The relevance of the research is determined by the role of inclusion in modern education and the features of post-industrial society, characterized by the rapid inclusion of children with disabilities in school classes. This process has had a significant impact on future teachers’ training. A modern inclusive school teacher needs to be ready to work in groups that bring together regular children and students with developmental disabilities, as well as to employ the resources of cooperation between adult communities to increase the effectiveness of educational interaction. The purpose of the research is to analyze the features of interaction between a teacher and a family in an inclusive educational institution in the era of post-industrial society. Research methods such as analysis of concepts, theories, approaches, scientific literature, regulatory documents, together with synthesis, and generalization are used in the work. We have considered the problems of the dysfunctionality of a family upbringing a child with disabilities within the inclusive educational process, highlighted the common difficulties such families may face, analyzed the attitudes in general and in particular whether the parents of the students with typical development are willing and ready to make a part of the inclusive process in education. It is shown that the constructive interaction of an inclusive school teacher with the families of students will contribute to the establishment of productive interpersonal relationships that allow engaging family members as equal participants in the educational process.
Keywords: Familyinclusive educationport-industrial society
The impact of time on the development of civilization, culture, and education as a part of society has been proven in science. Considering this influence on the modern educational space, scholars turn to the categories of postmodernism and post-industrial society that reflect the spirit of a new era and comprehend a new vision of the present. Modernizing and innovative changes carried out in recent decades have led to the renewal of theoretical and methodological, organizational, content, and technological principles of the educational sphere. It is caused by changes in the state and international policy concerning the observance and protection of the rights of people with disabilities. Modern legislative documents emphasize that the educational process should be conducted taking into account the specific features of each child. The worldwide spread of inclusion as an element of education process reflects the postmodernist character of the new era. Spreading and implementation of inclusion, which generates global changes in the established education system, has made it possible to make training more individual, realizing the opportunities and talents of each student. Postmodernism implies a radical reform of the education system relying on the ideas of individuality and uniqueness of each student. The requirements are expressed not only in the implementation of high-quality education for all participants of the educational process but also in the transition to multiplicity and continuous transformation, updating the content; considering each teacher as an innovator, who can develop their learning system, interaction with children, able to create a dialogue with students, encourage them to think, relying on the personal experience of students instead of mere transition of knowledge (Bokova, 2018). In this way, postmodern and inclusive education contributes not only to providing the opportunities for students with disabilities to study the school curriculum on an equal basis with all children but also to expanding their communicative and life experience. A child with disabilities who attends an inclusive school will be more socialized and adapted to the environment than a graduate of a special (correctional) institution or a child who is home-schooled. At the same time, such inclusion contributes to the development of tolerance, responsibility, and empathy in both children with regular development and their parents. An adult, whether he/she is a teacher or a parent needs to show such qualities as respect and acceptance of the other, tact and correctness in communication, the ability to enter into productive interaction with other people in the framework of modern society. Thus, considering the acceptance of the philosophy of inclusion by all participants in the educational process, including students, employees, and parents, we can talk about creating a successful environment for the development of each child's personality, regardless of their characteristics.
It proves relevant to form readiness to implement inclusive education already while training would-be teachers, when they develop the ability to work with children with disabilities, as well as advance in psychological acceptance. It contributes to productive interaction with all participants within the inclusive educational process. The student needs a stimulus to engage in learning and education, to regard parents as active participants in the process, to interact with narrow specialists involved in the child's daily routine (a tutor, a speech pathologist, a specialist in ABA therapy, etc.). A person with disabilities will have to live in the same society as ordinary children. A child who goes to school with ordinary children will find it easier to feel part of society than a graduate of a correctional school. At the same time, inclusive education helps school parents to expand their influence on the formation of tolerance, responsibility, and children’s empathy. Adults need to be able to show tact, conduct a dialogue, accept other people's opinions, respect the rights of others, and remain friendly. Comprehensive development of the child's personality requires unity and consistency of the entire system of adult influences on the child. The role of the family in creating this coherence cannot be overstated. Modern school teachers need to be able to use the potential of parental influence on a child with special needs, to integrate the resources of cooperation of adult communities to increase the effectiveness of educational interaction. Even though the issues of the future teacher's readiness for professional activity, including in inclusive institutions, are considered in theory and in practice in sufficient detail, the research findings on the interaction of teachers with these families in an inclusive educational environment are less than enough. The problem is currently topical and requires additional theoretical and experimental research. Taking into account the relevance of the problem, we present a study of the peculiarities of interaction of the future inclusive school teacher with the family in the modern society.
