Tourism As An Important Trend In The Development Of Modern Economy
At present, tourism industry is becoming one of the key components of the global economy greatly influencing various spheres of social and public activity. Tourism was able to reach the peak of its development since the fall of the Iron Curtain in the conditions of freer movement across different countries. For many countries of the world, tourism represents a serious source of development of the national economy, which boosts employment and, accordingly, increases the income of the population. In modern times among various directions of the global tourism industry, such areas as ecotourism, congress industry, medical tourism, etc. are of great interest. Russia is also becoming an increasingly active participant in the international tourism market. It shall be noted that domestic tourism aimed at familiarizing itself with traditions and culture of the peoples of its country is gaining great popularity in the country, and in this regard Russia has a great potential in this field. There are also great opportunities for the development of tourism in the Chechen Republic, which is one of the Russian entities. There are about half a dozen state monuments of nature, not to mention unique historical attractions on its relatively small territory. The restoration and protection of the natural environment shall be considered an important factor in improving the quality of life of the population of the region and in the development of many sectors of its economy, especially those related to the use of natural resources in production, including the tourism industry.
Keywords: Congress industrymedical tourismpost-industrial eratourismChechen Republicecotourism
The era of post-industrial development is characterized by a significant development in the service sector, i.e. when human services are becoming increasingly important rather than the production itself. For example, in 2003, approximately every 4th–5th worker of the country, or 21.7 % of all employees, was employed in the US economy, and the non-production sector accounted for more than 70 % of the number of employees (Porokhovsky, 2005). The post-industrial stage in the development of society is characterized not only by the development of the service sector, but also by the spread of information technologies (IT), which began spreading throughout the world since the second half of the 20th century. The development of service industry can be seen as an important area in addressing job gains. Thus, the service sector has high labor intensity – more than 60 % of the cost accounts for salary, while if compared to other sectors the cost of work here is lower (Aliev & Abubakarov, 2010).
To determine the role and importance of the tourism industry for the development of the Russian economy.
The study includes the analysis of the place and role of the tourism industry in the global economy, studies the development of this industry in the Russian economy, defines the importance of its development for the Chechen Republic, which is one of the subjects of the Russian Federation.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to determine the importance and role of the tourism industry for the development of the Russian economy and, in particular, for one of its regions, such as the Chechen Republic, to identify factors contributing to this development.
The scientific study was carried out using statistical analysis, comparative analysis, positive analysis and normative analysis. The work was carried out in accordance with the principles of systemicity and scientificity.
One of the trends in the development of the global economy in the modern world is its servicization, which, inter alia, is demonstrated by the development of international tourism. Thus, from 1990 to 2006, the number of international tourist arrivals increased almost twice – from 441 million to 834 million (Adamescu & Voskresensky, 2009). According to the study, the tourism and hospitality industry has become a major industry of the global economy affecting not only various spheres of social and public activity, but also capable of solving many key problems (Adamescu & Voskresensky, 2009).
It shall be noted that tourism has long been an integral part of people’s lives in some form or other. In ancient times, the territorial movements of people were determined more by the need to develop green rich pastures, fertile and hunting lands. In modern times, when almost everything is more or less divided, we can consider three types of movement: migration to a permanent place of residence, business visits and tourist trips.
Tourism was able to reach the peak of its development since the fall of the Iron Curtain in the conditions of freer movement across different countries and when it was ceased to be persecuted by authorities. For example, for the economies of South European countries tourism traditionally plays a key role, its direct contribution to GDP can reach from 4.2 % in Italy to 15.1 % in Malta, which is higher than in other European countries (Ponedelko et al., 2018).
Tourism is also widespread in Russia, which was previously more regional in nature. Thus, referring to the data of the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) it can be stated that in 2017 the total contribution of tourism to country’s GDP amounted to 4.4 trillion rubles, or 4.8 %, and direct contribution – 1.1 trillion, or 1.2 %. Meanwhile based on world practice 10 % is considered a good indicator (Groshev & Krasnoslobodtsev, 2018).
According to the studies, international tourism can be considered as an important condition for social and economic development of the society, and tourism as a regional factor contributing to the following development is even more essential:
backward and depressed territories;
rural areas in the form of on-farm tourism;
areas of new development;
In modern times ecotourism is acquiring ever greater popularity around the world. This was facilitated by the fact that, first, the development of ecotourism was a response to the negative impact on nature from the active developing tourism sector; second, in the 1980s and 1990s, new tools, including financial tools, are being developed to protect the environment and particularly important natural resources; third, the involvement of local communities as partners in environmental activities has increased; fourth, tourists have become strongly interested in active and cognitive tours and individual travel.
