The article considers the problem of internationalization of education in modern world practice. One of the key elements of the internationalization of education is the international exchanges of teacher assistants, which are gaining popularity every year, and the number of participants is growing around the world. Some of these programs of the language assistants exchanges between different countries around the world have existed for more than a hundred years. Initiated by both sides, it gives people the opportunity to work in schools and get pedagogical and cultural experience abroad. All this is possible due to strict and clear mechanisms of developed exchange models being engineered especially for these programs. The authors present the results of a study whose purpose is to identify effective models of world practices in the implementation of exchanges of language teacher assistants. Scientific novelty. The study identifies general and distinctive features of the program for the exchange of teacher assistants in such countries as France, England, Austria and Germany, which have clearly described models for implementing the program, mechanisms for the methodological and cultural and social support of assistants; use almost the same mechanism for submitting documents and requirements for candidates. Each model has common and distinctive features. Practical significance. For pedagogical practice the authors present effective models for implementing the program of teacher assistants exchange to use in educational organizations and adapt them to the needs of organizations based on certain features. Conclusions are made that confirm current trends and forms for internationalization of education.
Keywords: Educationteacher assistantsexchange modelsinternationalization
The internationalization of education in modern world practice (Alkarzon, 2016) is represented by several formats of mobility: students and teachers; educational programs, MOOKs; providers - institutes and universities; projects and startups. This trend contributes not only to improving the quality of education, the interpenetration of cultures, cooperation, but also to organizing consortia, increasing the research potential of educational organizations, libraries, etc. (Garusova & Piginesheva, 2013; Kuricyn, 2012; Prohorov, 2015). Thus, this contributes to the development of integration in the global educational space, which affects the development of innovative, economic and social progress, as well as the development of cultural diversity and tolerance.
One of the key elements of the internationalization of education is the international exchanges of teaching assistants, which are gaining popularity every year, and the number of participants is constantly growing around the world (Ozturgut et al., 2014). Most of these programs offer well-organized schemes and mechanisms for the implementation of the exchange, which contributes to the smooth and harmonious work of all its components.
One should notice that the goal of the teacher assistant exchange program is to provide methodological and linguistic support to teachers in educational organizations (general, secondary and higher professional education), as well as to facilitate the exchange between the participants of the program of the best pedagogical practices and psychological and methodological techniques of teaching a class in language disciplines, improving pedagogical skills, competencies in the field of foreign languages teaching and intercultural communication. The main task of the teacher assistant during the implementation of the exchange program is to improve the communicative, socio-cultural, linguistic and regional competencies of students, maintaining their motivation for further study of the language, literature, art and culture and other areas of the humanitarian sphere of the language (Le Ha, 2009). Thus, teacher assistant exchange programs help to popularize the foreign language learning, and help to overcome the language and cultural barriers (McKay, 2018). This article is devoted to the problem of identifying in the world practice of the relevant implementation models of language teacher assistants' exchanges (Clyne & Sharifian, 2008).
Despite the already existing wide and stable network of foreign teacher assistants exchanges with well-established procedures and practices, in Russia the experience of such exchanges is not available to every educational organization due to the lack of clear methodological and legal recommendations for the implementation of such exchanges. Moreover, exchanges are mostly mutual and symmetrical in the field of conditions and requirements, which must be adjusted by considering all the features of the legal and educational systems of the receiving parties. This article defines the current models in the world practice of the implementation of exchanges of language teacher assistants, accumulating best practices in this area, which makes it relevant, especially for those countries and universities that are starting such activities for the first time.
The subject of the study is existing practices and models for the implementation of language exchanges, which can be freely used and combined with each other in educational organizations.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to analyze the existing European experience and best practices in the implementation of language teacher assistants' exchanges.
As the main research methods the authors chose such as the method of comparative analysis of regulatory and legal documents in home and foreign literature; comparative study; methods of analysis, systematization and generalization of the obtained data; method for summarizing research results.
In a comparative study, the authors identified pool of countries that effectively implement models of language teacher assistants exchanges. For example, countries such as France and Germany are among the first developers of models and methods of exchanges of language teacher assistants. Then these models were tested in other European countries, such as Austria and the UK. Models were improved depending on ethnocultural, social and legal norms (Mitchell et al., 2015).
Experience of France in Implementing Teacher Assistants Exchange Programs.