The article attempts to answer two research questions:
1) what peculiarities of families bringing up a child with disabilities should a teacher of an inclusive school take into account to establish optimal interaction?
2) what specific factors in the attitudes of parents raising children with typical development to inclusive education can affect the success of interaction?
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the research is to analyze the features of interaction between a teacher and a family in an inclusive educational institution in the era of post-industrial society.
The research methods used in this work include the analysis of concepts, theories, approaches, scientific literature (philosophical, pedagogical, psychological, methodological), regulatory documents together with synthesis, and generalization.
The analysis of the study conducted by foreign researchers (Ainscow et al., 2004; Mitchel, 2015; Nind, 2014; Winzer, 2014) on the problems of inclusive education shows the necessity to consider such an aspect of school education as the interaction between teachers and parents. The success of teaching and educating different students in an inclusive school depends not only on the professionalism and motivation of teachers; the influence of the family on the student is of paramount importance in ensuring positive changes. However, the empirical research of psychological, medical and pedagogical services provided by social protection institutions and child rehabilitation centers shows that in the process of inclusive education, the opportunities of parents as subjects of promoting high-quality school education are practically not taken into account (only about a quarter of the services provided by specialists in comprehensive rehabilitation in 2016-2019 were aimed at directly affecting the child's parents. In this regard, in our opinion, events aimed at educating a child do not always achieve the pre-planned result. The organisation of an inclusive educational environment drives the head of the institution and the teaching staff to take into account that inclusion is not only the development and creation of proper material and technical base that creates the unhindered access for the child to the educational organisation. The readiness of the teaching staff to accept and interact with children with disabilities and their parents is of paramount importance. To create a favorable climate in the children's team, it is necessary to involve parents of children with disabilities as active assistants and partners. An important aspect of successful cooperation is the interaction of the teacher and parents bringing up a child with disabilities with parents of ordinary children. Here we see one of the main gaps in the work of educational organizations, which can be partially filled through working with all students’ parents, aimed at harmonizing child-parent relations.
In our opinion, analyzing the levels and stages that parents who raise children with disabilities go through, it is necessary to take into account the heterogeneity of these families. The manifestation of stages is influenced by many other factors, in particular, cultural, religious aspects, duration, and features of the development at previous stages. Foreign works (López-Azuaga & Suárez Riveiro, 2018; Tryfon et al., 2019; Stevens & Wurf, 2020) and Russian scientists (Bogdanova et al., 2018; Karakul'ko, 2017; Levchenko & Tkacheva, 2008), devoted to the problem of the dysfunctionality of a family bringing up a child with disabilities, indicate that the parents or their substitutes become a source of formation of maladaptive behaviors in the child, socialization disorders that prevent the normalization of his development or engagement with the activities provided in an inclusive school. The main reason that hinders the successful adaptation of a child with disabilities to an inclusive school is, in the opinion of such parents, that the school will fail to meet the needs of the student, which may result in these children experiencing serious learning difficulties, social exclusion and negative attitude of the teachers. At the same time, the research confirms that optimistic parents have an effective impact on the upbringing, condition, and adaptation of their child. In terms of duration, the influence of parents is even more long-term and productive than the influence of teachers (Karakul'ko, 2017).
