The economic transformations carried out for many years in Russia arouse the natural interest of science and management practice in foreign and own experience in improving the training of modern specialists in any field of activity in order to achieve the efficiency and competitiveness of enterprises (organizations) and territorial entities. In this regard, a special place in the framework of the current state policy of the Russian Federation is occupied by the preparation of a still new form of training – master's programs. In order to achieve specific successes in the modern world, it is necessary to get a qualitatively good education, including priority, which may be an education in the managerial and economic spheres. Teaching these disciplines at the university plays a vital role in the training of specialists. For generating interest among students in these disciplines, it is necessary to use innovative approaches to the methodology of teaching the disciplines of management and economics. Moreover, the personality of the teacher and his teaching methods and techniques are of great importance. Today, the teacher of economic and managerial disciplines is required to address the use of active and interactive teaching methods, so that through cognitive activity, students analyze and comprehend the different market processes.
Keywords: Magistracyinnovative approacheseducationmanagementeconomy
For the organization of the educational process in modern Russia, problematic questions of continuous improvement of organization forms and teaching methods are increasingly being raised. This is, first of all, necessary to obtain high-quality results of training students in both undergraduate and graduate programs and their further adaptation to their specific profession. Most often, curators of the educational process use an already proven set of forms for conducting classes (both active and interactive classes). Moreover, methods of organizing the learning process itself do not stand aside. They are usually distinguished: lectures and seminars. They also add training, reading scientific literature, independent work. All this, according to the curators, allows a more flexible adaptation of students to the specifics of the profession.
The main and certainly the most crucial component in the educational system was and will be a lecture in a higher educational institution. It was graduates of schools and colleges began their acquaintance with the basics of science. It also gives rise to the formation of scientific views and beliefs of students, stimulates the creative thought of students (Belsky & Zaytseva, 2011). The main feature of the lecture is the teacher's oral transmission of teaching material to students. The authors of this article are interested in innovative forms of organization of the master's education process. What are the specifics of a lecture in the master's program from the usual presentation of lecture material, for example, in undergraduate studies? And how can modern innovative pedagogical technologies help in the formation of competencies by profession. Indeed, if the listener passively perceives the material proposed by the teacher, then this cannot lead to the appearance of creativity in the formation of the master's potential. The role of the teacher plays a significant role in this, if he conveys lecture material in his own way, an abstract known for many years. Moreover, this may affect the student's independent activity due to the lack of interest in mastering the discipline.
Let us consider in detail the types of lectures, using their classification according to specific criteria. The following lectures are distinguished by goals – introductory, installation, current, final, and overview. The very name of the lectures speaks of their purpose for the audience. Based on the classification, “form” is distinguished:
- a lecture-visualization for the visibility of the material being read, a lecture-conference,
- lecture and press conference,
- a binary lecture, as a dialogue, a problem lecture,
- lecture consultation.
Each of the given types of lectures has its feature of presenting lecture material and can be used by the teacher of the discipline in preparing the form for organizing the learning process.
It is necessary to note the following point when preparing lecture material for students. Especially this aspect concerns the form of organization of the learning process in the magistracy. It is about the audience's readiness to perceive the presented lecture material. In practice, the existing audience may not have sufficient knowledge in a particular field of knowledge. However, the standards of higher education, together with the curriculum of the university, will direct the pedagogical process to a qualitatively high level of audience training. In this case, a unique role should be played by new approaches to conducting lectures in the master's program (Gonik, Androsyuk, Podlesnov, Kucherov, & Sadovnikov 2008).
Purpose of the Study
The methodology of teaching lectures on social sciences is designed to provide a theoretical level of teaching of high quality, brightness, and clarity of presentation of the material. A technique, as a complex of certain teaching aids, is inextricably linked with the science being studied and its methodology. On a considerable number of examples, one can trace the close connection of teaching methods and methodology. As an example, the lack of elaboration of the methodology will unambiguously and negatively affect the level of the methodology of lectures and seminars, and vice versa. The existing private teaching methods of individual specialized courses are subsystems of the overall system of sciences in pedagogy. Such techniques include and apply the basic principles of didactics and pedagogy with the features of the presentation of specific disciplines.
