Modern reality has shown that one of the most important factors in the development of personality, and sometimes just a factor in preserving a person’s physical and mental health, is a psychological resource. Personality development resources are those resources that allow a person to cope with difficult situations that arise in one or another sphere of his life, and at the same time rise to a new stage of his development. It is shown that the family contains the resources of personality development, which are formed in the positive space of marital and child-parent interaction and help a person not only overcome the difficulties of a particular problem situation, but also as a result find the previously unavailable opportunities for personal growth and development. As family development resources, family phenomena are considered that can support, direct, stimulate positive development processes and smooth out or neutralize its negative manifestations. The study identified two types of family resources for personal development: adaptation resources and socialization resources. It has been established that family resources are able to beneficially affect a person’s personal sphere and contribute to preventing emotional exhaustion in a stressful situation. It is concluded that the activation of family resources will contribute to the development of the individual and the development of society as a whole.
Keywords: Adaptation resourcesfamily resources of personality developmentpersonalitypsychological resourceresourcesocialization resources
Personal resource as a source of maintaining psychological health
The modern reality of 2020 has shown that one of the most important factors in the development of personality and sometimes just a factor in preserving a person’s physical and mental health is a psychological resource. Moreover, this is a psychological resource not only of the individual himself, but also the resourcefulness of the environment in which the individual is located. In 2020, humanity was faced with the problem of a viral infection, a chance of salvation from which a person receives only by isolating himself from society. In this case, the hope is just that resource that the individual has. As a rule, it is a difficult psychological situation that threatens health and well-being, accompanied by anxiety, depression, aggression, fear, and a change in ordinary life activities that contribute to the actualization of personal resources. How effective they are will depend on their type and depth of development.
Resources associated with personal adaptations to the situation are most often able to provide assistance only at the first and rather short time stage, since one of the characteristics that characterize them is exhaustibility. Therefore, the successful use of adaptive resources only allows you to adapt to the situation, changing yourself, and this, as a result, will lead to the depletion of vitality. But in a highly stressful situation, a person needs not the simplest adaptive resources, but resources of a higher level. The positive effect of which should consist not only in overcoming the difficulties that have arisen, but also in finding new life resources at the same time. In our opinion, the main resources of personality development are family resources.
In connection with the foregoing, we conducted a study aimed at studying the influence of family resources on a person’s personal development.
The determining influence of the family on the development of personal development resources
Family creates a special space that stimulates or limits personal development. In both domestic and foreign psychology family phenomena that are capable of supporting, directing, stimulating positive development processes and smoothing or neutralizing its negative manifestations are considered important for the individual.
The key role of the family in personal development is determined by the deep influence of the space of its environment and the relationships that form in it on the whole complex of the physical and spiritual life of family members. Depending on the ability to stimulate development, support, direct it, or, conversely, bring down, devalue, destroy all the positive family climate It is divided into favorable and unfavorable for family members. The quality of the family microclimate, its favorable / unfavorable level is determined by a number of characteristics of the family structure: material and housing conditions, psychophysiological, socio-psychological, psychological (parent and household sphere) indicators, quality of marriage assessment. Among the factors determining the state of the family microclimate are also called the parents' relations to each other, the organization in the family of joint problem solving, the distribution of responsibilities between family members, spending hours of leisure, family traditions, norms of family relations, direct parenting of their children and much more (Tkachenko, 2009). Each of these factors has its own potential for effectiveness.
The central role in shaping the family atmosphere is played by the relations developing in the appropriate space - between spouses, spouses and children, brothers and sisters, etc. Their significance is associated with the ability to meet the needs of the individual at three levels: 1) needs expressing a certain attitude of a person to himself (Norakidze, 1983), needs for personal safety, personal well-being (Matskovsky, 1993), preservation of personal boundaries (Spivakovskaya, 1986), self-determination, in bodily, psychophysiological comfort; 2) needs reflecting the attitude towards other people (Norakidze, 1983), needs for communication, interaction, emotional and psychological proximity with another; 3) needs reflecting a person’s attitude to the outside world (Norakidze, 1983), needs for familiarization with the matrimonial mentality, preservation and transmission of family lifestyles from generation to generation, dedication, and merger needs (Perevoznikova, 2000; Spivakovskaya, 1986).
