The ways of solving the problem for organizing extracurricular activities of students are considered in the article. It clarifies the role and place of this activity in formation of intellectual culture and socialization of students in the aspect of the idea of the university. Attention is focused on the fact that students most fully develop the qualities of a free, capable of critical thinking and responsible action of the personality mainly in extracurricular activities. Events outside the school time to a greater extent allow students to express themselves as a person in social, scientific, cultural, sports University life. The article defines the concept of "extracurricular activities of students", describes the main types of extracurricular activities of students, analyzes the roles of the main subjects of extracurricular activities: university teachers and students, identifies the principles of organization of extracurricular activities of students at the University. It is shown that extracurricular activities influence directly formation of intellectual culture and socialization of students which contributes to the generation of the country's intellectual potential. It is the definite expression of the University idea in the context of organization of extracurricular activities for students at Togliatti State University. Using a number of examples illustrating productivity of extracurricular activities of students in formation of their intellectual culture and socialization, it is concluded that this type of activity is an integral part of university education and upbringing, self-education, research and development contributing to the formation of the intellectual potential of society.
Keywords: Extracurricular activities of studentsthe idea of the university
There is a period of the most active search for the meaning of life, desire for spiritual culture, an awakening interest in science and research, desire for fresh ideas and transformations in society and professional development in human life. This is the period of person’s student’s life which is firmly connected with higher education and the university. In this context, the University is the place where professionals in public administration and construction are formed and educated. The country's social and economic development and sustainable development of society depend on them. This idea was most clearly deduced in the works of Weber (in his works devoted to considering the place of bureaucracy in various areas of social life). He expressed this idea in connection with understanding the university mission in strengthening the intellectual unity of society which increases stability of the post-war world. Such understanding of the university’s mission in formation the intellectual and spiritual foundation of the sustainable development of society is one of the key thoughts in the idea of the university. Subsequently, this idea acquired the features of a defining idea in understanding the university’s mission in ensuring sustainability of the daily life of society (Weber, 1990).
This idea was most clearly identified in works of Russian scientists (Goncharov, 2006; Sadovnichy, 1995). They point out that the modern post-industrial university creates the skeleton of “cognitive society” and thereby ensures its (society's) development. Creation of a “cognitive society” in the university is connected with formation of the country's intellectual potential. Economic growth, scientific and technological progress is impossible without it. The intellectual potential at the university is formed and developed by education and upbringing, self-education, research and development and those forms of university life in which students are directly involved.
The university is the space where the intellectual engine of modern economies “is assembled” and the intelligence of modern societies is formed. We are talking about education and upbringing of students whom the university teaches universal knowledge, changes their intellectual sphere (Newman, 1960), socializes, turns to national spiritual values (Humboldt, 2002) in many countries, including Russia.
Extra-curricular activity is one of the forms of social interaction of subjects of education and upbringing in their free time from basic studies. It influences greatly on intellectual potential of society and its formation. The daily life of students in their aspiration for new ideas and transformations in society, professional and personal development is as important as the educational process. Qualities of a free, capable of critical thinking and responsible action of the individual are mostly formed in it. Events outside the classroom time sometimes to a greater extent allow students to prove themselves as individuals in social, scientific, cultural, sports life of the university.
The main task of our time is to ensure sustainable development of society. The guarantor of sustainable development of society is education. It is important for formation and development of the intellectual potential of society, the wealth that determines its present and future being, opens opportunities of its sustainable development.
Higher education has priority in sustainable development of society. The university as the educational organization of higher education is the mechanism for its achievement. Such understanding of the university’s mission in ensuring sustainable development of society is one of the main expressions of the university idea.
Not only is the university educational process, but also students’ everyday life is important in formation of student’s culture. Formation of the intellectual engine of modern societies at the university is carried out beyond its borders, which, in fact, is the definite expression of the idea of the university.
The experience of formation of intellectual culture and socialization of students in extracurricular activities are of particular interest in development of the idea of the University. This article shows specific ways of implementing the idea of the university on the basis of formation of intellectual culture and socialization of students in such activities.
An attempt to answer the following questions: what is the role and place of extracurricular activities in the formation of intellectual culture and socialization of students? What are the principles of organizing extracurricular activities of students? was made during research.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the article is to clarify the role and place of extracurricular activities in formation of intellectual culture and socialization of students and to determine the principles of organization of this activity.
The method of theoretical analysis was used in research. It made possible to describe and characterize the specifics of extracurricular activities of students. The direct observation method was also used. Empirical material, testifying to the nature and characteristics of students' extracurricular activities at the university, was collected with a help of this method.
