizes that he/she is the “builder” of his/her future, understands that he/she can no longer shift responsibility to others and has to determine his/her own fate. The sooner the awareness is formed, the better for the developing personality;
- the situation of “volitional effort, self-overcoming” is a key element when exactly the “above the situation activity” that Petrovskij (2010) mentions is manifested. This situation occurs at all stages of personal socialization and exposes itself as the victory of “need” over “wanting” for a younger student, as well as the ability to “check oneself” on the way to reaching a challenging goal in a high school student, etc.;
- the situation of “self-assessing thecompliance with the chosen ideal and patterns of life” is also typical of a developing personality, when it provides the opportunity to compare themselves with their peers, with significant others, with standards of success;
- the situation of “handling oneself in difficult life circumstances” Such circumstances are critical, non-standard, unpleasant, etc. They happen in everyone's life, and the gained experience of addressing them creates the basis for self-conceit, together with creating a plan for self-development;
- the situation of "innovative insight, creativity, and initiative" is a kind of the “moment of truth”, when a student takes on creative courage, takes the initiative, offers original solutions, stands up to the stereotypes in their own thinking and habits;
- the situation of “planning your life, your future” is usually associated with the choice of value orientations, lifestyle, its priorities, which is also relevant for functioning of the individual.
The system of these learning situations reveals the essence of the personality-developing pedagogical process, that aspires to lay the groundwork for different types of personal experience – experience of selectivity, reflection of meaning, self-regulation, responsibility for decisions, etc., i.e., those of many types of experience that resonate personal position, the individual’s subjectivity (Serikov, 2018; Stadnik, 2017).
While developing communicative tools for modelling personal-developing situations, we assume that communication with another person can become a condition for new formations in the personal sphere, if this person (another one) has a significant potential of being significant and noteworthy for the developing personality (Diloyan, 2017; Karabanova, 2010). At different stages of personal development, various real or virtual subjects can act as such a significant other, or, as we call it, a "communicative beacon". In preschool childhood it can be a mother, parents, grandparents; in primary school it can be a teacher; in teens it is a respected peer, a friend or “a network partner”; in adolescence – a representative "from the future" who is a senior mentor or a university student whom a high school student needs; at the stage of professional growth it can be a business partner, an executive, a team leader (Korczak, 2002). The communicative beacon that is paramount nd constant at all stages of life is a loved one. We do not specify the age here, because "love knows no age..." (Alexander Pushkin).
Interpersonal communication does not necessarily imply direct contact. This can be an image presented, for example, in a work of art, the encounter with which has the same event significance, although it is purely spiritual (Bodalev, 1995; Serikov, 2012). This kind of “communicative beacons” can be carriers of artistic and aesthetic reality – writers, poets, composers, meetings with whom are always events; creators of ideas that have dominated a developing personality’s outlook; teachers and research advisers, not necessarily those who are still alive; national ideals, political figures-creators of history, war heroes; people who have already passed away; images from the world of religion, and finally God.
In any case, one thing is clear that the personal development is more complete and more meaningful, the more extensive and integral the communication space is. And, in this regard, the question arises if we can use these “communicative beacons”, this space of communication as tools for creating personality-developing educational situations.
First of all, it should be noted that no "beacons" can be operated by a teacher with no “beacons” of their own (Kulyutkin & Bezdukhov, 2002; Vasilevskaya, 2020). To reveal Pushkin’s inmost universe with his "the life is given to me to think and suffer" or the spirituality of A. Einstein’s, who renounced his works learning that the atomic bomb was dropped on people, there comes a teacher who is “a significant other" for a student. Otherwise, the above may seem to a student like nothing but a word though beautiful. The same lesson can see the students addressing the same problem, but experiencing different situations, living figuratively speaking in different worlds (!), in different communication spaces. This depends on their relationship with the teacher, on the situation in the family, in the classroom, on the internal state of the student (Leont'ev, 2016; Magomedova & Salavatova, 2015).
Pedagogical means of creating a personality-developing situation cannot be “typical”, “standard”, cannot be used without taking into account students’ individuality. This is probably what Janusz Korczak (2002) meant when he spoke about the ineffectiveness of abstract pedagogical recommendations: “I do not know and cannot know how unknown people in unknown conditions can bring up a child I have never met..." (p. 98). The unknown here stands for being unaware of the relationships, the situation, the environment a student is a part to.
The creation of a personality-developing situation begins with the study of a student’s personality. It is clear that in real pedagogical practice, this study is not laboratory, but requires involvement. Participating in children’s life according to the famous educator-innovator Il'in (1987). is “dramatic at any age” (p.18). The teachers who worked with us were offered the concise Platonov’s scheme to study a child. This scheme implies 3 questions to be answered: what does a child want (motivation)? What can a child do (abilities)? Who is he/she (character)?
The purpose of this study is to find out the actual situation that concerns the children's development (Vygotsky, 1999), the conflicts, problems, and accomplishments, personal achievements, the main sources of “positive vibes” in their life. The process of getting to know the child in an atmosphere of dialogue, trust, the desire to understand the child and their problems and experience, communication realized “on a personal level” are the basic steps to create a personality developing situation.
The dialogue with a student functions as a way of presenting to them important values that correspond to their own needs. Here we claim for a teacher’s help because it can be challenging for a child to realize what the true urges are, failing to meet which causes dissatisfaction with themselves. The dialogue is the state of trust, sincerity, mutual acceptance that implies concordance of meanings which stands for disclosing personal significance of values (Serikov, 2012).