Teaching in the magistracy of all social sciences is carried out according to general methodological requirements. Nevertheless, it must be borne in mind that for reading each of the sciences in the magistracy, it is necessary to have its unique technique, which should reflect the specifics of this science in content. Anything unusual is, at the same time, also familiar. In this regard, the teaching methodology for each of the list of social sciences, declaring the features concerning the teaching methodology of other social sciences, is itself general, as applied to private methods.
In the educational practice of the university, the following, fully justified, forms of the educational process in the teaching of social sciences have already formed: these are lectures, seminars, and independent work of masters in addition to this consultation, exams, tests and other forms of extracurricular work (Gromkova, 2012). However, not one of the proposed forms can be uniquely universal, completely replace the others. Because of this, from a methodological point of view, one should not admit it is correct when individual departments use the path of deliberate separation of individual subsystems of the educational process, replacing them with others. Forms of the educational process are in close interconnection and logical sequence. The methodology for applying one form of work significantly affects the other.
When organizing the educational process, it should be borne in mind that the quantitative ratio of various methods and their role in learning can vary markedly. So, for example, in senior courses, the role of both seminars and independent work of students is growing. The following factors also influence teaching methods – the amount of time spent on the subject, the equipment of classrooms with technical teaching aids.
It is no secret to anyone to achieve specific successes in the modern world, and it is necessary to get a qualitatively good education, including priority, which may be an education in the managerial and economic spheres. Moreover, a significant role in this preparation should be assigned to the teaching of these disciplines at the university. In order to generate interest among students in these disciplines, it is necessary to use innovative approaches to the methodology of teaching the disciplines of management and economics. Moreover, the personality of the teacher and his teaching methods and techniques are of great importance.
Today, programs of economic and managerial disciplines require the targeted application of active and interactive teaching methods, so that it is through a cognitive activity that students analyze and comprehend the different market processes. The methodology of teaching economic and managerial disciplines considers a system of closely related methods and forms of training. The question arises of how this technique differs from others. The answer lies on the surface. Education is closely related to the economic life of a person, state, society. Such knowledge is knowledge of economic terms, laws of economic development, as well as an understanding of the mechanisms for managing a market economy, economic principles, and laws. Since the critical forms in the organization of the pedagogical process in universities are lectures and practical (usually seminar than laboratory) classes, they should pay more attention to the process of developing teaching methods for economic and managerial disciplines.
However, using traditional forms of interaction, it is impossible only to form students' interest in studying economic and managerial discipline on them. It is advisable to use lectures together, binary lectures, active lectures, and press conference lectures. If the teaching of a traditional lecture uses predominantly standard approaches, then in the above types of lectures, a comprehensive analysis of phenomena, the scientific search for truth are used.
The next active form of organizing the learning process in the magistracy during the formation of professional competencies is a seminar. The seminar is widely used in preparation for various types of activities – pedagogical, organizational, and managerial, research. When conducting seminars that can last a long time, practitioners can also be involved (Order of the Ministry of …, no. 543, 2010a). Performing a considerable part of the work at seminars on research topics, educators can include in this list the work on the master's thesis (Terekhova, Demchenko, & Amelina, 2011).
When using interactive forms to the list of forms of organization of the learning process, application methods should be developed. According to the standards of higher education, "classes in classrooms should be at least 30 %, and for lectures, no more than 20 % of classroom classes" (Order of the Ministry of …, no. 1763, 2010a). A full range of teaching materials should be created to help. The complex of educational and methodological materials should include informational and methodological materials for lectures and seminars, independent work of students, and many other curriculum materials. In order to maintain the relevance of the newly created and existing complex of teaching materials, it is necessary to conduct a regular examination of the materials contained in the complex of educational and methodological materials with their subsequent operational adjustment according to the specifics of the teaching disciplines.
To maintain constant feedback between the teacher and the student and to exchange information on educational and teaching materials, it is possible to use a distance learning system. Distance learning technology should allow access to the Internet from the workplace of the teacher and student. This possibility is an integral part of the training of modern specialists.
Thus, all of the above forms of the learning process organization and the methods of their application in the magistracy should be continuously improved based on innovative approaches using innovative methods (The letter of Federal Service for …, 2006).
