The article is devoted to the study of the influence of the healthy lifestyle phenomenon on the small business areas development in the Republic of Kalmykia. Small business development issues are one of the most relevant in the regions of Russia. As the world trend shows, it is the small business that is becoming one of the development vectors of not only the regional economy but also the economy of the country as a whole. The results of a sociological survey show that more than a third of the region population do sports regularly. There are age differences in regularity in sports. The most active part of the population involved in sports remains the group of people aged 18 to 35 years. According to the results of expert interviews, the main problems of the development of this sphere were also identified. Experts note that the solvency of the population also affects the development of this sphere. In this regard, the main factors in the development of the market for fitness services are the following factors: firstly, an increase in the solvency of residents and, as a result, an increase in the share of expenses for payment of services in the field of physical education and sports in the general structure of expenses of the population; secondly, the growth of the population, including the population involved in physical education and sports; thirdly, the prestige and promotion of fitness among various age groups and other factors.
Keywords: Healthlifestylesmall businessphysical educationpaid servicesKalmykia
One of the most popular trends in consumer behavior today is the desire for a healthy lifestyle and maintaining performance over the long term.
In Russia, the popularity of sports and a healthy lifestyle is gaining momentum. A healthy lifestyle and proper nutrition are today a value that is caused by the desire to preserve one of the most important human resources – health. Therefore, investments in health are considered the most serious and payback. Moreover, these processes are spreading, not only in megacities, but also in the regions of the country – fitness centers and gyms are opening in small cities and towns, and fitness marathons and other events are held on social networks.
The problem of the formation and development of orientations towards a healthy lifestyle has not yet become the subject of focused scientific study. There are few works on this problem. Therefore, it requires further theoretical development and empirical research. Various theoretical and methodological foundations of health analysis are proposed in the works: Amosov (1987), Apanasenko (1993), Baevsky and Berseneva (1997), Brekhman (1990), Weiner (1998), Kaznacheev (1980), and others. Many works are devoted to the study of a healthy lifestyle: Blinova (2012), Izutkin (2004), Lisitsyna (1988), Stepanov and Izutkin (1981), Zhuravleva (2002), Kazin (2000) and other researchers.
There are many works devoted to the issue of its formation in different age groups, especially among young people. It is also important to note that in Buryatia, there are many publications devoted to a healthy lifestyle: Debeeva (2008), Tsyngunova (2010), Radnaeva (1997). In Kalmykia, there are only a few works on this topic (Nastinova, Badmaeva, & Bovaev, 2010). There is very little work on the topic of commercializing a healthy lifestyle. Among them is the publication in the publication “Commercial determinants of health” by Ilona Kikbash, Luc Alain, and Christian Franz in “The Lancet. Global health” (Kickbusch, Allen, & Franz, 2016).
In this regard, the question remains as to how quickly the business responds to modern "fashion" trends in a healthy lifestyle, especially in the regions. How is the commercialization of a healthy lifestyle going, and what areas of such commercialization are popular and which are not? The number of people choosing self-preserving behavior is growing every year. The increase in demand associated with this behavior affects supply development processes. This process significantly transforms the competitive environment of the region and opens up new business opportunities in the field of a healthy lifestyle.
Small business development issues are one of the most relevant in the regions of Russia. As the world trend shows, it is a small business that is becoming one of the development vectors of not only the regional economy but also the economy of the country as a whole. Small business can quickly adapt to changes in market conditions, to test breakthrough ideas, has the simplicity and flexible structure of internal management. These features of small business make it attractive enough for economically active people who decide to engage in entrepreneurial activity. A healthy lifestyle influences a study on the development directions of small businesses in Russia. This study will allow not only studying regional business models in the field of a healthy lifestyle, but also showing the development of entrepreneurial activity in the regions, its "sensitivity" to the needs of the population.
Purpose of the Study
The article is devoted to studying how the healthy lifestyle phenomenon affects the development of small businesses in the region. It assessed the potential of the market of sports and recreational services in the area.