Permanent and dynamic changes in the educational space of a modern school, in the pedagogical technologies that are used, especially in connection with global information transformations, imply continuous professional self-development of the teacher. Interaction of a teacher and parents in an inclusive educational process should be considered as a pedagogical partnership aimed at developing and implementing common approaches to the development, training, and upbringing of a child (Korotkov et al., 2019). The main role in establishing contact and further interaction with parents is assigned to the teacher of an inclusive school. Our study finds us conducting a systematic analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature of recent years, identifying the most common challenges for families in raising a child with disabilities. The difficulties listed below may directly or indirectly affect parents’ attitudes towards inclusive education and the position they take in the education and upbringing of their children.
According to the researchers, every family who brings up a child with disabilities experiences stress, the strength of which depends on the severity of the condition, the diagnosis, and the age of the child. In most cases, mothers are most susceptible to stress. Low mood, constant anxiety, agitation, irritability, short temper, nervousness are negative consequences of stress that are later manifested in relationships between spouses. The abundance of daily worries associated with a child with disabilities leads to an increase in physical and moral stress level, causes lassitude and weakness. Observations by Levchenko and Tkacheva (2008) indicate that parents in such families often say that they experience fatigue, lack of strength and desire for self-development, live in the state of depression and misery (2008). The teacher of an inclusive school should take these factors into account when he/she organizes interaction with such families. It is not a good idea to report the child’s failures, to focus on the specific features in front of strangers. At the same time, it is necessary not to boost the feeling of hiding the truth or omitting negative moments in adults in the process of teaching a student, since parents have the right to receive all information about their child and may perceive this as a manifestation of a sense of pity. Building relationships with a family bringing up a child with disabilities should begin with building trust between this family and a teacher, his/her sincere desire to help the child become a full participant in the school environment. The basis of such a credible relationship can be the command of the competence of an inclusive school teacher, his/her desire to understand the specific features of the child, urge to help the child in mastering the educational program, as well as developing socially significant qualities which are respect for pluralism of life positions, sensitivity, fragility, etc. If the relationship between family members and the teacher grow favorable, it will be possible to run psychological consultations for the family aimed at relieving tension, increasing the adaptive capabilities of family members, and normalizing their psychological health.
The parent predicts the child's learning achievements relying on typical ideas about children's development, comparisons with other children, especially in the process of getting education in an inclusive school. The discrepancy between the level of parental claims and the real capabilities of a student with disabilities may be an obstacle to the child’s progress at school. The task of the teacher here is to help parents in forming an adequate attitude to a child with disabilities, minding their features and their needs. A prerequisite for successful interaction is the familiarization of adults with the individual child development program. The latter should reflect all aspects of the child's development, their learning weaknesses and strengths. At the same time, it is appropriate to take into account the level of psychological and pedagogical literacy of the parent, if it is necessary to eliminate professional terms and concepts from the vocabulary. To realize the level of development of the student, it is necessary to make it possible for parents to attend lessons, additional individual consultations with specialists. The teacher should remember that these actions on the part of parents require considerable time and cannot always be quickly implemented due to the parents’ professional competencies. It is necessary to be tactful about the employment of family members, but at the same time, to remain persistent in involving parents in the educational process, and to offer a variety of alternatives (Bogdanova et al., 2018). For example, it is appropriate for a teacher to engage parents in extracurricular activities with a child. This can be revision and mastering of the material studied, doing homework, playing educational games. These classes will not only help to improve academic performance but will also contribute to emotional and personal communication between the student and the parent, understanding specific problems associated with disabilities. The teacher's recommendations will help parents to organize at-home classes, to identify positive traits of the child's personality, to create special situations for their manifestation and development.
Some parents have a clear or hidden rejection of a child with disabilities, which is expressed in a lack of attention, ignoring the needs of the child to communicate and care for him/her, insufficient interaction, avoiding spending time together. The opposite version of the above-described child-parent relationship is a symbiotic pattern of relationship, which is most often manifested between a mother and a child. The symbiotic relationship can be seen in the negative experience of separating a mother from a child and a child from a mother. In such cases, the child can play the role of "mother’s emotional crutch", helping her to compensate for certain internal conflicts. Therefore, symbiotic relationships are usually stable and can be maintained in later ages – teens and adolescence. The threat of breaking this connection can provoke a negative reaction in the child on the psychosomatic level.
