Threats Assessment To Human Development’s Economic Security In A Multi-Ethnic Region
Studies of leading scientists in the field of economic security indicate that negative factors of socio-economic development influence human development. Among the negative factors determining factors are the low level of real incomes of the population, the level of differentiation of incomes, the high level of the population with incomes below the subsistence level, the high level of unemployment, and other factors. In the article, threats to the economic security of an individual are considered as a combination of conditions and factors that destructively affect human development. The indicators of socio-economic development of the Republic of Kalmykia that affect human development are analyzed, the data on the dynamics of the human development index are presented. Sociological studies were conducted to determine the impact of low incomes, poverty, and other negative factors on the socio-psychological state of the population of the republic. Surveys showed that economic problems, financial difficulties did not lead to the dominance of negative feelings of anxiety, apathy, aggression. Poverty makes it difficult for people to get high-paid jobs, quality education and health services, and the possibility of successful socialization of children and youth. That is, the poverty of the population limits the possibilities of human development in the Republic of Kalmykia. In order to maintain stability and prevent interethnic conflicts, active state policy is required to monitor and manage the unevenness of intra-regional socio-economic development. It is necessary to prevent tense situations related to personal security threats promptly.
Keywords: Human potentialeconomic securityindividualsRepublic of Kalmykia
The main wealth of any social system is human potential. A prerequisite for its development and accumulation is the level and quality of population life depend on the stable state of the economy. The low level of socio-economic development of the republic has a destructive effect on human development. The problem of poverty is one of the most acute social problems in all regions of the Russian Federation. The Republic of Kalmykia takes 84th place in terms of per capita income in the Russian Federation. The problem of poverty in Kalmykia is a threat to economic security. The poverty of the population determines the social breakdown of society, causes social tension, impedes the successful development of the region, leads to crisis processes in the family, and society is especially relevant. There is social poverty of traditional categories of the population with a high burden of dependents, namely, large and single-parent families with children, single pensioners, and disabled people. At the same time, economic poverty is growing because a specific part of the economically active population cannot provide themselves with a decent living level due to low wages. This situation leads to population migration. Despite the positive natural population growth, in recent years, the population of the republic has decreased by more than thirty thousand people.
The state is taking measures to equalize interregional differences in the level of socio-economic development. However, this problem remains in order to maintain stability, prevent and neutralize threats to economic security. Monitoring of the situation is necessary, especially in such a region with a complex ethnic and religious structure.
Human development is referred to as the main directions of state policy in the field of ensuring economic security in the Strategy of economic security of the Russian Federation for the period until 2030. The vanity of this problem is primarily associated with the emergence of risks and threats to the economic security of human development, as evidenced by the study data. A threat to a person's economic security is a combination of conditions and factors that create a danger to his vital interests. Threats lie primarily in the economic environment. However, an equally significant danger and threat is the destruction of the spiritual and moral potential of the country's population.
An analysis of the work of domestic and foreign researchers shows that specialists in various fields of knowledge consider the formation of human potential from their specific point of view. Only an interdisciplinary approach allows studying this problem in a complex as an object and subject of economic security.
Personality, on the one hand, is a factor in the security of society, determining the stability of its social, economic, and political systems, ensuring the formation of labor potential as a component of the security potential. On the other hand, the personality itself is an object of security, demanding for its protection a system of measures by the state. It is generally accepted that in dynamic societies, transforming Russia, all the more, it is the social resource of individuals and groups that determine their economic security and social status (Yadov, 2009).
Significant work in the field of human development is carried out as part of the UN Development Program. Since 1990, the UN Development Program has published annual Human Development Reports for all countries. Since 1995, “Reports on the development of human potential in the Russian Federation” have been published.
The 2018 Report provides data on the human development index for the regions of the Russian Federation, which allows studying the dynamics of the social development of the Russian regions, despite some shortcomings in its definition. The Human Development Index (until 2013, the Human Development Index) is a composite statistical indicator that includes data on education, life expectancy, and income of the population (Golyashev & Lobanova, 2018).