The French program of the exchange of language teacher assistants is widely known worldwide (Foreign language assistants in France, 2019; French Language Assistants abroad, 2019). Its general goal is to promote students mobility at the European and international levels and offer them the opportunity to study. The working conditions of assistant in France are very similar to German ones. It is important to notice that it is not necessary for the assistant to spend all 12 hours in one school. Depending on the needs of a particular city and its schools, the assistant can be placed in two or three educational institutions. All secondary schools in France belong to one or another “academy” - this is the name of the school district, uniting schools in one region. The candidate can choose the level of secondary education and accordingly the age of the students whom the assistant would like to teach. There are three levels: elementary school (6-10 years), college (10-15 years) and lyceum (15-18 years).
Stage 1. Information.
It includes the development of selection criteria and requirements for assistants; preparation of documents for the Selection Committee; providing information on the criteria and requirements for assistants.
The role of an assistant who works under the guidance of teachers with a whole class, or teaches classes independently with a small group is to improve communication skills of students and develop their knowledge about the different society and culture. Assistants teach conversation practice with students in the presence of the teacher; participate in various educational activities held at school; develop audio materials for school (record texts, dialogues, etc.); participate in the implementation of educational projects; teach a language club.
One of the requirements for the nomination of the assistant is his being the citizen of one of the 60 partner countries (bilateral agreements or international obligations). Assistant must be a native speaker of the language that will be taught in France (Arabic, Chinese, Dutch, English, German, Hebrew, Italian, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Turkish); complete their education; successfully complete the second year of a bachelor degree at the time of application for the progrm or at the time of his arrival in France (depending on country) or he must be a student of the higher educational institutions in the country from which he applies. Age of candidate is between 20 and 30 years (35 years for certain countries) (age range is agreed between the partner countries and consistent with the General Objectives of the programme and the specific profile of an assistant). The candidate must have good command of French (B1 in the European language frame).
Stage 2. Selection.
A feature of this stage is that the submission of documents by candidates is made via electronic system, email or in person, and the procedure of selection occurs on the basis of the documents. Next is the approval of the selected candidates, and the candidate receives a confirmation letter from the host school.
Stage 3. Preparatory.
This stage consists of preparing papers for visa application procedure with the assistance of the Embassy and the host schools; preparing the school for assistant's arrival and work. The host school should provide a working space for the assistants; resolve financial issues; appoint curator by the school; develop a package of necessary documents.
Then the assistant is under constant supervision of a curator who informs him about the cultural, social, and educational characteristics of the host organization.
Stage 4. Functional.
In general, this stage describes the principal functions of assistants and host schools on the implementation of exchange programs. Among the most basic questions: meeting and accomodating assistant on the spot (solving settlement issues); signing of the necessary documents to work in the host school; assistant's activities and participation in school events; provision of informational and methodological support for assistant; conducting interviews with assistant, participants and organizers of the program for having a feedback at the end of the program; processing the received data to correct and update the program.
Thus, the model implemented in France, has the following distinctive features: has 4 distinct stages; takes into account national circumstances of the host party; has clear criteria and requirements; system approach in preparing and filing out the documents, including online application procedure; the clarity in the interaction of the candidate and the curator at the host school.
UK Experience in Teacher Assistants Exchange Programs
The UK experience in implementing the program of exchange of teacher assistants is especially popular among candidates from European countries (For foreign language assistants. Tips For German Speaking Language Assistants In The UK, 2019; Prepare for your language assistant placement in the UK, 2019), due to the presence of a well-developed mechanism for implementing the program (Modern Language Assistants 2018–19. Information booklet for Language Assistants in the UK, 2019). England is one of the first countries to test this program (Culpeper et al., 2008; Codó & McDaid, 2019). The British Council organizes the activities of assistants in the UK, including the selection of candidates. Assistants teach in two or three schools, standard employment is 12 hours a week. By separate agreement, this figure can be increased to 18 hours, additional hours will also be paid, and their cost will be added to the standard amount of payment.
Evaluation and reflectiion
Each stage contains a set of key procedures or activities. For example, the first step is as follows. Schools need to apply for participation in the program of exchange of teacher assistants through the electronic system and make an announcement about the start of the competition by posting information with the requirements of schools and the features of the program on the website of partner organizations.