The methodological basis of the study was the principles of sociological and economic analysis. First of all, the collection and analysis of statistical information are carried out to study the business environment of the region in the field of a healthy lifestyle, proper nutrition, amateur sports, and compiling an information base. A sociological study is also conducted to study the phenomenon of the spread of a healthy lifestyle. As a result of the survey, in the field of a healthy lifestyle, a consumer socio-economic portrait is compiled. A mass study and expert interviews were conducted (mass questionnaire, N = 300). In the expert survey (N = 15), fitness trainers, representatives of fitness centers, gyms, heads of sports sections, sportswear and equipment stores, and other representatives of the fitness industry acted like experts. The economic analysis of small businesses in the field of healthy lifestyles involves the study of legal forms, analysis of fixed capital, labor requirements, forecast sales, analysis of the competitive environment.
Today, the market of sports and fitness services in general and fitness services, in particular, is one of the fastest-growing, not only in Russia but also in the world. The number of sports and fitness services enterprises is growing annually. Consider the size of the paid services market in Russia (Table
There is an increase in the volume of physical education and sports services in the whole country. According to RBC marketing research, the market volume in Russia amounted to 124.8 billion rubles by June 2019. The most substantial sizes are noted in the Central and Volga Federal Districts. In Kalmykia, where the population of the republic is less than 300 thousand people, the amount of paid services in this area in 2016 compared to 2015 increased by almost two times. The proportion of the population systematically involved in physical education and sports aged 3 to 79 years in 2016 amounted to 31.3 %. For comparison, in 2013, the share of such a population was 25.9 %.
According to the results of a sociological study conducted in May-June 2019 in the city of Elista and seven regions of the republic, 37 % of the respondents regularly go in for sports 2-3 times a week. Moreover, it is very rare – 30 %, daily – 10 %, 2-3 times a month – 15 %, not involved – 8 %. There are age differences in regularity in sports. The most active part of the population involved in sports remains the group of people aged 18 to 35 years, while "very rarely" – to a greater extent from 30 to 50 years. Women go in for sports twice as often.
When asked about assessing their state of health, more than 45 % said they said "good," 30 % said they were "satisfactory," and 15 % said they were "outstanding." When asked about the extent to which they care about their health, 55 % answered "mostly care," while only 5 % of respondents care about their health very much, 40 % of the respondents care little. The following factors interfere with maintaining good health to a greater extent: lack of proper rest (40 %), poor nutrition (17 %), high cost of drugs (13 %), bad habits (10 %). They prevent a healthy lifestyle: heavy workload (28 %), laziness (24 %), lack of money (15 %), bad habits (10 %).
The desire to lead a healthy lifestyle is manifested to a greater extent in trying to get rid of bad habits (42 %), walking in the fresh air (16 %), proper nutrition (13 %), and sports (7 %).
We also conducted an expert survey to study the market of fitness services in the republic. As experts, as we have already noted, trainers, fitness, and yoga instructors, who, for the most part, are owners of fitness centers (N = 15), acted like experts. Single fitness clubs represent the market of fitness services in the republic. There are no representatives of national networks in the city. All of them are individual entrepreneurs. The tax authorities classify such business as microenterprises. Apart from sports sections, clubs, swimming pools, in the republic no more than 20 fitness centers and gyms are continually operating, most of them provide their services in Elista. At the same time, the peak of the opening of fitness clubs fell in 2017–2018.
It should be noted that all experts note an increase in demand for the provision of fitness and gym services. Experts attribute this to the growing value of “health,” modern standards of beauty, and the high cost of treatment and medications. They note a small but increase in the number of attendance and the purchase of subscriptions. At the same time, experts note that one of the features of the market is its seasonality. Sometimes participation and the purchase of subscriptions depend on this factor. From the beginning of summer to mid-autumn, there has been a decrease in attendance. This circumstance is explained by the holiday season. Consumers of services prefer to spend this time on vacation. Also, presence decreases in winter, namely, from late December to mid-January. During this period, the New Year holidays and long weekends take place. But the peak of attendance occurs in the spring months. At this time, the active preparation of the population for the beach season begins. The average price of a subscription varies from 1300 to 1500 rubles, with 50–70 people per month continually visiting.