As well as in other sections, priority development issues are considered in the context of a developing new technological revolution: the triad “science, technology, innovation” as a tool for implementing the Sustainable Development Goals, the relationship of human capital and scientific and technological progress, and other problems.
Senchagov considers poverty as an indicator of national security, and the low level of monetary incomes of the population as the most acute threat to economic security in the social sphere (2005).
By definition, Oleinikova “man (PERSONALITY) being the object and subject, the security system, is present in all security systems, playing the essential system-forming role. The economic security of the individual “is characterized by a state in which the conditions for protecting vital interests are guaranteed, and a system of social development and social security of the individual is ensured” (2005).
Vechkanov (2007), the most difficult for the economic security of the country, considers the degradation of society and the population. If the problem of poverty can be solved in principle, then the suspension or elimination of the process of degradation of the population and society will require a lot of time and money, as well as active government intervention.
The concept of “personal security” means the state of protection of the vital interests of the individual from internal and external threats and dangers. The state provides protection of society and the individual himself, and also allows realizing its potential as a subject of significant social transformations and contribute to its development (Belovitsky & Nikolaev, 2017).
Sociologists point out that Russia is characterized by excessive inequality, which slows down the growth rate of the economy of our country (Salmina, 2014).
The resolution of the International Scientific and Practical Conference “Economic Security of Russia: Problems and Prospects” (RAS) noted “it is necessary to increase the level of socio-economic security through the development of healthcare, education, science and culture, the development of human potential and the motivation of creativity (Karavaeva & Kolpakova, 2018).
Thus, we can conclude that in determining the economic security of a person, approaches that consider threats in a low standard of living to prevail. We believe that human socio-economic activity depends not only on the quality state of satisfaction of natural needs but also on spiritual needs. Degradation of the moral principles of youth, lack of spirituality, we also believe, should be considered as a threat to economic security.
Purpose of the Study
This study aimed to assess threats to the economic security of human development in the Republic of Kalmykia. For this goal, the main task is to conduct an analysis of socio-economic indicators and the results of a sociological study of various social, ethnic groups of the Republic of Kalmykia.
During the study, the following tasks were solved:
Analyzed the indicators of the socio-economic security of the republic.
The indicators of the human development index of the republic in comparison with Russian are considered;
Determined by the results of a sociological survey the main factors affecting the economic and socio-psychological state of the population of the Republic of Kalmykia;
Threats to the economic security of the formation of human potential and personality development in the youth environment of the Republic of Kalmykia were identified.
In the course of the study, mass questionnaires, expert surveys, content analysis, structural-functional, economical, and logical analysis were applied. This questionnaire used the best practices of the country's leading sociologists in the framework of the IP RAS project "The Dynamics of the Social Transformations of Modern Russia in the Socio-Economic, Political, Socio-Cultural and Ethno-Religious Contexts" (Gorshkov, 2016).
The Economic Security Strategy of the Russian Federation for the period until 2030 defines the main tasks for implementing the direction of human development. One of the tasks is to reduce the level of poverty and income inequality of the population. There are the primary internal threats to economic security: uneven social and economic development of regions, property differentiation of the population, high poverty level. Official state statistics confirm that the share of the population with incomes below the subsistence level in Russia is currently – 13.2 % in the Republic of Kalmykia 27.3 % (Figure
Over the past years, in the Russian Federation, this indicator had varied from a maximum value of 29.0 % in 2000 to a minimum value of 12.0 % in 2010. For the Republic of Kalmykia, data ranged from 61.1 % in 2000, and the minimum value is 2017 – 27.3 %. In 2017, this indicator, for the first time, crossed the threshold of 30.0 %.
As we can see, in recent years, as the economy stabilized and grew, poverty in Russia began to recede. Nevertheless, this process is slow, especially in the depressed regions of the republics of Ingushetia, Tuva, Kalmykia. The dynamics of the poverty level indicate a positive trend (Figure
So, the indicator of the level of average per capita cash incomes of the population in the Republic of Kalmykia in 2017 amounted to 14,730 rubles. This indicator is less than half the average Russian indicator of 31,422 rubles. The maximum figure in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug is 70121 rubles, the minimum in the Republic of Tuva is 14048 rubles.