Within the framework of ecotourism, the main objects for attraction can be relatively preserved natural complexes or specially protected areas of wild and poorly modified nature, including cultivated lands (most often rural), certain species of living organisms, plant communities and biocenoses in the form of forests, steppes, tundra in general, paleontological findings, and broadly speaking these may include ethnographic, archaeological and cultural-historical attractions (Ponedelko et al., 2018).
In the developed countries of the world rural tourism accounts for up to 33 % of the total income from the tourism industry. According to the rate of development in the countries of the European Union it holds the 2nd place only coming short of beach-related rest (Krutikov et al., 2015). In Spain, for example, ecotourism began to develop from the mid-1990s, gaining increasing popularity among both the local population and foreign citizens interested in the country’s picturesque wildlife, its traditions and customs, as well as local cuisine. According to some estimates, every year the number of tourists attracted to the protected territories of Spain makes about 23 million, which is more than 30 % of the total number of foreign tourists visiting the country (Ponedelko et al., 2018).
It shall be noted that the importance of gastronomy as a key component of intangible cultural heritage for many territories in the structure of cultural and cognitive components is increasing, which can become part of the concept of branding and one of the key associations and stories of visualization related to the recognition of the territory (Sheresheva et al., 2018).
According to the Ministry of Agriculture, rural tourism in Russia is developing in the regions providing only 2 % of income with the potential of annual revenues of up to 60 billion rubles. Rural tourism gained the greatest popularity in Altay region, Moscow, Vladimir, Irkutsk, Kaluga regions, in the vicinity of St. Petersburg (Krutikov et al., 2015). The development of rural tourism can provide a multiplier effect on the creation of additional jobs in the whole service sector, which includes 12 sub-sectors (Krutikov et al., 2015). In developing rural tourism, the main focus shall be on available attractiveness enhancement policies; high quality of tourism services; variety of entertainment; safety; advanced infrastructure, open access; local participation; performance of various information channels, which corresponds to the global experience in the formation of the rural tourism system.
The next direction of international tourism, which is of increased interest of the global community as a young and highly profitable sector of the modern economy, is the congress industry with its specific institutions, organizational cycles, products, methods of organization, production and services. This sector is a part of the global MICE industry, within the framework of which trips are made to participate in such large-scale events as congresses, forums, conferences, as well as small-scale events – workshops, trainings, meetings, etc. Congress activities are among the most effective mechanisms to ensure business information exchange contributing to the development of state-to-state relations, stimulating intellectual market, generation of new ideas and needs of the global community.
The congress industry provides the greatest economic impact compared to other types of business travels. Thus, in 2013 the volume of the world market of business tourism amounted to more than 1.1 trillion dollars, in 2014 the business travel costs reached 1.17 trillion dollars. It is projected that by 2025 the global business tourism market will grow to $1.67 trillion and the annual growth will make 3.2 %. For the economy of the country/city the hosting of the average congress of the international association – 700 people gives about 1 million dollars of income. If a regular tourist spends between $100 and $200 per day, the average daily cost of a delegate to an international congress may be as high as $346. In the total number of world congresses, events with more than 3 thousand participants account for 15 %, providing almost 50 % of the total income of the international congress market to host countries. At the same time, the increase in the number of congress events by 1 % increases GDP by 1.4 %, tax revenues – by 1.2 %, and the number of jobs – by about 1.7 % (Groshev & Krasnoslobodtsev, 2018).
Such countries as the United States, Germany, Spain, France and the United Kingdom are the leaders in the number of international congress events – 300-900 per year. But not only economically developed countries, but also many developing countries seek to participate more actively in this area of business. Increasingly, some cities act as convention tourism centers. Business meetings in Europe account for 71.2 %, in Asia this number reaches 18.1 and 10.7 % in North America (Groshev & Krasnoslobodtsev, 2018).
In 2016–2017, Russia increased its attention to the development of the congress industry. Thus, according to the study of the Russian Business Tourism Association, if in 2013 the volume of the Russian business tourism market accounted for 471 billion rubles, in 2014 it reached 560 billion rubles, then by 2020 it is expected to grow to 1 trillion rubles. WTTC also forecasts an increase in the volume of business trips to Russia by 2020 up to 18.4 billion dollars at the annual growth by 5.9 %, the global costs will increase by 13.6 % that considerably exceeds the average world indicator making 8.6 % (Groshev & Krasnoslobodtsev, 2018).
