The article is devoted to the study of axiological strategies of media communicative discourse in the subject field of “innovation” within the framework of the dynamic approach to the discourse analysis and the concept of axiological parametrization of media discourse. It contributes to the constructing of meanings based on the profiling of particular significance in the processes of interpretation. The concept of “innovation” is seen as one of the axiologies of contemporary discourse. The modus parameter of realizing the strategic discourse on innovation in the variants of the modus of reality, necessity and desirability is substantiated, the target vectors and the main ways of implementing axiological strategies in each of the established moduses are revealed. The conclusion is made that the modus as a method of axiological strategy realization determines the discourse destination as well as its cognitive purpose in the communicative space of the subject sphere “innovation”. The results of the analysis can be applicable in the theory of argumentation and linguoaxiology.
Keywords: Axiological parameterizationaxiological strategydiscoursemodus
In line with the cognitive-communicative paradigm, modern linguistics develops a dynamic approach to the discourse analysis. Discourse is thus characterized as a structured way of seeing the object of the referential world in the process of communication or a possible world reflecting the mentality of the discursive personality. Discourse implementation is organized around the bearing concept (Demyankov, 2002) in the trajectory of the significant sense development in the form of a diskursivization in the context of generating it by a situation of the cognitive uncertainty. It activates the conceptualization, which allows us to trace the meaning develop trajectory from the initial point – attitudes and intentionality projected onto strategicity and argumentation – to the final point defined as the achievement of the of communication discourse destination (Plotnikova & Serebrennikova, 2013, p. 185). The subject-to-subject conceptualization is evaluative (Boldyrev, 2015) and determines the axiological parameterization of discourse in communicative space.
The increase of output knowledge in the form of estimated conceptualization takes place in the axiologically parametrized communicative space operated by discourse. It is realized through argumentation/counter argumentation of the most significant meaning having a valorizing character. At the same time, valorization as a way of implementing the interpretative-evaluative aspect of discourse (Boldyrev, 2015) is characterized by duality: the positive aspect implies the negative aspect at the cognitive level and vice versa. In such a valorizing discourse the strategy is axiological in nature. By axiological strategy, we mean the optimal for a mediator way of constructing value sense, that takes the conceptualized object to a new level of interpretation in existential coordinates and in the estimated perspective from reality to the necessary, desired and proper.
While studying the axiological strategies of discourse as an operator of derivative knowledge in the processes of evaluative conceptualization most interesting are the discourses focusing on a time-relevant and uncertain pragmatic situation generating concept of intense evaluative comprehension. Among such modern media communication space concepts, the concept of “innovation” called the lexeme “innovatsiya” in Russian and the lexeme “chuàngxīn” in Chinese should be attributed. The concept of “innovation”, internally defined as a process, result and tool for introducing the new and transforming the old, contains the signs of “renewal transformation”, “modernization”, “progress, development”, “manufacturability” in its structure and is currently linked with targeted modernization processes in various areas of the society (Sadovnikova, 2015). The discursivization of these processes forms a fragment of discursive media space. It is evidenced by the high frequency of representing “innovation” as a discourse topic of media texts and gives the right to distinguish the “discourse on innovation” as a subject area of the media communicative space marked with this thematic sign (Sadovnikova, 2017). The discourse on innovations should be attributed to the valorizing type of discourse, since its topic is the value-rich concept of “innovation”, which constructs the idea of a special - target, desired state of society that requires overcoming the uncertainty in the implementation of innovative processes. The semantic development of this discourse topic in its specific conceptual structure lays the target modus of constructing the world of the desired, proper, necessary. The valorizing discourse on innovation implements discursive positions on the essence, tools, technologies and results of the innovation as a process of “introducing the new” and forms actual ways of the concept understanding from the point of view of substantivity, target and effectiveness.
The process of implementing valorizing discourse in the model of discoursivity makes it possible to comprehend the methods of designing the value meaning related to the subject of comprehension. It also lets us identify the changes in the value orientations of the conceptualized meaning of “innovation” through the analysis of the destination - the ultimate target dominant that completes the trajectory of discursivization. In this regard, it is of particular interest to determine the parameters of strategy implementation and establish on their basis the types of axiological strategies of discourse in media communication space. A “parameter” is defined as a discourse measurement that scalarizes the optimal set of elections and the limits of variation in its implementation (Demyankov, 1996, p. 120), it means, the one that tunes the implementation of discourse.
The concept of modus should be considered as the basic parameter of the realizing the strategic nature of discourse on innovation. By the definition, “modus” as a measure and mode of meaning (Lyapon, n.d.), different from the utterance proposition, represents not only the attitude of the speaker to the subject of the utterance and the utterance itself, but also reflects the evaluation essence - the vision of the subject in a certain perspective, a certain plan for its implementation from the real world to the world of the desired, proper and necessary (Ivin, 2019). It is important that the basic axiological concept of “value” is not a feature of the world or an object of the world, but a relation (modus) between thought and reality that functions as a standard, perspective, plan in the target coordinates of implementation. From this point of view, the research problem lies in establishing the moduses of the valorizing type of discourse functioning and their target perspectives lie in the discursive strategy for promoting particularly significant meaning in the estimated perspective of representing discursive processes.