Often parents of a child with disabilities tend to believe that their role is to protect the child from the difficulties and problems of everyday life. Education in such families is reduced to excessive supervision, and such a position is a means of psychological protection from the frustrating situation in which a family raising a child with disabilities find themselves. The reason for these violations is often the psychological and pedagogical incompetence of parents. In turn, pedagogical failures exacerbate the emotional tension of parents, which negatively affects the further development of the child. The case of such an attitude of parents to a child is considered by Bezrukih et al. (2018) as the most complex and generating a lot of conflicts due to the fundamentally different positions of the teacher and the parent in relation to the student. The teacher in this situation needs to build a relationship based on trust and the parent's belief in the correctness of the strategy built by specialists. For consultations, it is necessary to involve additional specialists, such as a psychologist, a speech pathologist, a tutor, a speech therapist, etc., who will emphasize the importance of interaction between the family and the school for the successful development of the child. These type of relationships requires the teacher to be able to conduct a dialogue according to all the norms of pedagogical tact.
In a situation of symbiotic relationships, it is necessary to show parents the danger of not being able to build friendly peer relationships, which can contribute to narrowing the circle of communication and limited contacts, the formation of a dependent position, and infantilization of the child. The teacher should do everything possible to promote awareness of the differences in the needs of the parent and child, to support the initiative in the student while reducing the level of anxiety in the adult.
The family of a child with disabilities is often deprived of moral support not only from friends but also from closest people. Sometimes parents have to explain the reasons for actions or behavioral manifestations of the child’s disease, thereby getting into a situation of justification feeling their guilt. The consequences of this can be a lack of communication, isolation, avoiding contact with others typical for the families of children with disabilities. The circle of friends and acquaintances is narrowed due to the peculiarities of their child's condition, they fear to compare their child with healthy peers, as well as with their personal expectations.
Kerre (2018) noted the fact that, most Western parents seek to explain to others the features of their child's disease, which are the cause of unusual behavior, actions, and personality traits. There are significantly fewer European parents who withdraw from explanations, shut down, and distance themselves from people around them and even from close people. The families from Russia have shown the opposite result – most families raising children with disabilities dissociate themselves from explanations of the child's nosological condition and close themselves within the family. Only a small percentage of the study participants tried to explain to others that this behavior is a certain norm for the development of a child with such a diagnosis and it must be taken as it is. According to Kerre (2018) this is due to "lack of awareness in the Russian society about the problems of special children" (p. 28). In our opinion, the position of isolation and silence typical for Russian parents concerning the peculiarities of a child's development may be the consequence of the isolated system of education and upbringing of people with disabilities in the Soviet Union. It should be taken into account that the registration of "special" children in specialized institutions separated them from society, family, and normally developing peers. The closeness of this system made it impossible to build a dialogue between parents bringing up children with disabilities and parents with healthy peers. An important condition for the successful development of a child is active family contacts with friends, colleagues, and the teaching staff of an educational organization. This will help the family become a rehabilitation structure with the potential to create favorable conditions for the development and upbringing of the child. Inclusive education allows parents to expand the number of contacts in interaction not only with school specialists but also with other families of students. The teacher should contribute to creating a favorable psychological climate, an atmosphere of acceptance, trust, and respect in the parent community of the class.