The positive interaction that supports the developmental atmosphere of the family is based on the desire of its members to understand others on a conscious and unconscious, intuitive level.
However, this understanding of the child is not available to all parents. According to Allport (1937), for example, certain qualities of a person contribute to the phenomenon of understanding other people's experiences and the correct judgment of the personality of another: life experience; general maturity, the similarity between the evaluating and the assessed subjects; intelligence; knowledge of oneself; emotional stability; estrangement, contemplation of character; interceptivity, i.e. sensitivity, sensitivity to the inner world, own and the alien.
The psychological background of establishing the interaction of a personality-developing nature is trust. Confidence in family relationships is manifested through honest and open interaction without distorting information; demonstration of the abilities and capabilities of another to achieve competence; the ability to listen to the opinion of the exchange partner, even if you disagree with him; fulfillment of obligations and promises; mutual assistance and cooperation (Agureeva, 2005).
Thus, the family contains resources for the development of personality, which are formed in the positive space of marital and child-parent interaction and help a person not only overcome the difficulties of a particular problem situation, but also, as a result, find previously unavailable opportunities for personal growth and development (Evdokimova & Sinyavin, 2019; Tkachenko, 2009; Tkachenko & Kotova, 2015). Our research is devoted to the study of these family resources and the features of their influence on the personality.
We conducted a study (Tkachenko, 2009; Tkachenko & Kotova, 2015) aimed at studying the characteristics of family resources. Based on the results of clustering, two types were identified: adaptation resources and socialization resources.
Family resources of adaptation are based on emotional resources that are born as a result of conjugal and parental love, with which, on a semantic level, the resources of security and the individual's expectations of a better future for himself, his family and his child are connected. For the resources of this type, the dominant sign is a positive emotional background that develops between family members (spouses, children and parents), giving a sense of security and a more successful future. They are associated with the stability of the family space, which in many respects ensures the mental health of its members.
The resources of socialization are based on the resources of knowing oneself and others, settling interpersonal interaction with them and building on this basis the necessary personal achievements. It has been established that family adaptation resources, in fact, are concluded in the sense of stability provided by a normally functioning family, the security of its members, which contributes to the preservation of the individual’s mental health. Family resources of socialization consist in enriching the ideas of the person about himself and others, possible ways of building interpersonal contacts, expanding the ranges of the person’s behavioral activity.
In the course of further research, according to the results of the methodology “Personally Developing Family Resources” (Tkachenko, 2009), all subjects were divided into two samples depending on the dominance of the use of adaptation resources (hereinafter referred to as sample I) or socialization (hereinafter referred to as sample II). As a result, sample I was made up of 145 people, and sample II was made up of 164 people.
It was on these samples that a further study of the characteristics of personality development was carried out using certain types of family resources.
Studying the characteristics of personality development resources raises the question of how the dominant type of family resources used by a person affects the development of their characteristics.
Purpose of the Study
To establish the features of personality development in the priority use of a certain type of family resources (socialization or adaptation resources).
We assume that the dominance of one or another type of family resources used by a person entails changes in the cognitive, emotional-volitional, motivational and communicative aspects of personality development.
The experiment was attended by 454 respondents: 145 people who use mainly family resources of adaptation and 164 people - family resources of socialization.
The following methods were used to study the characteristics of personality development when focusing on any of the two types of family resources: R. Kettell’s personality test (13 PF) (as cited in Kapustina, 2001), communicative tolerance, unmotivated anxiety and a tendency to an affective behavior (Boiko, 1996), social frustration L.I. Wasserman (modified by Boiko, 1996), diagnostics of the level of subjective feeling of loneliness of D. Russell and M. Ferguson (Prokhorov, 2004).