Another in the master's form of organization of the learning process is independent work. Eskindarov (2005) notes that it is an independent work carried out at the direction of the teacher and with his methodological guidance, but without his direct participation. In the standards of higher education for full-time education, for example, in the direction 080100 "Economics (Bachelor's degree"), the approximate ratio of the classroom and independent work is established as 50 to 50 % during the week (Order of the Ministry of …, no. 747, 2009). For masters of economics – as much as 30 to 70 % (Order of the Ministry of …, no. 543, 2010b), for masters of law (Order of the Ministry of …, no. 1763, 2010b) as 25 to 75 %. It turns out that independent work in the magistracy becomes the predominant type of training in comparison with lecture and seminar classes.
Summing up the preliminary results, we can propose the option of a lecture-conversation, as the most common and relatively pure form of involving students in the educational process. This form of lecture-conversation involves the inclusion of maximum masters through the skillful use of dialogue, pseudo-dialogue, and polylogue in a live conversation with the lecturer. In this case, means of activation are individual questions to the audience, the formation of a discussion with the logical transition of the discussion into a dispute, the formation of the necessary conditions for the emergence of alternative options. These are the varieties already known to us: lecture-dialogue, lecture-discussion, then lecture-debate, and finally, lecture-seminar (polylogue). The advantage of a polylogue over a regular lecture is that this lecture draws students' attention to the most critical issues of the chosen topic, sets the content, methods, and sequence of teaching material, taking into account the views and characteristics of the audience. However, it must be borne in mind that the possible effectiveness of this form, especially in large groups of listeners, is falling because it is not possible to continually involve each direct listener in the process of even dialogue or discussion. In the case of small magistracy groups, group conversation allows covering a wide range of opinions and involves the experience of the team and the accumulated knowledge of students.
For ensuring the active participation of students in the lecture-conversation, some simple techniques are successful.
1. A. Questions to the audience are intended to clarify the views and knowledge of students on the issue in question, and not to test knowledge.
B. Questions are addressed immediately to the entire audience.
B. Listeners respond locally.
C. Based on the responses, the teacher builds his subsequent arguments
D. It is crucial that listeners independently approach conclusions and generalizations.
2. A. "Brain attack."
B. The teacher offers students to form a set of positions jointly.
B. The teacher brings the theoretical basis for collective experience as a jointly developed thesis.
Thus, in the disciplines of economic and managerial disciplines, an in-depth study of the disciplines will allow the master forming specific professional skills based on the maximum involvement of the masters in a live conversation with the lecturer through the skillful use of dialogue, pseudo-dialogue or polylogue and generally improve their knowledge in the field of economic and managerial sciences.
1. It is recommended that universities develop and implement continuing education programs for teachers.
2. Suggestions for improving independent work are needed.
3. It is necessary to develop guidelines for the forms of organization of the learning process.
4. To carry out a seminar in the framework of commenting and discussion.
5. It is recommended to build and deliver lectures in the form of an interactive presentation.
6. A new approach to the methodology of presentation of lectures and seminars is required in the magistracy.
When searching and choosing the forms of educational work during classes, it is necessary to take into account how this particular form can ensure the formation of students' knowledge and how it affects the development of professional skills.
Modeling classes, based on a thorough analysis of the possibilities of various forms, it is necessary to correlate their combinations, providing higher efficiency of the educational process, the optimal effectiveness of the educational activities of all groups of students with effective time use.
The whole system of pedagogical activity and relations with students becomes the condition under which interest, curiosity, and the desire of masters to expand their knowledge in science are formed. The upbringing of a comprehensively developed, highly cultured person requires such training that would ensure the students' consistent assimilation of a particular system of knowledge in different fields of science.
The effectiveness of the educational process depends on the correct, pedagogically sound choice of forms of organization of training, which is provided by an in-depth and comprehensive analysis of the educational, developmental, educational opportunities of each of them.
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31 October 2020
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, translation, interpretation
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Petrovich, S. V., Gennadyevich, S. M., Mikhaylovich, B. A., & Vladimirovna, M. S. (2020). Methods Of Teaching Economic And Managerial Disciplines For Students In A Magistracy. In & D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism» Dedicated to the 80th Anniversary of Turkayev Hassan Vakhitovich, vol 92. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 3904-3910). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.05.518