The article reveals psychological characteristics of the development of professional motivation in young professionals. The components of professional motivation were substantiated. They contribute to the development of their readiness for successful professional activities. The main directions and psychological conditions required for the development of sustainable positive professional motivation in young professionals were determined. The structure of the program for the development of professional motivation in young specialists was analyzed. Experimental data that reveal the effectiveness of the development of professional motivation in young specialists in the process of targeted psychological impact are presented. A significant increase in the desire for success indicator was identified in young professionals who have taken the motivation development course; a significant increase in the group recognition and respect indicator, in the orientation indicator was identified as well. A significant decrease in the “remuneration” indicator was identified. A significant increase in the “relationship” indicator reflecting the increasing importance of relationships as an internal motivating factor for young employees was identified. Thus, according to the results of the study, an increase in the internal motivation of respondents and an increase in the role of intangible motivating factors of their professional activities as the main psychological condition for the development of professional motivation in young specialists were identified.
Keywords: Motivationprofessional qualitiesprofessional activitypsychological support
Currently, the quality of professional activities is determined by their results and satisfaction of the needs of the employees. The ability of management and personnel to identify highly motivated employees, create a team and carry out job placement, gives the company a market advantage, determines its long-term development. The development of professional personality motivation begin in studying at universities. They are a condition for the effective training of young specialists.
In professional activities, motivation determines the nature of human actions, its potential capabilities, the need for this type of activities. Using traditional forms of material incentives and external control, it is impossible to ensure high quality work.
A huge number of theories and research on motivation are fragmentary, one-sided and do not provide a holistic, clear picture of the phenomenon. At present, many conflicting theories have been developed to explain why the individual acts; why he performs certain actions; why some people have more developed motivation than others and succeed where those with no less opportunities and abilities fail. The basis of the psychological approach to professional motivation was the development of psychologists who specialized in personality psychology. The competency motivation model is based on a desire to learn the environment and gain new experience (Karl Rogers, Gordon Allport, etc.) (Dundar, 2006).
There is a gap between theoretical knowledge of professional motivation and the application of this knowledge in organizing the psychological impact and accompanying this process in professional activities. The issue of motivation is quite difficult to study in practice. Despite the unresolved problems, psychology has accumulated a large amount of knowledge on motivation. One of the definitions is a system of internal factors causing and directing the behavior of a person or an animal focusing on achieving a goal.
According to Samoukina (2006), motivation has two meanings: a system of factors that determine behavior (needs, motives, goals, intentions, aspirations), and as a characteristic of the process that stimulates and supports behavioral activity at a certain level. In scientific literature, motivation is considered as a set of psychological reasons explaining human behavior, its beginning, orientation and activities.
In order to carry out activities, motivation is required. However, if the motivation is too strong, the level of activity and tension increases, discrepancies occur in behavior, i.e., work efficiency decreases. In this case, a high level of motivation causes undesirable emotional reactions (tension, excitement, stress, etc.), which worsen activities. The essence of any human motivation is to find recognition, respect, support (Khrebina, 2017).
The group of motivational theories are the theory by A. Maslow, the theory by D. McClelland, the two-factor model by F. Herzberg (as cited in Hekhausen, 2003).
The analysis of numerous data suggests that the motivation process includes developing a readiness for action, choosing the focus (goals), means, methods, place and time, assessing a probability of success, developing confidence, and the need for action, etc.
In modern psychology, there are different theories on professional motivation of future specialists. Professional motivation is determined by the complex ratio of various motives that are part of the need-motivational sphere and a driving factor in the development of personality professionalism; the high level of motivation contributes to the effective development of professional education and personality culture.
Professional motivation is a process of stimulating oneself and other people to achieve professional success. In addition, the motivation in professional activities is specific motives that determine the choice of a profession and long-term performance of professional obligations (Ivanova, 2003).
Purpose of the Study
Professional motivation determines the appropriateness of the choice of a professional path, productivity of labor, the degree of satisfaction with the results, and the success of professional training. An effective learning process is caused by at least two factors – the level of development of the cognitive sphere and the motivational sphere of specialists.
