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Ecological Culture: Extra-Evaluative Interpretation

Table 1:

Ecological values Middle Ages New Age Future (proposed)
attitude to living The utilitarian and religious value of the living. The living is valuable in that it is a creation of God, and in its design is a utilitarian value for man The utilitarian and cognitive value of the living. The mysteries of life can be solved using science, the object of which is nature and, in particular, life. Living is a business entity. Object-based relation to the living. Not only the utilitarian value of the living. Subjective attitude to living as unique and valuable
attitude to nature Nature is a God's creation. The world of nature is a world of symbols and signs through which a person comprehends the divine will. Nature has been given to man as a means of survival and an instrument of punishment. Nature is a workshop and laboratory. The utilitarian and cognitive values of nature are the basis of human activity in nature The universal value of nature as a combination of utilitarian, sanitary-hygienic, aesthetic, cognitive, emotional, spiritual values
attitude to man, man’s place in the universe Man is integrated with nature because of his divine creation and physicality, but he is estranged from the rest of nature by his spirituality and is thus close to God, and therefore occupies the highest step in the natural hierarchy. Man is the pinnacle of the earthly world Man is a great user, researcher, transformer and master of nature. Being a representative of the animal world, man is the crown of evolution, the pinnacle of the universe.The highest position in the hierarchy of values belongs to man. Man is an element of rational nature, endowed with will and reflection creating a culture (second nature) and responsible not only for his future, but also for the evolution of natural systems, for managing the socio-natural systems of the Earth.
man's position regarding nature Leveraging nature management, knowing God through the interpretation of nature as a divine creation, teaching through deciphering natural phenomena Environmentalists, an active and productive study of nature in the name and for the purpose of its economic use for the benefit of mankind Co-evolution, co-evolution, sustainable development of anthropoecosystems
attitude to activities in nature, the criterion of positivity of nature management Positive activities aimed at the careful use of nature in the interests of man and not violating the commandments authorized by the church Large-scale transformative activity in nature must meet the criteria of rationality, utility for humanity and economic efficiency Nature management activities must comply with the principles of sustainability of anthropoecosystems, take into account environmental costs and long-term consequences for the biosphere
attitude to health Health is a divine gift, a reflection of God's attitude toward man (punishment by diseases) Health is the result of the rational use of natural inclinations, a resource of man and society to achieve social well-being Health is a manifestation of the uniqueness of human nature. Rational management is essential for sustaining life
highest value God Man Life
worldview Teocentrism Anthropocentrism Ecocentrism
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