Revealing the moduses of axiological strategies of media communicative space valorizing discourse on innovations in the trajectory of its implementation requires the development of the question of the main principle of the discourse modus parameter and identifying the modus variations in the coordinates of the set at the strategy level perspective. In this regard, it is necessary to determine the types of axiological strategies of discourse on innovations, as well as clarify their representation in the text/discourse methods and means and the nature of discourses destination in the communicative space. Besides, it is important to comprehend the cognitive design potential of the discourses at the process of the concept of innovation as a discourse topic percepting.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this analysis is to establish the methods of representing the axiological parameterization of the discourse on innovation at the level of the strategy for implementing the trajectory of discursivization. It is also an attempt to show that the basic parameter for implementing strategies is the modus parameter. By “Modus” we mean a method of signification and designation that constructs a special vision of the world as a possible alternative discursive world. The object of the analysis are the media texts of the subject area of innovation which represent the expert community position on the problematic conceptualized discourse topic in media communication.
The analysis methodology is based on the provisions on the cognitive nature of discourse in line with the dynamic approach to its study in the model of the discursification trajectory (Plotnikova & Serebrennikova, 2013, p. 185), the theory of values and evaluation (Ivin, 2019; Rickert, 1899), the provisions on the axiological strategy inherent in the language (Baranov, 1989, pp. 74 - 91), the provisions on the evaluative nature of the conceptualization and categorization of the world in discourse (Boldyrev, 2015), the provisions on the strategies of text understanding from language code to the basic text and situations, the provisions of the linguo-axiological analysis of discourse based on the method of interpretive analysis, inferential, contextual analysis.
The source of the analysis material was the corpus of Russian-language, Chinese-language media texts of the subject area of innovation and modernization, selected from Internet sources of Russian, English, Chinese domains for the period 2003–2019, consisting of 90 texts.
Axiological parameterization of the valorizing type of discourse is based on the principle of significance. It presupposes both the indicated by the “innovation” sign content choice and a certain profiling organization of this content (axiological strategy), selecting its components as the shape and background based on the person’s orientation to the desired, proper and necessary in the moduses of the person’s attitude to reality.
The significance principle for the speaker while constructing the utterance is directly related to the category of a discourse distinarity. The category “answers” to the question about the contribution of a given discourse to the evaluative explanation of the referential situation, as well as determines the content and positioning of the discourse. Distinarity reflects the cognitive-evaluative attitude of the speaker to the target role of the expressed meaning (Popova, 2017, p. 24)
Significance as a principle of axiological parameterization of discourse implies the modal-target character of discourse tuning (Serebrennikova, 2015), and defines the modus of axiological strategy. Modus as a parameter of the axiological strategy of discourse is intended to valorize the subjective formulated utterance. In the modus coordinates of the subject structures some way the point of view regarding the “bearing” concept of the utterance. At the same time, according to Rickert (1899), a person’s position regarding the conceptualized object of reality occupies a position between the realm of reality (the world of reality) and the realm of value (the world of the necessary, necessary, desired). Based on the significance mechanism the modus of reality / desirability / possibility / probability / necessity / assumption is determined in the processes of evaluative conceptualization in discourse and thus projected into the form of axiological strategy. Modus reflects the essence and the perspective of the significant meaning discursification of in the discourse.
The analysis revealed the following types of strategies:
- critical axiological strategy of the plan which represents the trajectory of the deployment of meaning in the perspective from the modus of reality to the modus of necessity;
- futurological axiological strategy in which the prospect of discursiveization from the modus of reality to the modus of probability is realized;
- optimizing axiological strategy that makes discursive practice as effective as possible and the discourse trajectory unfolds from the modus of reality to the modus of desirability.
