On June 22, 1941, the German attack on the USSR interrupted the peaceful and creative life of the Soviet people. The whole country was engulfed by a single impulse – to defeat the enemy, to destroy fascism. The Great Patriotic War also interrupted the peaceful course of the educational process in all educational institutions of the country, including higher education institutions. The Soviet higher school made a worthy contribution to the victory over fascism. In the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ChIASSR) by the beginning of the war there were two higher educational institutions – the Grozny Oil Institute (Grozny Oil Institute), opened in 1929 and the Chechen-Ingush State Pedagogical / Teacher Training Institute (CIGPI), functioning since 1938. During the first years of the war, the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (RKKA) voluntarily and on mobilization went students and teachers of higher education institutions of the republic, many of whom died on various fronts of the war. The patriotic impulse also covered the faculty of CIGPI. At the meeting of the Institute's staff passionate appeals to stand up for the defense of the Motherland, talked about the heroic past of the country, the need for universal unity in the face of fascist threat. Representatives of all three faculties – History, Language and Literature, Physics and Mathematics, functioning as part of CIGPI, made a worthy contribution to the defeat of fascism. Many teachers and students of CIGPI were awarded high government awards.
Keywords: InstitutestudentlecturerGreat Patriotic WarVK RadchenkoACh Khasbulatov
The greatest event in the national and world history of the XX century was the victory of the Soviet people in the Great Patriotic War. The 75th anniversary of the victory in the Great Patriotic War is approaching. Every day the heroic events of the first half of the 1940s move away from the descendants. As it is known, the Victory was achieved by millions of human victims, many of whom are still unknown. It is the duty of contemporaries to continue research on the search for information about the participants of those tragic years.
The national historiography of the Soviet and modern periods published a significant number of works describing the activities of the entire system of higher education and individual universities during the Great Patriotic War – Dzhafarov and Dzhafarov (2003), Dzhafarov and Kurumov (2010), Kuzmin et al. (2015), Garkin and Shirokov (2008) and Bolotov (2008).
However, the participation of CIGPI representatives in the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945 is one of the poorly researched problems in historiography. Local archival materials of the war years, unfortunately, were destroyed as a result of the latest military events in the republic, which complicates the research task. Some issues of the problem are reflected in anniversary monographs (Aliroev & Pavlov, 1985; ChSU, 2012; Saidov et al., 2018), in the works of Matagova (2009, 2017) and a number of scientific articles.
The subject of the study is the contribution of teachers and students of the Faculty of History of the Chechen-Ingush State Pedagogical / Teacher Training Institute (CIGPI) Victory in the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to study the participation of representatives of the Faculty of History of the Chechen-Ingush State Pedagogical / Teacher Training Institute (CIGPI) – teacher V.K. Radchenko, student A.C. Khasbulatov, in the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945, the collection of biographical information about them.
The methodological basis was the principles of objectivity, scholarship and historicism, which imply the study of facts and phenomena in all their diversity, in the specific historical conditions of their emergence and development, and allow highlighting both positive and negative sides of the analyzed historical events.
The historical faculty of the Chechen State University (CHSU) has existed since September 1, 1938. It was then that the predecessor of the CHSU, the Chechen-Ingush State Pedagogical Institute (CHIGPI), was opened in CHIASSR and the historical faculty began its work.
In pre-war 1938–1941, thanks to the support of the central and local party and state bodies, the young educational institution was established: new subdivisions were opened – faculties, departments, preparatory department; problems with scientific and pedagogical personnel were solved.
As part of CIGPI in the first academic year, along with the historical one, there were two more faculties – language and literature, and physical and mathematical. Describing the state of the work of the Pedagogical / Teacher Training Institute, in February 1939, the director of the Institute, E. Bykov, at the IV Regional Chechen-Ingush Party Conference, reported that "the chairs were staffed and the deans of the faculties were selected" (Cultural Construction in Chechnya-Ingushetia…).
The number of students at the Pedagogical Institute was only 137 (GRAF). The scientific and pedagogical staff of CIGPI was also insignificant – no more than "30 people". It should be noted that in the 1941–1942 academic year, the entire staff list of the faculty of ChIGPI was 32 people. The Teachers' Institute did not have a historical department, although the departments of "language and literature", "physics and mathematics" were opened (GARF).
Dean of the Faculty of History was appointed V.K. Radchenko, Dean of the Faculty of Language and Literature – N.M. Vladimirov, Dean of the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics – F.T. Petrash.
The teaching activities of the heads of all three faculties and other faculty members of the Institute were interrupted by the Great Patriotic War, which began in 1941. At the beginning of the war, 8 teachers were drafted into the Red Army, including teachers of the Faculty of History – V.K. Radchenko – Dean of the Faculty of History, a teacher of the Department of History of the Peoples of the USSR P.H. and Kuzmin – a teacher of general history (GARF). Many of them were added to the list of university teachers who did not return from the war. However, the war did not stop the creative processes in the work of CIGPI. During the war the university made a worthy contribution to the victory over fascism.