It is worth noting that in recent years the world has also actively developed such direction of international tourism as medical tourism, in a broad sense representing not only international migration of patients, but also medical personnel, diagnostic and operational equipment. The conditions for such a phenomenon were the development of information technologies, the improvement of the level of well-being of the society, the reduction of transport costs and the development of service trade. Increasing cross-boundary mobility of patients is becoming an integral part of the globalization processes. According to experts, every year the growth of gross medical services provided to non-residents makes 25 % (Groshev & Krasnoslobodtsev, 2017).
By 2022 tourism and health care are predicted to be the priority areas in the development of the economies of many countries (Groshev & Krasnoslobodtsev, 2017). Medical tourism has more prospects for development in those countries that have high medical technologies against the background of the current loyal legislation, flexible border and customs policies, rapid adaptation to the needs of patients.
In 2004 the income from medical tourism made 40 billion dollars and in 2012 it reached 500 billion dollars, which made 14 % of the total income of tourism (3.2 trillion dollars), or 1.8 % of the world GDP. Currently 63 % of the world market of medical tourism is occupied by countries such as the USA, Germany, Japan, France and Austria (Groshev & Krasnoslobodtsev, 2017).
Russia is also seeking to become increasingly active in the international market of medical services, especially in the context of continuing reforms of the health care system and the initial stage of the medical tourism market in the country. It shall be noted that despite existing disadvantages in Russian medicine such as a considerable lag in certain areas, problems with qualified assistance, insufficient infrastructure, there is an opportunity in the country, especially this concerns high-tech unique surgical services, to receive almost any treatment. Methods and technologies of treatment developed by Russian scientists are used all over the world, and the world-famous medical centers of the country accept patients from CIS-countries and countries of the far abroad, who are not satisfied with leading clinics of other countries.
Besides international tourism connected with the study of culture, lifestyle and traditions of the population of other countries, domestic tourism focusing on traditions and culture of the peoples of their country is becoming increasingly attractive in Russia.
Planning for the development of territories, including the creation of tourist products, cultural and cognitive opportunities, shall be carried out giving preference to the interests of the local community, both from the point of view of demand (needs of tourists) and from the point of view of supply, since the lifestyle of the population has a significant impact on the tourist experience. In determining the demand, there is a need to study consumers thus identifying the needs and segmenting the audience. The correlation of the assessment results with available resources and resource potential will determine the segments to be considered as targeted in the development of the tourism product of a particular territory. The segments shall be the target that best meet the needs in a given territory.
It shall be noted that the Chechen Republic, which is one of the subjects of the Russian Federation, offers great prospects for the development of modern tourist and recreational industry, which, according to the study of natural resources of the republic, can give at least 100 thousand new jobs (Eldarkhanov, 2009). The revival of tourist camps and recreational development routes would be an important step towards reducing unemployment in the republic, increasing the income of its population and budget, not to mention the opportunity for tourism and recreation, contributing to improving the health of residents not only of the republic and Russia, but also of other countries.
But here it is important to note that in accordance with the programs of social and economic development of the republic the recovery of the region’s economy provides not for automatic reproduction of the pre-crisis production structure and management system, but for the transition to systemic modernization, involving, first of all, modernization of the oil refining sector, application of new technologies in the agrarian sphere and construction, development of the tourist and recreational industry.
In the Soviet times tourist complexes of the republic received up to 500 tourists a day thus occupying the leading place in the North Caucasus. Four tourist complexes were located on the territory of the republic:
Since 2009 tourists again begin to visit the Chechen Republic, first with caution, and then with genuine interest. By that time, the republic had notably transformed. Tourists are attracted not only by history, but also by the construction of such large-scale facilities as the largest mosques in Europe as
To date, the tourist flow to the republic has increased to 70 thousand people per year. Among the priority areas of the visit for the guests of the region is the natural monument
On the territory of the region there are about half a dozen state monuments of nature. These include ten reserves for the protection of certain species of animals and plants. Tourist routes are built along different nature parks. In the historical region of Melchista, meaning the Land of the Sun, in the upper Argun River there is the Dead City – Choi Pede, which is one of the largest necropolis in the North Caucasus. The name Choi Pede means Deity Settlement. The crypt complex of Choi Pede is dated back to the 5th–17th century, but the exact date of its foundation is unknown. According to the major world media, along with shaman pyramids on the banks of the Baikal Lake and the ancient capital of Eskimos on Cape Dezhnyova, Choi Pede is among the seven most difficult-to-reach attractions of the country.
It shall be noted that the restoration of the natural environment and its protection are necessary conditions for the growth of the quality of life of the population and the development of many industries in the republic, especially those related to the use of natural resources such as oil production, agriculture, forestry, tourism and recreation.
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