The critical axiological strategy is based on the devalorization of existing experience in introducing innovations into the modus of reality in order to advance against this background the vision of the innovative world of the future as a conceptually targeted sphere in the modus of necessity. By doing so, the concept of innovation is being redefined in the process of discursification. The modus of reality in this type of strategy is represented in discourse by means of devalorizing evaluation nomination. One of the means is the negative evaluative qualification of the referents who were initially positively nominated: “
Ironic metaphorization also refers to the means of devalorizing appraisal nomination marking the modus of reality. For example, “
The modus of reality is explicitly represented by expressions with epistemic modality, which reflects the speaker`s evaluative utterance meaning relation to the real situation from the point of view of its reliability / unreliability: “
Dumayu, v svyazi s etim on (Surkov) i rasschityvayet na “Kremniyevuyu dolinu”, kotoraya stanet ob"yektom masshtabnykh gosudarstvennykh investitsiy, chast' kotorykh mozhet osest' v karmanakh ili na ofshornykh schetakh tekh, kto budet rabotat' v etom proyekte. Polagayu, chto eto i yest' osnovnoy smysl i soderzhaniye proyekta dlya tekh, kto yego segodnya kuriruyet [I think that this is why he (Surkov) reckons on Silicon Valley, which will become the object of large-scale public investment, some of which may settle in the pockets or offshore accounts of those who work in this project. I believe that this is the main meaning and content of the project for those who are overseeing it today]. (Rashidov, 2012, p. 209)
The modality is expressed through modal operators with a relatively low degree of verifiability: “
Amid the preponderance of negative evaluation in the modus of reality, the speaker advances his vision of “innovation” in the modus of necessity through the axiological opposition of “real-due” using the modal operators of necessity, including the causal justification of the position. The axiological opposition contributes to the advancement of the expert position on the question posed in a deontic, prescriptive way: “
The speaker 's position on innovative development is highlighted in the modus of necessity through the formulation of a clear, targeted program of action. The main means of implementing the strategy are the modal expressions with deontic semantics, infinitives as nominations of actions: “
The high-frequency way to implement the modus of necessity in discourse is metaphorization as a means of valorizing appraisal nomination, the essence of which is to comprehend the topic (“goal”) in the coordinates of an axiologically more saturated knowledge format (“source” of evaluative conceptualization):
In the axiological strategy of the futurological evaluative perspective sense formation unfolds from the modus of reality to the modus of possibility by comparing reality with the probable future through a play on words, based on axiological opposition: “
The modus of possibility in the futurological axiological strategy is also marked by constructions with deontic modality: “Shùzì shídài, biāozhǔnhuà de dōngxī huì yuè lái yuè bèi jīqì suǒ dàitì. Rén huì cóngshì gèngjiā yǒu chuàngzàoxìng de, yǒu tǐyàn de gōngzuò. Jīqì bù huì xiàng rénlèi yīyàng biànhuà xuéxí. Wǒmen bùnéng zài xiàng 20 shìjì nàyàng” [In the digital age, everyday things will increasingly be replaced by machines. People will be able to do more creative work. Machines will not be able to learn like people. We won't be like the 20th century] (Ma, 2019b).
By means of the modal operators of opportunity “
In the axiological strategy of the Chinese media discourse the discourse on innovation in the modus of reality the positive assessment of innovation development is prevalent; in the modus of desirability valorization is transformed in all spheres of activity and “innovation” is designated as an absolute target-reference. The plus sign qualitative assessment scaling operators with allusion to the prototypical expression explicitly perform in this type of strategy as the markers of the reality modus: “
By means of the qualifier “
Highlighting the positive aspects in the modus of reality in the optimizational innovation implementations can be realized by focusing on the key conceptual aspects of the thematic constant. The repetitions of some discourse structures are used to serve explication of positive assessment of the results of modernization processes and increase the importance of the innovative changes made:
40 Niánlái, zhōngguó rénmín shǐzhōng shàngxià qiúsuǒ, ruìyì jìnqǔ, kāipìle zhōngguó tèsè shèhuì zhǔyì dàolù. <…> 40 Niánlái, zhōngguó rénmín shǐzhōng yǔ shí jù jìn, yīwǎngwúqián, chōngfèn xiǎnshìle zhōngguó lìliàng.<…> 40 Niánlái, zhōngguó rénmín shǐzhōng chǎngkāi xiōngjīn, yǒngbào shìjiè, jījí zuòchūle zhōngguó gòngxiàn [For forty years, the Chinese people have been constantly changing and searching, moving forward rapidly, paved the way for socialism with Chinese specifics. <...> Forty years, the Chinese people have constantly kept up with the times, bravely moved forward without fear of difficulties, fully demonstrated the power of China. <...> Forty years, the Chinese people have constantly opened their souls to the world, actively contributing to the common cause of China]. (Xi, 2018a)
The repetition (“
The modus of desirability is represented in the texts of slogans and appeals where the axiological discursive strategy has a persuasive, clearly convincing, inspiring character appealing to the argument of benefit and success confidence: “
This media text establishes the equivalence of the concept of “innovation” to the concept of “happiness”. Innovation is presented as a tool for action leading to the desired landmark of the life world - happiness.
Thus, based on the established moduses of axiological strategies implementation, the destinations of discourses on innovation are identified. So, the destiny of the modus of the critical axiological strategy is structuring of the absolute maximum discrepancy indicator of the “ideal meaning” in representing the essence of innovation and the antagonism of the real to this “ideal”, as well as the output to the anti-value meanings: doom, dubious, unreliable, artificial. The futurological axiological strategy destination of a modus of is to output the values of creativity, technology, automation, progress on radically new vision of the future development: “
Thereby, the value of technologization (program of action, goals, means), the value meanings of openness, freedom of activity, success, happy future is realized.
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20 November 2020
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Sociolinguistics, discourse analysis, bilingualism, multilingualism
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Sadovnikova, O. N., & Sadovnikova, O. E. (2020). The Moduses Of Axiological Strategies Implementation In The Discourse Of Innovation. In Е. Tareva, & T. N. Bokova (Eds.), Dialogue of Cultures - Culture of Dialogue: from Conflicting to Understanding, vol 95. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 849-858). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.11.03.90