Vasily Kondratyevich Radchenko was among the first who left on front of teachers. V.K. Radchenko graduated from the North Ossetian Pedagogical Institute in Ordzhonikidze in 1939. He did not have any scientific titles and degrees by the beginning of his pedagogical activity. The pedagogical experience of work in higher education institution in the considered time made 1 year (GARF).
April 30, 1943 was issued the Order of the Main Directorate of the formation and staffing of the Red Army troops № 0368 / town on the under-named senior staff who died in the battles against the Nazi troops, which is excluded from the lists of the Red Army. It can be seen from the reference to the order that this draft order excludes from the lists of the Red Army 1649 senior officers who died in the battles against the Nazi troops. Among the 289 senior lieutenants who died, among them 469 is the senior lieutenant Vasily Kondratyevich Radchenko, called up by the military commissariat of the Chechen-Ingush ASSR, who is the commander of the 103rd Guards Rifle Regiment of the 34th Guards Rifle Division. Also in this document it is reported that in Grozny he still has a wife – Taisa Ivanovna Radchenko, who lives at 7 Beloyevskaya Street (Central office of the Defense Ministry of the Russian Federation…).
January 9, 1943 V.K. Radchenko was buried in a mass grave in the center of the village of Stepnoi, Proletarian District, Rostov Region, RSFSR. In 1978, a 3-meter high reinforced concrete monument "Mourning Mother" was erected over the burial site. Residents of Stepnoi Farm are patronizing the burial, defending which war heroes died. The number of buried is only 381 people, of which 263 are known, and 118 are unknown (TsAMO RF).
Tragically, the teaching activity of the first dean, the teacher of the Faculty of History V.K. Radchenko, had been tragically interrupted by the beginning of war.
Students and graduates of CIGPI also took an active part in the Great Patriotic War. Student of the History Department of CIGPI was called to the ranks of the RKKA Abuyazit-Chukievich Khasbulatov. He began his service as a lieutenant in Estonia and graduated from the Guards Major in Vienna, participated in the liberation of Bucharest, Budapest, Vienna.
A.C. Khasbulatov was born in Grozny, Grozny, Chechen-Ingush ASSR. Archival documents testify that A.Ch. Khasbulatov was conscripted into the Red Army on December 11, 1939 by the Staroyurt RVC of the Chechen-Ingush ASSR. In 1939–1940 he took part in the Soviet-Finnish war. From March 1940 to May 1941 he was a cadet of the Podolsk Higher Artillery School. In 1942 he became a member of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks (b). Since 1941 he took part in the hostilities of the North-Western Front, since May 1943 – the Western Front.
In August 1943, Captain Abuyazet-Chukievich Khasbulatov, the regiment's battery commander, was awarded the first prize – the Order of the Great Patriotic War of the first degree – for "military services to the Motherland, exceptional personal heroism, courage and steadfastness", shown in the battles of the commander of the Armored and Mechanized Troops of the 10th Army of the Western Front № 01 dated August 27, 1943. By the time he was presented for the award, he was the commander of the SU-152 1537 heavy self-propelled Arthpolk battery. Since 1941, he took part in the hostilities and had two minor injuries, previously he had not been awarded.
On the A.C. award list. Khasbulatov, stored in the archive of the Central Office of the Defense Ministry of the Russian Federation notes that he "is a continuous participant in the Patriotic War from the very beginning and throughout the war showed exceptional courage and heroism ... . In these battles the battery of A.C. Khasbulatova, participating in tank attacks, destroyed anti-tank guns – 4, long-range gun – 1, tanks – 2, machine guns – 12, min. batteries – 1, transporters – 2. Warehouses with ammunition and fuel were burned – 3. Reflecting the enemy's counterattacks he destroyed with fire, and partially suppressed with caterpillars up to 200 infantry men and 4 P.T. guns" (Central Office of the Defense Ministry of the Russian Federation). Feat of a student of the History Department of CIGPI A.Ch. Khasbulatova is an example of boundless service to the Motherland.
The next government award is the Order of the Red Star, Captain A.Ch. Khasbulatov – Deputy Commander of the 1537 heavy self-propelled artillery regiment was awarded for the skillful leadership of the regiment's subdivision and personal bravery shown in battle by the order no. 0159/n from: December 25, 1943, the commander of the troops of the 5th Army, Lieutenant General Krylov (Central Army of the Defense Ministry of the Russian Federation). The description of A.C.'s military feat testifies to his courage and love for his Fatherland. Khasbulatov, for which he was presented to this high government award: "...the Guards captain A.Ch. Khasbulatov showed an excellent example of conscientious performance of his military dog, demonstrating himself as an excellent organizer and brave officer. During the battles with his energetic and skillful actions he provided the regiment with the fulfillment of its tasks" (Central Asia Defense Ministry).