As the main negative consequences that are generated by poverty, this is not an opportunity to realize one's abilities and creative potential. This circumstance is detrimental to a person. The data in Table
Considering the indicators of the human development index in Kalmykia in dynamics, it can be argued that there was an increase in the human development index to 0.831. However, from 2000 to 2008, there was a sharp decline in the quality of life of the population of the republic and its significant lag behind the average Russian indicators (Table
Thus, it should be noted that the measures taken by the Government of the Russian Federation have reduced the level of poverty in the region. However, the poverty of people in the Republic of Kalmykia remains at a reasonably high level and does not allow for the active development of human potential. As the main negative consequences that are caused by poverty, it should be noted that it can act as a factor of social tension in society, especially in depressed, multi-ethnic regions.
In order to determine the level of influence of negative factors on stability in the republic, we conducted a sociological study.
Two hundred seventy people attended the questionnaire conducted in May 2019, residents of the Republic of Kalmykia: 30 % of them are men, women 70 %. Urban respondents make up 70 % of the sample, rural respondents – 30 %. The age distribution is as follows: up to 20 years – 51.9 %; from 21 to 30 years old – 29.6 %; from 31 to 40 years old – 5.9 %; from 41 to 50 years old – 3.3 %; from 51 to 60 years old – 2.6 %; older than 60 – 4.1 %. The youth cohort represents the majority of our sample – 81.5 %.
In the implementation of this project, the study of whether the population has a "safety margin" is of particular relevance. "Safety margin" is an indicator that allows maintaining the stability of the economic situation in the context of a protracted crisis. Our data show that by mid-2019, young residents of Kalmykia have a "safety margin." Being in a position of material dependence on parents, young people do not know the real problems in family life. Only a small part of the respondents admitted to a difficult material situation when there was not enough money for anything. Note that in our study, this option was noted by Russian respondents and belonging to other ethnic groups more often than Kalmyks (Table
Answers of more than 40% of respondents indicate that they are at the poverty level when there is only the most necessary funds. A third of the sample has a certain "margin of safety." Stocks allow them acquiring the necessary and household appliances (without prejudice to the budget). Less than a tenth can be attributed to the group of secured, in addition to expensive food, durable goods, they can rest abroad (without damage). Only a few respondents are over-affluent.
The lack of necessary material resources, limited opportunities to meet the most vital necessities of life does not allow an individual, a group feeling safe from constantly emerging threats of an economic nature.
It should be noted that economic problems, financial difficulties did not lead to the dominance of negative feelings of anxiety, apathy, aggression.
The data obtained allow stating that the life of the inhabitants of the republic is gradually stabilizing, they have a confident attitude towards the future, which depends on their psycho-emotional state and the economic situation in the republic.
The problem of poverty is one of the most severe threats to economic security. It is poverty that determines the limited access of a significant part of the population of our country to development resources: highly paid work, quality education and health services, the possibility of successful socialization of children and youth, and reduces the human development index. The low-income level of a significant part of families, combined with excessive polarization of incomes, causes a social breakdown in society, causes social tension. Poverty leads to obstacles, and the successful development of the country determines crisis processes in the family and society.
However, our analysis showed that "the tendency of our fellow citizens to explain the low standard of living of the country's population in the general economic situation in it" (Gorshkov, 2016) does not work in our region. Perhaps because in our study, the youth group prevails, which, unlike the older ones, is not paternalistic. Young people aim to solve their life problems on their own. It can be argued that a type that can be described as gravitating toward a conditionally activist model of world perception is spreading among young people. According to this model, a person is a blacksmith of his happiness (Gorshkov, 2016).
This article was prepared with the support of the Russian Federal Property Fund in the framework of project No. 19-010-00796 "Improving the methodology for assessing the economic security of a multi-ethnic region: an interdisciplinary approach."
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