If we talk about the structure of professional motivation, the most important role belongs to the positive attitude towards the profession, since it is associated with ultimate goals of training. In developing and implementing a system of professional motives in young specialists, such motivation features as polymotivation of labor behavior, a hierarchy of motives, compensatory relations between motives, and dynamism of motivation are taken into account (Egorshin, 2010).
The motivation of labor behavior us due to the fact that behavior of workers is simultaneously affected by many motives designed to satisfy various changing needs through an incentive to actions. An employee can strive for a decent salary, interesting work, acceptable working conditions, career prospects, a welcoming climate, a constructive relationship with management, training and professional development, job security, and a high level of social protection.
The hierarchy of motives implies a relationship between labor motives and behavior; motives are more pronounced, based on the needs that are more important for a person and occupy a higher place in the hierarchy of labor motives. The same motive can affect different workers in different ways, and can affect the same employee differently in different situations (Khrebina, 2017).
The professional motivation of young specialists is unstable and characterized by a certain dynamism. The degree of dynamism of motivation depends on the nature of the person, his age, environment, specific situation. Any manager faces the variability of employee motives.
One of the properties of professional motivation is its finiteness. Almost every person may think that his work is unimportant and unnecessary, low paid or boring. The motivation for a professional choice is disappearing. A variety of things can motivate people to work: raising salaries, new goals, a higher position, etc. (Enns & Shapovalova, 2015).
The aim of the study is to identify psychological characteristics of the development of professional motivation in young professionals. The following research tasks were set: to analyze the problem of professional motivation of young specialists in psychological research; to identify psychological characteristics and dynamics of the development of professional motivation in young professionals; to analyze the ways, mechanisms, strategies that influence the development of professional motivation in young professionals; to conduct an empirical study of psychological characteristics of the professional motivation of young professionals; to develop and implement a program for the development of professional motivation in young professionals; to study the effectiveness of the implementation of the psychological program.
To determine the main factors of labor motivation, the Herzberg's motivational theory was used (Ilyin, 2006). The test can be used to determine which factors (hygienic or motivational) are relevant to influence the motivation.
To study the leading needs of the individual, a test whose methodological basis is D. McClelland's theory of motivation was used. The study of the motivational profile of the staff was carried out using the method of motivational profiles by S. Ritchie and P. Martin (as cited in Egorshin, 2010).
To diagnose the orientation of personality, B. Bass's orientation questionnaire was used.
In order to diagnose the motivation for affiliation, the A. Mehrabian’s questionnaire was used. The questionnaire evaluates two motivational tendencies that are functionally interconnected and correlated with the need for affiliation: desire for acceptance – “DA” and fear of rejection “FR”). Accordingly, subjects were given two different questionnaires (Enns & Shapovalova, 2015).
As a set of methods for processing the obtained results, qualitative (comparison, graphic and tabular presentation, meaningful interpretation) and quantitative (primary and secondary statistics) methods were used. Statistical methods were used to determine the share and average values of the empirical values. The secondary statistical data are nonparametric (χ2 criterion) and parametric (Student t-test, factor analysis) methods of mathematical-statistical analysis. In order to increase the reliability of processing experimental materials, we used Microsoft Excel 7.0 and STATISTICA 6.1.
Today, the motivation of young professionals is crucial for the personnel management system, since it causes the employee behavior. Summarizing the theoretical material accumulated in psychological science, we can distinguish the following blocks of professional activity: reflective, emotional, cognitive, behavioral, communicative, and value-semantic.
It seems relevant to develop a program to prevent deviations in the social and personal status and development, as well as occupational risks in various types of activities.
The purpose of the program is to create psychological conditions for the development of professional motivation. Development of motivation means the organization of an environment in which professional motives can be developed. Strengthening motivation means creating such psychological conditions in which the energy of activated motives increases.
The objectives of the program:
to study the features of development of professional motivation;
to identify the features of development of professional motivation through testing the development of the main components of professional motivation.