The main teacher’s concern in creating a personality-developing situation is to encourage a child to “work with themselves”, which is usually associated with attempts to stand up to the craving for numerous “pleasures” that modern reality offers them and to direct themselves to really important things. Thus, the teacher’s ultimate goal is to help, consistently delegating organizational role, promoting self-discipline, moderating the process, bearing in mind that support is the only way of communication that accepts the individual at any stage of development (Sokolova, 2019).
Dialogue, acceptance, motivation (not a compulsion), support – all these concepts describe the key conditions for creating personality-development situations. They can be called personality-developing technologies if the technologies are understood as law-based pedagogical actions, and these actions are exactly consistent with the known laws of pedagogical support concerning the process of personal development.
Communicative tools to support the child's personal growth were given tests to try them in practice. Let's focus on those of them that were tested in field work conducted by postgraduates and doctoral students Beituganova, Belova, Gabeeva, Lysenko, Novakova, Oleynik, Safronova, Silchenko, Simonov, Chechet, etc. under our supervision. Their manuscript on the research has already been published. Among these communication tools, we have identified inter-subject communication: teacher-student (value judgments, motivational techniques, expressions of sympathy and antipathy, identifications of emotional and personal context of the material under study, etc.); communication with classmates (self-presentation, recognition search, building their own position as a reaction to the positioning of others, role-playing, competition); virtual communication (in social networks); communication with a "significant other" (maintaining friendly relations with peers and adults, joining a team and justifying their place in it, communicating with the beloved ones, - expressing feelings and accepting the feelings of another, communicating with an influential adult or a peer); communication with the author of a scientific or fictional text (semantic analysis of the text, internal dialogue, identification with the character, meeting with dissent); internal dialogue with oneself (reflection and self-assessment of one's true qualities and states that do not always coincide with those demonstrated outside, building plans for the ascent from the real Self to the ideal Self) (Frolova & Elinson, 2015; Sokolova, 2019).
Here we present the circle of communication as a communication structure, the components of which perform various functions. The teacher uses communication tools and relies on the natural and very strong urge of the developing personality to communicate. They can use communication tools to achieve various educational (personal-developmental) goals (Kulyutkin & Bezdukhov, 2002).
Therefore, to help a student discover new abilities in themselves (the situation of “discovering oneself”) a teacher encourages the teenager’s identifying themselves with a group of successful students, for example, while summing up the results of the test, a teacher names the student among the students who successfully coped with a difficult task. In order to discover a new meaning, to grow interested in a subject, a case, or a project, a teacher “connects” the factor of the team’s opinion as a way of motivating, and presents this case as a way of self-affirmation in the eyes of an reputable community. This is one of the most powerful incentives for meaning formation. When you need to encourage a teenager to make a decision (their own decision without telling anyone about it), the teacher introduces them into the circle of "strong" peers who chose a certain path, living "not like everyone". Making real or virtual contact with a peer whom "no one forced" and who "develops themselves" is the best way to realize personal responsibility for the future (Baeva, 2016).
One of the most typical educational (personality-developing) situations is associated with the teenager aspiring for the volitional effort, overcoming the appeal to a variety of entertaining temptations (meaningless "parties", computer games, various forms of addictive behavior), fostering the ability to manage oneself in difficult life circumstances. Here, the best tool is to include a teenager in a social circle that values a difficult victory, the ability to tackle challenges, and to "win over themselves" (a team of academic contests winners, a sports or project team).
Collective forms of learning such as brainstorming, role-play games contribute to the development of a person’s innovatory qualities, the need for creativity, as shown by research and experience. They provide integrity, as well as stability of personal value orientations. Real friends, serious artistic texts, a wise teacher - these are the communicative factors that ensure the aspiration to the future, building the image of the Self in a professional and creative aspect (Vitiola et al., 2019).
The skillful use of communication tools implies a high speech culture of the teacher. The word is the main expression of thoughts and feelings, and by discussing a problem with the child, designating it with a specific word, the teacher helps the child to master the inner condition, understand themselves, identify the source of the inner problem, the cause of anxiety and self-doubt. The imagery and metaphor of the teacher’s speech, references, examples and reputation make the speech convincing, turning it into a tool for value-semantic communication (Amiraghyan, 2016).
It can be as difficult for a teacher to find the right words as for a poet. So, I remember the lines by Mayakovsky: "The more withering is these words flaring, the more vivid is the contrast to a fading and shallow word". The word as a tool of pedagogical support helps a student to make a choice, to make an effort over themselves which is an act. And the meaning of the action, in turn, must also be verbalized or deposited in the mind as a verbal conclusion. In other words, to educate a person means to indulge them in the “luxury of human communication…”.
Experience shows that the skillful usage of communication tools implies a high level of teachers’ communicative and pedagogical competence. Meanwhile, the system of teachers’ professional training regards this aspect as one of the most problematic. We train teachers more to organise educational activities and less to direct a child's communication with the surrounding world, thereby overlooking an important resource for personal development. The development of communicative tools for the development of a child's personality at the age of total communication is one of the most pressing problems of research in the field of education.
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20 November 2020
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Sociolinguistics, discourse analysis, bilingualism, multilingualism
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Serikov, V. V. (2020). Communicative Tools For Creating Personality-Developing Situations Within The Educational Process. In Е. Tareva, & T. N. Bokova (Eds.), Dialogue of Cultures - Culture of Dialogue: from Conflicting to Understanding, vol 95. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 891-900). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.11.03.94