It is important to understand that the assistants have the following duties: are working with the teacher in the classroom; work with small groups of pupils; assist in preparing pupils for oral exams; making audiofiles and recordings which the school can use as training materials; participate in group discussions and role plays in their native language; work on specific topics with small groups of students; the coordinating function - establishing contact with schools in their country; contributing to international projects.
Next step is accepting applications from schools and candidates through the system. The school is applying for the job of assistant in the system. In June, candidates' portfolios are sent to the personal account of school. Then the school obtains information from candidates and their endorsement of the appointment, accepting the job offers by the assistants through their personal account in the system, and the exchange of contact information between the school and assistant.
The following sequence of events: development of financial mechanisms of the program in school (monthly payments, taxation, transport, accommodation); development of a package of documents (contracts, memos, schedules, etc.); the appointment of a teacher-curator to advise and coordinate the work of assistants on the stage of obtaining visa and working in the school, coordinating the arrival and schedule of classes; obtain the necessary support from the Embassy and the host schools for the visa; arrival and help with the issues of accommodation, transport.
The second main stage of the exchange program is to implement the following measures.
Firstly, the provision of methodological and socio-cultural support for assistants by the school and the curator. Introductory and educational classes for language assistants are conducted; access to additional classes with partner organizations in the UK, including the Goethe Institute, Consejería de Educación and Institut Français; interaction with the support network for other language assistants of the British Council at the local level and throughout the UK; аn annual information booklet is provided as a methodological and informational guide, covering many useful topics, including training tips, initial administrative support, ideas for classroom, and information about life in the UK.
Here the implementation of key activities and responsibilities includes: providing complete information about the upcoming trip (a list of necessary items, information on the region and climate); staying in touch with the assistant in the period of registration of documents; arranging the transfer for the assistant on the arrival day; getting acquainted the assistant with the teaching staff of the school; assisting in filling-out of tax documents on arrival; conveying useful information on the results of previous exchanges; providing language assistants with the same information that is available for a new student or a trainee, for example, the plan of the school website, the user manual for the school system: system examinations and recommendations for the curriculum; help in finding permanent housing (if needed); assistance with appointments to the doctor and getting health insurance number; respect the assistants and to support their work; familiarize them with the policy for the protection of children, to teach them how to apply its principles in the work; provide methodological assistance; organize fixed schedule and the workplace for the assistant; engage assistant in school activities – organizational meetings, sports, extra-curricular, multidisciplinary activities, etc.; appoint a tutor for regular support; provide an opportunity to communicate with other language assistants from other schools; organize language courses for language assistants.
Information support for assistants at school is as follows: what are the expectations from them in the lessons; disciplinary procedures that the school may apply; providing copies of all documents for review; providing a description of the structure of the school year and exams; information about where to get services (for example, where to make photocopies of documents) and whom to address if financial problems arise (for example, salary, taxes, etc.); information about where to find teaching materials and consumables - books for teachers, additional materials, DVDs, tape recorders and other educational equipment.
Secondly, at this stage there is a set of activities like signing financial and legal documents by an assistant. He signs a labor agreement with the school, which sets out all the rights and obligations of the parties. If the assistant works in more than one school, then the main school signs an agreement with him, it bears all the obligations to him, and also assumes the responsibilities of the coordinator. Language assistants have fully paid vacations, like other teachers at their school.
Thirdly, the assistant directly organizes his work and takes part in school activities.
The third stage of the implementation of the exchange program includes a number of important events: interview and questioning of assistants; school report on the work of the assistant with its posting on the school’s web page in the public domain; analysis of information to improve the program.
Thus, the program implemented in England has the following distinctive features: a clear mechanism for the selection and support of teacher assistant, strict adaptation procedures, information support and logistics.
Austria's experience in implementing teacher assistants exchange programs
For example, the experience of implementing Austria's language teacher assistants exchange programs is quite interesting, and it helps to improve the procedure for submitting and processing documents within the framework of the program (Sprachassistenz programm, 2019).
This program allows schools to apply for a new assistant independently and extend the stay of the assistant for another year (Deutsch als fremdsprache. Auslandspraktikum Deutsch als Fremdsprache, 2019).
Selection and approval of candidates for the position of language assistants;
Preparation for the exchange program;
The functioning of the exchange program;
The first stage of the implementation of the exchange program starts from informing about the opening of a call for the program through open information resources (sites of exchange program organizers, partner organizations, website of the embassy of receiving/sending organizations, educational organizations of partners).