To solve this problem, first of all, we conducted R. Kettell's Personality Test, which allowed us to compare the severity of 13 personality traits depending on the use of two types of resources: features of intelligence (B), emotional stability (C), dominance (E), prudence (F), courage (H), hardness of character (I), suspicion (L), insight (N), anxiety (Q), radicalism (Q1), independence (Q2), self-control (Q3) , tensions (Q4). Statistically significant differences were established by factors C, I and Q (table
Taking into account the results of mathematical and statistical data processing, an analysis of the results shows that people focused on family adaptation resources, in comparison with representatives of the second sample, have less ability to control emotions and their impulsive drives. The orientation to safety and the expectation of a better future, obviously, determines the dominance of their anxiety-depressive mood, preoccupation, depression, tendency to self-reproach, and gravitation with bad forebodings. Having a rather weak emotional control, they internally feel helpless, tired and unable to cope with life's difficulties. Moreover, in essence, they are characterized by sufficient softness, sophistication, sophistication, imaginative, artistic perception of the world. Possessing a rich imagination and aesthetic taste, such persons do not like “rude people” and “rude” work, their works are significantly influenced by works of art. Persons who prefer the resources of socialization, according to the results obtained, have more than the first sample, emotional maturity, calmness, self-confidence, constancy in their plans and attachments. To a small extent, they succumb to random fluctuations in mood, boldly perceive events taking place directly with them and around them, and feel well adapted to them. They are often described as courageous, practical, realistic. The available qualities allow them to approach life with a logical measure, trust reason more than feelings, not trust impressions and sensations, but focus on calculation. They are cheerful, confident in their successes and opportunities, cheerful, vividly respond to all events. Psychotraumas are eliminated by such people due to rationalization.
The differences shown by the representatives of the two samples, despite their low severity, to some extent are consistent with the substantial features of the identified types of family resources for personality development, which laid the foundation for the differentiation of the subjects. Speaking about the fact that adaptation resources are based on the emotional aspect of satisfaction with spousal and child-parent relationships, we have found that people who are attracted to them experience difficulties with the emotional sphere at the subject level. Turning to the appropriate group of resources, they seem to compensate for their internal difficulties and gain opportunities for personal development. Persons focused on the resources of type socialization do not have emotional problems, which is reflected in their characterological features. Turning to the family resources of socialization, they receive additional incentives for a more complete realization of themselves at the cognitive and activity levels, to achieve great success and recognition of others.
Representatives of the considered samples, in addition, were subjected to a psychodiagnostic examination according to a number of personality characteristics, measured using V.V. Quickly diagnose communicative tolerance, unmotivated anxiety and a tendency to affective behavior, social frustration according to L.I. Wasserman (modified by Boiko, 1996), the level of subjective feeling of loneliness according to D. Russell and M. Ferguson (as cited in Prokhorov, 2004) (Table
The results made it possible to establish the manifestation of a tendency toward differences between the two samples in terms of communicative tolerance (obtained by the method of V.V. Boiko). The subjects of the second sample (7.3 sten), more than the first resource-oriented adaptation (5.9 sten), expressed a tendency to evaluate people on the basis of their own "I", to show categorization of the ratings put to the address of others, to try to In the process of interpersonal interaction, remodel and re-educate your partner, customize him for yourself, make him comfortable. In general, subjects oriented to the resources of socialization show less developed adaptive abilities and less communicative tolerance in interaction with people (with close and wider social environment).
Express diagnostics of tendency to unmotivated anxiety according to Boiko (1996) in two samples, results were obtained that differed at a statistically significant level (p <0.01). If the subjects of the second sample have sufficiently low rates of unmotivated anxiety (approximately 3.5 sten), then the subjects of the first sample showed indicators approaching a high level of this property (5.6 sten). Such results with a high degree of probability may indicate that a priority orientation to adaptation resources is accompanied by a feeling of strong internal anxiety, a feeling of possible disaster, trouble, and the difficulty of getting rid of the idea that something terrible could happen. At the same time, such persons can experience very unpleasant thoughts when relatives close without warning; very worried when they go on vacation, on a business trip, abroad and, in general, always worry, no matter what happens.