It was identified that features and special aspects of extracurricular activities of students were actively discussed in the last decade in the course of theoretical analysis. The interpretation of the concept of “extracurricular activities of students” is contained in dissertations by (Alieva & Rudenko, 2017; Beilina, 2014; Briginets, 2010; Druzhinina, 2010; Ivanayskaya, 2010; Ivanova, 2010; Karimova 2005; Kravchuk, 2010; Samokhvalova 2016; Sidorova, 2010; Srebnaya, 2000; Vasilyev, 2004; Vintin, 2006 et al). Interpretations of this concept are controversial. On the one hand, attention is focused on understanding this activity as a structural element of the university educational process in interpreting extracurricular activities of students. On the other hand, attention is focused on environmental or spatial understanding of the characteristic features of extracurricular activities. Researchers who proposed interpretations of the concept of “extracurricular activities of students” can be divided into two conditional groups:
The first group of studies interprets extracurricular activities as:
The second group of researches considers extracurricular activities as:
Issues related to the role of extracurricular activities in personality formation of students were also considered by foreign researchers (Ahmad et al., 2015; Arranz et al., 2017; Bakoban & Aljarallah, 2015; Egawa et al., 2019; Kim & Bastedo, 2016; Nuijten et al., 2017; Retallick & Foreman, 2012) and others. Thus, researches by Retallick and Foreman showed that students’ participation in extracurricular activities increased leadership qualities such as determination, self-confidence and responsibility (Retallick & Foreman, 2012). Researchers conducted by Kim and Bastedo (2016) revealed that students who had experience in public and social activities at the university are more likely to adapt to new conditions of work in a team. They are better at working with information materials than those students who did not have such experience. Researchers conducted by Ahmad et al. (2015) confirmed that students who took part in extracurricular activities had higher academic performance, self-esteem, and they attended classes most often.
After analyzing the scientific interpretations of the concept of "extracurricular activities of students", we will clarify it for our research. Extracurricular activity of students is a form of social interaction of the subjects of the educational process in their free time. It contributes to professional and personal formation of students in the environment organized by the university.
The following types of extracurricular activities of students can exist in a modern university. They are scientific, social, cultural and leisure, sports and virtual activities (human interaction with artificial intelligence).
The main subjects of extracurricular activities are teachers and students (Alieva & Rudenko, 2017). The teacher of a modern university is medium of a real professional image. The civic, personal, professional experience of a university teacher affects the result of students’ training in the system of higher education. A teacher of students’ extracurricular activities can be a coordinator of student associations, an active participant of student communities, a curator and organizer of significant university events, etc. A university teacher as a participant in extracurricular activities has a wide range of statuses and roles, expanding his scope of basic pedagogical and scientific activity. The interaction of teachers and students in a variety of roles creates the extracurricular space of the university, which is favorable environment for personal, creative and professional growth.
A student as a subject of extracurricular activities can perform various roles at the university. He can be a participant or organizer of an extracurricular activity, a leader of a student group or community, a project curator, etc. Accomplishing various roles, the student strives for professional and personal improvement. The more roles he has, the more opportunities he has for growth of universal and general professional competencies. Therefore, the university should be interested in a systematic, focused extracurricular activity, which affects the personal and professional development of students in addition to educational activities. Students, in their turn, showing creativity, efforts, independence to the extent of their individual capabilities, experience, positively influencing peers and teachers, are included in extracurricular activities. If we consider the main groups of universal competencies listed in the Federal State Educational Standard for Higher Education (FSESHE 3 ++), “systemic and critical thinking”, “development and implementation of projects”, “teamwork and leadership”, “communication”, etc., we can notice that their formation will be influenced by moral, physical, social and moral qualities of students, which can be formed in effectively organized extracurricular activities.
Based on pragmatic, personality-oriented, learner-centered, competency-based approaches, we set out the principles of organization of extracurricular activities of students. They are
the principle of voluntariness (assumes voluntary and interested participation of students in extracurricular activities created by themselves);
the principle of continuity, or unity of educational and extracurricular activities (consists of creating integral educational and developing space of the university in order to expand the possibilities of intellectual and moral development of the personality, acquiring social experience, satisfying diverse interests and abilities of students);
the principle of variability (means that extracurricular activities in a modern university are presented in various forms to meet the personal needs of students);
the principle of creativity (reveals orientation on implementation of creative abilities of students);
the principle of trust and support (includes rejection of the rigid frameworks and authoritarianism while organizing extracurricular activities. It involves desire to create important, meaningful, personally developing areas of this activity and to encourage students to participate in it);
the principle of self-actualization (assumes that every student has a need in actualization of his intellectual, communicative, artistic and physical and other abilities. Extracurricular activities are aimed at encouraging and supporting student’s desire to manifest and develop his personal potential);
the principle of professional orientation (means taking into account the most significant state and public needs in organization of extracurricular activities of students. It indicates connection with practice, aims at formation of professional competence of the person as the main result);
the principle of mobility (involves efficiency and students’ ability to master various types of activities quickly and constantly improve their competence and qualifications).