This program is a final product of the project. It includes two components:
The information component involves conducting theoretical classes, familiarizing the target audience with conditions for the development of professional motivation.
The personality-developing component implies conducting training sessions with students based on the practical psychology technologies aimed at developing professional motivation.
The technologies used in the program are presented below (Table
The information component involves psychological education and development of professional motivation.
The development of professional motivation was carried out as part of the course "Development of professional motivation in young professionals".
The total number of recommended academic hours was 32.
The personality-developing component included a set of classes aimed at mastering the methods of developing and boosting professional motivation.
Development of motivation means organization of an environment in which professional motives are activated. Strengthening motivation means creating such conditions in which the energy of activated motives increases. The duration of the training course is 5 lessons. Including introductory and final classes, the total duration of the training course is 11 lessons (17 hours).
A statistical comparative analysis of psychological characteristics of the development of professional motivation and the impact of the comprehensive program designed to develop professional motivation included several stages:
the data on the control and experimental groups before the experiment were analyzed;
the dynamics of changes in indicators in the experimental group before and after the experiment was analyzed;
the data on the control group before and after the experiment were analyzed;
the dynamics of changes in the data on the control and experimental groups after the experiment was analyzed.
90 % of respondents have a high level of desire for success; the average level was found in 10 % of respondents; a low level of desire for success has not been identified.
According to the data obtained by studying the desire for power, a high level was found in 60 % of respondents; the average level – in 40 %; a low level has not been identified
According to the data obtained by studying the trend towards group recognition and respect, a high level was found in 85 % of respondents; an average level in 15 % of respondents; a low level has not been identified.
Thus, the basic needs of young employees are the desire to achieve success, recognition and respect, which indicates a high level of internal motivation for professional activity. According to the data obtained, the main indicators affecting professional motivation are self-improvement, social work and diversity. Respondents mentioned power as the least significant indicator. Thus, in the motivational profile of young employees, social factors, as well as the desire for self-actualization, are the main ones.
According to the data obtained using the Mehrabian’s method, the motive for success is prevailing in 80 % of respondents; the motive for avoiding failure is predominant in 20 % of respondents.
The affiliation motivation was identified in 95 % of respondents; fear of rejection – in 5 % of respondents. This means that respondents need to establish, maintain and strengthen good relations with people. They feel satisfaction from positive communication.
According to the data obtained by studying personality orientation, self-orientation was identified in 25 % of respondents; 35 % of respondents have an orientation to communication; the focus on business was identified in 40 % of respondents.
In order to determine the dynamics of professional motivation before and after the development program, using the method of mathematical statistics of the Student t-test, we carried out a comparative analysis of the data.
The statistical data processing did not identify significant differences in relation to hygienic and motivating factors of labor.
A significant difference was found between the indicator “desire for success” at p≤0.05, indicating an increase in this indicator in young employees after taking the motivation development program.
In addition, a significant increase was found in the indicator “group recognition and respect” after taking the motivation development program.
A significant decrease was found in the “remuneration” indicator.
A significant increase was found in the “relationship” indicator.
Thus, the study identified an increase in the internal professional motivation and a decrease in the importance of material factors.
The developed program contributes to a significant increase in the professional motivation of young specialists, which stimulates changes in their behavior when they perform professional tasks. The effectiveness of the implementation of this program was experimentally verified and statistically confirmed, which contributed to: the development of a professional orientation, the development of a positive emotional and cognitive attitude to the work process, the growth of the desire for professional independence; the formation of motives for professional activities.
Research on professional personality traits, the empirical results of the studies on the psychological competence of a professional are of particular importance. The data can be used for professional training and retraining of personnel managers in order to increase the effectiveness of personnel management.
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31 October 2020
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Shapovalova, M. L., Khrebina, S. V., Khrebin, M. V., & Serdyukova, E. F. (2020). Psychological Features Of Professional Motivation Development In Young Professionals. In & D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism» Dedicated to the 80th Anniversary of Turkayev Hassan Vakhitovich, vol 92. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 530-536). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.05.70