One of the most negative manifestations that characterizes the state the family is in after the birth of a child with developmental disabilities is divorce. There are differences in the attitude to a child born with developmental challenges on the mother’s and on the father’s parts. The teacher of an inclusive school must take into account the heterogeneity of these positions to interact with a student’s mother and father. Relationship of fathers with children with disabilities, interaction with them in the process of education and training is the subject of many Western scientists’ research. In his study Hornby (1991) notes that the father and mother from the very birth of a child with developmental disabilities react to this fact in different ways, the perception and attitude of the father to the child with disabilities depends on individual characteristics, in particular on neuroticism. "The more neurotic the father (as it is determined by Hornby on the example of 87 fathers in the Eysenck Personal questionnaire), the worse he adapts to the family situation and the less satisfied he is with his marriage"(p. 73). Seligman and Darling (2018) draws attention to the fact that fathers of children with disabilities have difficulty recognizing and displaying negative emotions. "Perhaps the most terrible thing for a father is that he can't just "fix" the child's disabilities and the fact that he feels that he has no right to express these feelings adds to the worries about this situation" (Seligman & Darling, 2018, p. 178). Often, these emotions are expressed in irritation and hostility to the medical and pedagogical environment of the child (doctors, teachers, social workers). Dependence on constant recommendations from specialists creates in fathers a "feeling of an incompetent parent", low self-esteem, and a state of frustration. A man ceases to feel like a father who can independently choose methods of educational influence, realize his hopes for the future of his child, especially his son. Another important factor contributing to the possible removal of the father from the upbringing process is the need to devote almost all of his time to work and financial support for the family. Upbringing and caring for a "special" child require effort and time on the part of the mother, which in most cases forces her to leave work. The teacher of an inclusive school should be understanding towards the busy schedule of a man in such a family, but not exclude him from the interaction processes. For example, you can organize face-to-face work with fathers in the evening or on a Saturday day. It is also advisable to use ICT tools for information exchange and education. This can be electronic versions of questionnaires, sending out recommendations of specialists and manuals, comments in the parent online group, etc. It is necessary to take into account the cultural and religious aspect while interacting with fathers since traditions and conventions sometimes do not allow men to work in the format of open group discussions. Distant communication is acceptable in this case.
Speaking about the success of engaging students’ parents in inclusive education, we should also consider the way parents of students with typical development treat this kind of education. After all, a full-fledged inclusion can only be organized taking into account the psychological and motivational readiness of all subjects to adopt this practice.
The synopsis of modern research (Bogomyagkova, 2013; Bogomolova et al., 2013; Kiryutina, 2016; Nes et al., 2018) on this issue has shown that it is possible to identify typical fears of parents of children with normalized development associated with attending an inclusive school.
The works by Bogomolova et al. (2013), regard the parents’ concerns about the decline in the level of education in the inclusive class. In our opinion, these concerns can be divided into two types: predicting a decline in the level of the educational program and doubts associated with a decrease in the teacher's attention to regular students. The research has shown that the majority of regular children’s parents are opposed to inclusive education. Despite parents' awareness of the basic principles of implementing inclusion, parents do not see anything positive for their child in such a way of training. Their attitude to children with disabilities is mostly negative, focusing on illness and inability to do anything, low intellectual development. This bias must be overcome with the support of the legislation, according to which the organization of education for children with disabilities is determined by a specially designed adapted program and individual curriculum. As a result, children with disabilities study using special methods. It is necessary to keep in mind the possibilities of a differentiated approach to students, monitoring individual educational needs and achievements of the child, which help identify the causes and factors that make it difficult to implement inclusive education in a particular case.
Parents of children with typical development are often anxious about their child's interaction with a peer with disabilities. People with disabilities are often attributed with such traits as anger, aggression, hostility, and envy towards healthy peers in society. The research by Kiryutina (2016) shows that 57% of teachers and parents talk about the need to develop criteria for the safety of mental and physical health of regular schoolchildren who study in an inclusive environment. The humanistic position of teachers and psychologists claims that the full development of personal resources is realized only after the individual meets the need for security. The results of the study by Bogomyagkova (2013) show that the majority of parents (68%) consider additional education institutions psychologically safe for implementation of inclusion, while basic education schools are considered the most unsafe, prevailing in the group "Negative attitude". This study shows that the positions of parents and teachers regarding the acceptance of inclusion among schoolchildren are fundamentally different. And if in their responses, children's groups express doubts about the success of building communication and finding ways of joint development with children with disabilities, then the responses of adult respondents represented the insufficient development of tolerance and increased emotional burnout when interacting with people with disabilities. Diverging positions may indicate that both parents and teachers are experiencing psychological health risks in an inclusive environment. Speaking about psychological safety, it is necessary to remember to overcome social and professional stereotypes in the perception of children with disabilities.