The experience of the Togliatti State University is of particular interest in development of intellectual potential, generation of which is influenced by the intellectual culture of students formed in extracurricular activities, in the development of the idea of a university. The following types of extracurricular activities of students are represented at this university today:
scientific activity. It is students' participation in scientific and technical communities by chairs, the school for young researchers, student scientific communities;
project activity. It is modeling and implementation of social projects in accordance with the requests of customer enterprises, employers, etc.;
cultural and leisure activities. It is students’ participation in work of creative teams of various kinds, in work of media groups, etc.;
sports activity. It is students' participation in intramural associations and presentation of sports results at the international, all-Russian and regional levels;
social and organizational activities. It includes work as part of public organizations and associations, participation in self-government bodies at the university and academic group levels, etc.
Even a cursory glance at the given types of extracurricular activities allows us to draw attention to “intellectual” and “socializing” orientation of this activity and to conclude that extracurricular activities are aimed at formation of an intellectual culture and socialization of students. That is, scientific and project learning activities develop intellectual sphere of students. Cultural and leisure, social, organizational and sports extracurricular activities socialize students, expand and develop their behavioral sphere. Such understanding of the role and place of extracurricular activities in the development and expansion of the intellectual and behavioral fields of students is the particular expression of the idea of the university.
A special role is given to student associations in Togliatti State University. Students learn to accomplish social interaction and fulfill their role in the team (universal competence - 3 “Able to carry out social interaction and fulfill its role in the team”) participating in a diverse and eventful volunteer work. They carry out business communication (universal competence - 4 “Able to carry out business communication in oral and written forms in the state language of Russian Federation and foreign language (s)”), etc. The university creates conditions for the activities of such associations. It provides premises, gives corporate awards and scholarships. It publishes information about the best representatives in corporate media.
Teaching activities are also carried out along with other things within the scope of social and organizational activities. Thus there is a student pedagogical group "Success" at the Humanitarian and Pedagogical Institute of the Togliatti State University. Its purpose is voluntary social and pedagogical activity in educational organizations of Togliatti city. The activities of the pedagogical team as a public association are organized with a help of interaction of students and teachers of the pedagogical department.
The main activities of the pedagogical team "Success" are:
assistance in development of resource books for students and educators;
teaching students. Members of the pedagogical team are taught forms and methods of educational work with children of different ages;
assistance to foster-children in organization of leisure activities. It’s aimed at expanding connections of orphans with the world around;
the organization of vacation and leisure for children of schools in the city of Togliatti and children's specialized institutions (boarding schools, orphanages, social shelters); self-management skills training for schools; development and implementation of social projects.
Participation in the pedagogical team enables students to achieve their personal and professional growth. Meetings of pedagogical team are regularly held. Current work is discussed, further activities are planned and the experience of the team members is exchanged there. Students of the pedagogical team participate in research activities. They carry out experimental work in educational and educational institutions of the city. The research activities of students of the pedagogical team are carried out as part of course work and graduation thesis. The results obtained in the course of the experimental work are reflected in publications and speeches at scientific student conferences.
The results of the diagnostic work, which was carried out in order to identify the level of competence formation among students of the pedagogical team Success, indicate that students participating in the pedagogical team are more likely to make contact in communication with new people and find friends quickly. They know how keep to your standpoint strong in the team. They do not get lost in the new environment, show initiative in communication, constantly strive to expand the circle of their friends, engaged in social activities, take part in organizing social events with pleasure, help relatives, friends. They are able to make an independent decision in difficult situation. They do all this according to their inner aspirations, and not under compulsion. Moreover, participation in the activities of the pedagogical team contributed to more successful formation of students' skills in organizing play, subject, productive, cultural and leisure activities of schoolchildren. It taught to carry out professional tasks responsibly and efficiently, observe professional ethics, carry out volunteer, health and other socially significant activities (Pisarenko, 2019). These characteristics are at the core of competencies formed according to the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education. It confirms the importance of extracurricular activities in the professional education of future teachers.
Extracurricular activities are just as important as the educational process in formation of intellectual culture and socialization of students. Students are more likely to manifest themselves as personality in social, scientific, cultural, sports lives beyond the scope of study time. The indicated principles of organizing students’ extracurricular activities at the university make it possible to organize such an activity in which students fully form their intellectual culture and develop qualities of free personality capable of critical thinking and responsible action. Thus, the extracurricular activities of students have the very direct impact on formation of the intellectual potential of the society. It is a guarantor and an instrument for its sustainable development which is, in fact, a definite expression of the idea of the university.
The reported study was funded by RFBR, project number № 19-313-90027.
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20 November 2020
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Sociolinguistics, discourse analysis, bilingualism, multilingualism
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Makarov, M. I., & Pisarenko, D. A. (2020). Extracurricular Activity Of Students In The Aspect Of The University Idea. In Е. Tareva, & T. N. Bokova (Eds.), Dialogue of Cultures - Culture of Dialogue: from Conflicting to Understanding, vol 95. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 532-540). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.11.03.57