When answering the question, what hinders the development of the fitness industry in the region. Experts note the lack of professional staff, problems with the necessary facilities, equipped for the convenience of customers, the cost of the rent. Experts note that the solvency of the population also affects the development of this sphere.
First of all, it should be noted that 37 % of the respondents regularly go in for sports. There are age differences in regularity in sports. The most active part of the population involved in sports remains the group of people aged 18 to 35 years, while “very rarely” – to a greater extent from 30 to 50 years.
The market for this service sector is promising for the republic. Statistics indicate an increase in the volume of this market and its share. Moreover, the difficult socio-economic situation of the region and low incomes make it difficult to develop this area.
In this regard, the main factors in the development of the fitness services market are:
increasing the solvency of residents and, as a result, increasing the share of expenses for payment of services in the field of physical education and sports in the general structure of population expenses;
population growth, including the population involved in physical education and sports;
the prestige and popularization of fitness among various age groups and other factors.
The study was supported by the Kalmyk State University named after B. B. Gorodovikova No. 1100 "The phenomenon of a healthy lifestyle and its reflection in the directions of development of small business in Russia and Mongolia."
- Amosov, N. M. (1987). Thoughts on health. Moscow: Physical education and sport.
- Apanasenko, G. L. (1993). Health protection of healthy: some problems of theory and practice. Valueology: diagnostics, means, and practice of ensuring health. St. Petersburg: Nauka, pp. 49–60.
- Baevsky, R. M., & Berseneva, A. P. (1997). Assessing the adaptive capabilities of the body and the risk of developing diseases. Moscow: Medicine.
- Blinova, N. G. (2012). Features of adaptation to the training of primary school students, depending on the level of their psychological and biological maturity and individual typological characteristics. Valeology, 4, 7–13.
- Brekhman, I. I. (1990). Valueology is a science of health. Moscow: Physical education and sport, 208 p.
- Debeeva, T. B. (2008). Social functions of the family in the process of forming a healthy lifestyle for students (based on the materials of the Republic of Buryatia).
- Izutkin, D. A. (2004). A person in the system of the relationship of lifestyle and health. Bull. of Tomsk State Pedag. Univer., 2, 90–92.
- Kazin, E. M. (2000). Fundamentals of individual human health: Introduction to general and applied valueology. Moscow: Vlados.
- Kaznacheev, V. P. (1980). Modern aspects of adaptation. Novosibirsk: Science.
- Kickbusch, I., Allen, L., & Franz, C. (2016). The commercial determinants of health. The Lancet Global Health, 4(12), 895–896.
- Lisitsyna, Y. P. (1988). The book is about health. Moscow: Medicine, pp. 432–441.
- Nastinova, G. E., Badmaeva, K. E., & Bovaev, C. B. (2010). A motivational-value attitude of first-year students to strengthening and maintaining individual health. Izv. Volgograd State Pedag. Univer., 53(9), 163–167.
- Radnaeva, D. B. (1997). Social factors of health: theory and methodology of the study: teaching aid. Novosibirsk: NSU.
- Stepanov, A. D., & Izutkin, D. A. (1981). Criteria for a healthy lifestyle and the background of its formation. Soviet health care, 5, 6.
- Tsyngunova, E. T. (2010). The concept and content of the category “healthy lifestyle”: the cultural aspect. Bull. of the Buryat State Univer. Pedag. Philol. Philos., 6, 232–238.
- Weiner, E. N. (1998). General valeology. Lipetsk: Lipetsk publ. house.
- Zhuravleva, I. V. (2002). Adolescent Health: A Sociological Analysis. Moscow: Publ. house of the Instit. of Sociol. of the Russ. Acad. of Sci.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
About this article
31 October 2020
Print ISBN (optional)
Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, translation, interpretation
Cite this article as:
Ekaterina, K., Nogan, B., & Ochirova, N. (2020). Healthy Lifestyle’s Phenomenon And Its Reflection In Small Business Development In Kalmykia. In D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism» Dedicated to the 80th Anniversary of Turkayev Hassan Vakhitovich, vol 92. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 3698-3703). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.05.492