This fear is considered as the most common and, at the same time, reveals the contradictory position of parents. The research by Gluhova and Litvina (2013) shows the duality of parents' position concerning inclusive education. Although the majority of parents expressed a positive attitude to the inclusion and the prospects of teaching children with disabilities in regular schools, when diagnosing the communication aspect, these parents showed a lack of interest in interacting, accepting, and collaborating actively with people with disabilities. The authors admit that most of the works reveal stereotypes about people with disabilities, especially with intellectual development disorders.
Similar results were obtained in the study by Zharikova (2016) Most parents who support co-education see difficulties in building interaction between children and worry about the manifestations of fear, anxiety, and pity for peers with disabilities in healthy children, which will negatively affect their communication.
In the works by Bogomolova et al. (2013), it is stated that only 53% of parents of healthy children accept inclusive school as a positive phenomenon in the development of education and society. A third of respondents (34%) considers inclusion in Russian schools to be premature, discriminating against the needs and demands of children with disabilities, and not having a positive impact on either children with disabilities or children with typical development. Thus, we can say that, despite the active awareness of the Russian society and the widespread introduction of inclusion in the educational space, quite a lot of parents deny or do not accept the ideology of inclusive education, Express their reluctance to co-education, and talk about the difficulties and problems of this approach. Parents who accept inclusion show a duality of positions, a manifestation of “external acceptance"("I am positive about joint education of children with disabilities and children with regular development, but I would not like my child to study in such a class"). In our opinion, the barriers presented in this study can be gradually removed with a sufficiently developed level of competence of teachers and Tutors, who will be able to form an inclusive psychological culture of the family of both children with disabilities and children with normal development.
Active implementation of inclusive practices in the education system is a complex and long-term phenomenon, in the process of which it is necessary to take into account all the factors that can influence the adoption of this position by all participants in education. In particular, these factors include features of mentality, social outlook, social and educational traditions, and paradigms, psychological and pedagogical, gender, age and nosological specifics of child development, and features of family education. Taking into account such a large number of features in the implementation of inclusive practices of educational organizations creates multifunctional requirements for a modern teacher. This poses serious challenges for the scientific community in terms of comprehensive specialized training of future teachers and their continuous professional improvement for interaction with children with different learning opportunities, their parents, and other specialists. In our opinion, one of the most relevant directions in the prospects of the study may be considering the formation of a future teachers’ professional competence concerning interaction with the family in an inclusive educational organization. This competence should characterize the graduate not only as accepting the principles of inclusion in education and able to work with children with disabilities, but should also imply the teacher’s readiness to include children with regular development, their parents and colleagues of the educational organization in an inclusive environment. All this will contribute to the expansion of interaction and the creation of psychological and pedagogical cooperation between the teacher and the family. It is necessary to develop new approaches aimed at forming the competence of a teacher in the implementation of inclusive education as an integral part of their overall professional competence and culture.
The research was supported by RFBR (theme “Postmodernism dominating the development of education systems in the USA and Russia, project No. 19-013-00815).
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20 November 2020
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Sociolinguistics, discourse analysis, bilingualism, multilingualism
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Morozova, V. I., & Sergeev, N. K. (2020). An Inclusive School Teacher Interacting With The Family In The Post-Industrial Society. In Е. Tareva, & T. N. Bokova (Eds.), Dialogue of Cultures - Culture of Dialogue: from Conflicting to Understanding, vol 95. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 634-645). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.11.03.67