Eligible participants of the program in Austria may be:
Students of pedagogical and linguistic institutes, higher educational institutions and universities (not younger than the third year).
Graduates of pedagogical and linguistic institutes, higher educational institutions and universities (not younger than the third year).
Students and graduates of other specialties (not younger than the third year).
Among the basic requirements that are formed on the basis of a request from schools and a list of required documents (available in the public domain in information sources), one can define the following: German language proficiency - free; age - not older than 30/35 years; work - 13 hours a week from October, 01 to May, 31 (the period of the program); fulfillment of basic duties (teach oral speech and improve communication skills of students, motivate them to learn the language, inform students about the cultural and historical features of their country); providing the necessary documents for the competitive selection (letter of recommendation from the university; curriculum vitae / resume; certificate of German language proficiency; resume and motivation letter; certificate with grades or a copy of the diploma; copy of the passport).
Documents are submitted through the electronic system, where the candidate’s electronic portfolio is formed, which further simplifies the selection process based on the requirements for the candidates, as shown in Table
Next comes the procedure for the selection and approval of candidates. If the candidate meets the needs of the school, the candidate receives a confirmation letter from the school in the online system.
In the second stage of the exchange programme selected candidates prepare necessary documents, including visa. Concerning visa issues the candidate has maximum support from the Embassy and the host schools. The school in turn is preparing the environment and working place for an assistant, namely:
− Financial issues: determines the salaries, accommodation costs, food, transport;
− The appointment of a curator for a qualified teacher assistant with clear regulation of his functions under the program;
− Forming the package of documents: contracts, memos, schedules, etc. To be signed by the assistant.
It is important to notice that the host organization for maximum comfort of the assistant assigns coordinator whose responsibility is informing about the cultural, social, and educational characteristics of the host organization, assistance in resolving visa issues, which is especially important for the adaptation of teaching assistant in Austria.
The third stage of the exchange program is the arrival of the assistant to place; resolve the housing and transport issues, and issues of residence are resolved by an assistant, may require a deposit (full payment for 3 months stay) and payment for services of agent (assistant must register within three days from the moment of arrival); the signing of the list of necessary documents and working as an assistant, participation in the events; provide methodological and information support assistant.
The final stage consists in the following activities: writing a report on the work of the assistant, followed by posting it on the portal in the public domain; conducting an interview with the assistant, participants and organizers of the program to receive feedback and process the data obtained for the subsequent improvement of the exchange program.
Thus, the program implemented in Austria has the following distinctive features: a simple and convenient competitive selection system - submitting documents and interacting with candidates online.
Experience of Germany in Implementing Teacher Assistants Exchange Programs.
We will consider German Pädagogischer Austauschdienst program, or PAD (PAD: Foreign Language Assistant Exchanges to Germany, 2019). The purpose of the program is to gain practical experience in the country of the studied language. Assistants get an idea of the educational system and teaching methods that are common in German schools. Candidates have the opportunity to expand and deepen their knowledge of the German language and culture. Future teachers of the German language have the opportunity to broadcast their experience and genuine information about Germany in their own country (Ecke, 2013).
By submitting an application, the candidate can indicate which region he would like to go to (three regions can be indicated). Each year, around 1,000 foreign students attend schools in Germany. As an assistant (FSA), they support teachers at the host school.
An important aspect of program implementation is the following. At the beginning of the work, an obligatory introductory session is held for assistants, during which adaptation and instruction are carried out. For 12 working hours per week, the assistant receives a salary, free medical insurance, and also enjoys the right to attend any lessons at the host school. In this case, the assistant is not responsible for the classes, but only assists the teacher and has the right to teach the oral practice in the lesson. An application to Germany must be submitted before mid-January.
Information and preparation.
Reflection and evaluation.
At the first stage of the implementation of the exchange program, a number of important activities must be made.
Firstly, this is the preparation of information about the language exchange program and its placement in open sources of information, the responsibilities of assistants. The main task is to motivate German students to learn foreign languages. At the same time, it is easier for an assistant to establish contact with students, as age difference is minimal; the assistant’s participation in school life and the transfer of experience in such fields as geography, social studies, religion, ethics, music or sports are actively encouraged.