November 6, 1944 Order No. 060/n A.Ch. to the troops of the 6th Guards Tank Army. Khasbulatov was awarded the Order of the Great Patriotic War of the II degree (Central Office of the Defense Ministry of the Russian Federation).
The award list describes the hero's feat: "During the warfare regiment from August 20, 1944. Khasbulatov proved to be an exceptionally brave, determined and proactive officer. All the time he was in the regiment's combat order, helped the regiment's commander in command and control of the regiment. Not once Khasbulatov carried out separate combat missions of the regiment commander. In the village of Voynesti, when the regiment was in a difficult position, Khasbulatov was in the combat order of the battery to control the fire of batteries to repel the counterattack of the enemy's tanks, where he was wounded. September 30, 1944 (Central Office of the Defense Ministry).
In the battles with the German invaders, he had two severe wounds to the spine, head and contusion, but returned and fought at the front again. A.C. A.Ch. Khasbulatov was in service from the first days of the terrible June 1941 until the Victory in 1945.
After demobilizing from 1946, he worked in senior positions in the coal industry as a miner and senior engineer at the Union's design and construction office "Industroyproject" of the State Construction Committee of the USSR, but his wounds at the front affected by severe diseases. Since 1968, a disabled veteran of the Patriotic War. He died in 1970 at the age of 51.
After the war A.C. Khasbulatov studied at the History Department of ChIGPI.Abuyazet – Uncle Yamlikhan Imranovich, Aslanbek Imranovich, Ruslan Imranovich and Zulai Imranovna Khasbulatovs, who are known for their contribution to the strengthening of national science and Russian statehood.
The conducted research testifies to the fact that the teachers and students of the History Department of CIGPI made a worthy contribution to the achievement of the Victory in the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945. During the first years of the war, students and teachers of the Faculty of History, many of whom died on various fronts of the war, voluntarily and on mobilization left the Red Army. Also representatives of faculty and higher education institution were awarded with high governmental awards. The huge work on revealing of new documentary certificates about participants of war in the central archives of the country as local archives, to a great regret, are destroyed is pending.
We, by right, are proud of the courage and heroism of the representatives of the historical faculty of CIGPI on the fronts of the Great Patriotic War and bow to the great Feat. Eternal memory to all heroes and victims of the Great Patriotic War!
- Aliroev, I. Y., & Pavlov, M. P. (1985). Chechen-Ingush State University named after L.N. Tolstoy. Rostov-on-Don.
- Bolotov, N. A. (2008). Teachers and students of the Stalingrad Pedagogical Institute for the protection of the city during the Great Patriotic War. Izv. Volgograd State Pedag. Univer., 3(27), 104–107.
- ChSU (2012). Design House.
- Garkin, V. P., & Shirokov, G. A. (2008). The Patriotic War and Higher School, 1941–1945. Samara.
- Dzhafarov, K. I., & Dzhafarov, A. K. (2003). 110 Years of Grozny Oil Industry: Pages of History. Oil industry, 9, 121–127.
- Dzhafarov, K. I., & Kurumov, D. S. (2010). 90 years of training of Petroleum Engineers at the Grozny. Oil College, 4, 122–124.
- Kuzmin, A. N., Sorokov, A. N., & Shandala, D. E. (2015). Students, teachers, researchers, workers and employees of Tomsk State University on the fronts of the Great Patriotic War. Rusin., 2(40), 46–60.
- Matagova, H. A. (2017). Aleksei Bedin, a student of the Chechen-Ingush State Pedagogical. Teacher Training Institute – participant of the Great Patriotic War. Polythematic Networked Electronic Sci. J. of the Kuban State Agrar. Univer. (Kuban State Agrar.Univer. Sci. J.), 9(133).
- Matagova, Kh. A. (2009). Formation and development of higher education in Chechnya in 1920–1944 (Doctoral Dissertation). Grozny.
- Saidov, Z. A., Magamadov, S. S., & Matagova, H. A. (2018). History of the Chechen State University. 1938–2018. gg. Publ. house FSBEI “Chechen State University”.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
About this article
31 October 2020
Print ISBN (optional)
Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, translation, interpretation
Cite this article as:
Matagova, K. A., & Gelaeva, Z. A. (2020). Teachers And Students Of The History Department Of Cigpi - War Veterans. In D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism» Dedicated to the 80th Anniversary of Turkayev Hassan Vakhitovich, vol 92. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 695-700). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.05.93