Examination of the subjects of two samples using the methodology for measuring social frustration L.I. Wasserman also made it possible to establish a difference between them at the level of the statistical trend (p <0.05). According to the data obtained, in the subjects of the first sample, the average value of dissatisfaction with social achievements in the main aspects of life - their education, relationships with colleagues, administration, their position in society, financial situation, living conditions, etc. - is close to the values belonging to the low-level group (4.2 sten), the subjects of the second sample - it is in the group of average values (5.7 sten). Thus, orientation to the use of the family’s emotional resources (adaptation resources) allows a person to quickly and successfully overcome the inadequacy of emotional states and give them a communicative form. On the contrary, orientation to a group of cognitive-behavioral resources (socialization resources) with a statistically significant probability increases the risk of a disorganizing emotional state - dysthymia, depression, apathy, hypotymia, confusion, anxiety, fear, delusional mood. Despite the fact that any of the listed disorganizing emotional states in the subjects of the second sample appears within normal limits, under adverse conditions (violations of marital or child-parent relationships, somatic diseases, defects of the nervous system), it is more likely than in the first case, able to acquire the dimensions of a mental disorder, i.e. psychopathological form.
Diagnosis of the level of subjective feeling of loneliness in the subjects of both samples according to D. Russell and M. Ferguson served as a prerequisite for identifying statistically significant differences between them at a level of p <0.05. According to diagnostic data, subjects focused on adaptation resources experience a feeling of loneliness, at a fairly low level - 3.4 sten. At the level of the statistical trend, they, therefore, differ from subjects oriented to the resources of socialization, whose experience of loneliness is at an average level of 5.0 sten. Accordingly, it can be assumed that attracting the emotional block of family resources allows a person to better cope with feelings of loneliness, rejection, isolation from others, exclusion and isolation from the circle of others, sinking into boredom, fear of a lack of interpersonal contacts, lack of understanding and friendly participation. Problems of this kind are more likely to occur when focusing on the resources of socialization.
Thus, it was found that the priority use of one or another type of developing family resources leads to the greatest change in the personality characteristics. Adaptation resources lead to the development of the following personal characteristics: strength of character, meaningfulness of the purpose of life, personal identity in the field of the future, self-acceptance, trustfulness, kindness, responsiveness, a tendency to compromise, ability to empathy, focus on communication; socialization resources - to improve orientation in time, the need for knowledge, in the level of self-understanding, interest and emotional richness of life, social identity in the field of work, focus on work, emotional stability, a tendency to cooperate in conflict situations, the ability to self-leadership, communicative tolerance, self-confidence, high level of claims.
Our experiment clearly showed that the influence on the personality of family resources is quite multidimensional and ambiguous in nature. They are able to beneficially influence the cognitive, emotional-volitional, motivational and communicative aspects of personality development, increase the meaningfulness of life goals put forward by it, contribute to achieving personal and social identity, reduce anxiety, conflict, and prevent emotional exhaustion in a stressful situation.
In this regard, there is a need to search for psychological foundations and practical ways of using those resources that were originally laid down in the family, including marital and parent-child relationships.
Tkachenko (2009) proposes psychological design as a form of updating family resources, which is a complexly organized system of actions encompassing personality development, starting from the pre-marital period, and allowing it to build a resource-intensive system of marital and child-parent relations maturity period. The updating of the family’s developmental resources is carried out not on the basis of solving a specific problem that has arisen in the family, but on the basis of creating the conditions for such a personality change that will help her not only solve this problem, but generally expand the resources of the family space.
Thus, the study and analysis of modern work on the organization of psychological assistance to family members in solving the problems of their personal development shows that the activation of family resources leads to the required positive results. At the same time, the authors draw attention to the importance of attracting either specific types or the whole range of family resources for personal development. The introduction of these areas in practical psychology will contribute to the development of resources of both the individual and society as a whole.
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15 November 2020
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Psychology, personality, virtual, personality psychology, identity, virtual identity, digital space
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Tkachenko, I. V., Lisitskaya, L. G., Kuznetsova, L. E., Sasatsyan, L. A., & Semenova, F. O. (2020). Resources Of Personality Development As A Factor Of Its Stress Resistance. In T. Martsinkovskaya, & V. Orestova (Eds.), Psychology of Personality: Real and Virtual Context, vol 94. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 805-813). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.11.02.98