The assistant must teach small groups of students or sections of the lesson; work in a team with a subject teacher; lead or participate in discussions; teach local history (as part of the teaching of foreign languages, as well as other subjects); organize mentoring, counseling and individual assistance for some students; develop training materials; participate or conduct extracurricular activities (clubs, theaters); implement projects; participate in networking (e.g. school partnerships, email exchanges); participate in excursions, school trips, etc .; Take part in exam preparation.
Secondly, it is necessary to collect applications and documents from candidates (recommendation from the university; resume and motivation letter; copy of the transcript of records with a translation into German; certificate of German language proficiency; medical certificate).
Thirdly, candidates should be selected according to the following parameters. You can apply if you have completed at least two courses of study at the university, while being no older than 29 years. The program is designed for students of linguistic universities, teaching experience is an advantage. One should notice that depending on the regions, the requirements vary. For example, Europe has the following requirements. Students from these countries can participate if they study German. Preference is given to students of pedagogical specialties who have successfully completed their studies at the university within two years. If the candidate is from the Russian Federation, then he can apply if he is in the 4th, 5th or 6th year of study at the time of application. For candidates from France and the UK - students from other fields of study can also participate. If the candidate is from a non-European foreign country, then students from these countries can participate if they provide the proof that they learn German. Preference is given to students of pedagogical specialties who have already received higher education (for example, a bachelor of arts).
Fourthly, the procedure of receiving a letter of confirmation takes place.
Fifthly, there goes cooperation between schools and assistants, namely, the appointment of a curator to accompany assistant and assist in the collection of documents for obtaining a visa.
Then, sixthly, they prepare the draft documents for employment: labor contract, schedules, etc.
Seventhly, the school organizes a week of orientation.
In conclusion, there is arrival of the assistant, which is accompanied by issues of accommodation, transport, registration.
On the main (work) stage one can clearly see a series of events and procedures, namely: the provision of socio-cultural and methodological support for assistants from the school and curator; signing financial and legal documents; work as an assistant, participation in school activities.
At the third stage of the exchange program implementation one performs a number of key events that are reflective and evaluative in nature, namely: collection of information about program implementation in the form of questionnaires and interviews with assistants, curator, representatives of the school; reporting to the curator about the work of an assistant on the school's website in the public domain; analyzing the reflection to improve the program.
Thus, the program implemented in Germany has the following distinguishing features: the difference in requirements depending on the country of residence, the features of the introductory session.
Thus, a brief review and analysis of approaches to the implementation of the program of teacher assistants exchange implemented in various foreign countries at the level of higher education, showed that these effective models of world practices in the implementation of language teacher assistants exchanges have common and distinctive features.
Among the key differences in teacher assistants exchange programs one can differentiate:
The model of the exchange program in France takes into account the national characteristics of the host country and offers clarity in the interaction of the candidate and the curator at the school.
In England, the program of the exchange has a clear selection and support mechanism, contains adaptation procedures, information support and logistics.
In Germany, the exchange program is distinguished by presenting requirements for candidates depending on the country of residence, a mechanism for holding a mandatory introductory session.
The program implemented in Austria has a simple and convenient competitive selection system, and the submission of documents and interaction with candidates takes place online.
Thus, the existing models of exchanges are a multicomponent mechanism aimed at the most harmonious and simplified work of all its parts and participants. Similar exchange models contribute to:
- the development of cultural and educational relations, stimulate participation in the program;
- contribute to increasing the level of knowledge of foreign languages and their popularization at the level of general education;
- participants gain real practical skills in the field of interaction with various cultures, as well as existing regulatory legal norms for the implementation of the program;
- use a systematic approach: create and improve systems for the selection and exchange of teacher assistants;
- offer variations in the field of creating interactive platforms for working with candidate documents at the selection stage;
- creation and support of the quality system of language education.
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20 November 2020
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Sociolinguistics, discourse analysis, bilingualism, multilingualism
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Sheveleva, N. N., Suvirova, A. U., & Lesin, S. M. (2020). Modern Models Of International Interaction Implementation In Teacher Asistants Exchanges. In Е. Tareva, & T. N. Bokova (Eds.), Dialogue of Cultures - Culture of Dialogue: from Conflicting to Understanding, vol 95. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1122-1133). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.11.03.119