Key Issues And Technologies For Ecotourism Development In The Krasnodar Destination
The study applied general scientific methods for the synthesis and analysis of literature and stock data. The map is built using the Easy Paint Tool Sai2, developed by the Japanese company Systemax. Part of the material for the article was collected during the summer field research of the author (1999–2018). The article studies the evolution of the essence of the definition of "ecological tourism." The role of ecological tourism in the Krasnodar destination is determined. The classification of ecological tourism products in the regions of Russia is given. An analysis of the questionnaire of 6,800 respondents (conducted from September 2018 to September 2019) in the field of interest in tourist and recreational facilities of various types of tourism in the territory of the Krasnodar Territory made it possible to compile an informational tourist-recreational register of territories and objects of ecological tourism of the Krasnodar Destination according to the copyright methodology. Particular attention is required for tourism activities in the territories of specially protected natural complexes. Therefore, 12 main promising areas of work of the organization of tourism activities in specially protected natural areas of the studied destination are highlighted. The information tourist-recreational register of ecological tourism in the region can be the basis for the development of new tourism products and advertising of the tourist characteristics of the region for compatriots and foreign customers. The methodological significance of the results lies in the adaptation of ecotourism development technologies in various regions of Russia.
Keywords: TourismecologypopularityKrasnodar destinationtourist productprospects
The development of all areas and types of tourism as an independent sector of the economy is now very relevant. Ecotourism is included in the number of the main strategic directions of tourism development according to the forecasts of the World Tourism Organization (IOIIBTO) until 2020. In the modern professional world tourism business and scientific theory, the definition of "ecological tourism" has several options that highlight the diverse aspects of tourism in the system of ecology and nature management. Besides, the term “ecological tourism” has national differences. From the commercial side, ecotourism is a type of professional activity carried out in the natural environment or a natural and human-made landscape to make a profit. We consider the current situation, problems, and prospects for the development of eco-tourism on the example of the Krasnodar tourist destination. At the end of the XX century, the term "destination" has become an official term in the field of tourism. The World Tourism Organization has introduced its official definition. In tourism economics, the term “tourist destination” was introduced by Leiper (2004) in the mid-1980s. He defined the destination as “the geographical territory into which the flow of tourists is directed” (Leiper, 2004, p. 34).
According to Beritelli (2009), a destination is a geographical area consisting of specific infrastructure and all the services of a particular segment necessary for a tourist to stay in a defined territory. Domestic and foreign scholars such as Althof (2001), Buhalis (2000), Iwashita (2003) worked on the nature and definition of tourist destinations. Goncharova and Kiryanova (2011), Zorin and Zorin (2009), Pavlova (2009), but until now, a unified approach has not yet been developed to the essence and wording of the term “tourist destination”. Note that in the article, Krasnodar tourist destination is defined by the borders of the Krasnodar Territory.
In the modern dynamic and the technocratic world, the popularity of ecotourism is increasing as the environment worsens, and the process of urbanization intensifies. The primary condition for the development of ecotourism is an environmental, scientific, and economically sound policy to include natural territories and objects without disturbing the ecological balance, not to mention withdrawing from natural circulation. Environmental policy is the difference between ecotourism and the previously used forms of organizing and conducting outdoor recreation. In the science of tourism and entrepreneurial activity, there is still no unified definition of "modern ecological tourism." Clarification of this term requires a study of the evolution of its essence. For practical tourist activities, it is essential to highlight its interconnected blocks. The problem in tourism also remains the algorithmic representation of the principles and signs of ecotourism. For the diversification of tourism products of an ecological direction, the classification of ecological tourism products in the regions of Russia is essential. Prominent in the development of ecotourism in destinations are the mechanisms and technologies for creating information registries. Developments are needed in the field of methodological principles for compiling such registers of various types of tourism, including ecological tourism. Visual generalization (maps and maps) of territories and objects of ecological tourism of destinations in Russia is the basis for the development of new tourism products by tour operators. Visual generalization is necessary for advertising the tourist features of the region for compatriots and foreign customers. Also, a visual generalization is necessary for checking and supplementing the passports (subject) of the tourism industry and tourist resources of the regions of Russia for specialists of the regional administration of the region. Tourism activities in the territories of specially protected natural complexes require special attention. Outstanding in the development of ecotourism in destinations are the mechanisms and technologies for creating information registries. Developments are needed in the field of methodological principles for compiling such registers of various types of tourism, including ecological tourism. Tourism activities in the territories of specially protected natural complexes require special attention.
The subject of the study is the ecological tourism of the Krasnodar Destination. "Ecotourism is a form of nature-oriented tourism, carried out with the aim of knowing the wildlife and the culture of the destination, not violating the integrity of the ecosystem, designed to contribute to the conservation of natural resources, environmental protection and socio-economic development of the tourist territory" (Lapochkina et al., 2019). "Ecological tourism is designed to ensure not only the conservation of the biological diversity of recreational, natural areas but also the sustainability of tourism activities themselves" (Mironova, 2009, para. 03). Krasnodar Territory is a unique place where ecotourism is effectively developing. Unique natural resources provide an opportunity for the successful development of promising ecotourism projects. A more significant number of tourist enterprises organizing ecological tours are located on the foothill and mid-mountain territories of the Black Sea coast, the Yeisk, Absheron, Seversky, and Dinsky districts of the Krasnodar tourist destination. The main factor that determines the features of the geography of ecotourism is the presence of attractive, unchanged natural complexes or objects.
Purpose of the Study
This work aimed to study the features of the current state and prospects for ecological tourism development on the example of the Krasnodar Destination. For this goal, the following tasks are defined:
to study the evolution of the essence of the definition of "ecological tourism";
clarify the definition of "ecological tourism";
highlight and describe the blocks of modern tourism activities of the environmental direction;
to develop a scheme of principles and signs of ecological tourism;
justify the introduction of the term "ecological tourism product";
offer a classification of ecological tourism products in the regions of Russia;
to analyze the results of a questionnaire survey in the area of interest in tourism and recreational territories and objects of ecological tourism in the Krasnodar Territory;
to develop an informational tourist-recreational register of territories and objects of ecological tourism of the Krasnodar Destination;
visually summarize the most popular territories and objects of ecological tourism of the studied destination – to generate a map;
to highlight the main promising areas of work of the organization of tourism in specially protected natural areas of the investigated destination.
When working on the topic of the article and the proposed register of territories and objects of ecological tourism of the Krasnodar Destination, general scientific methods of synthesis and analysis of literature and stock data were used. The map is built using the Easy Paint Tool Sai2 – a program designed for digital drawing in Microsoft Windows, developed by the Japanese company Systemax. The text on the images was placed using a Microsoft Word text editor. Part of the material for the article was collected during the summer field research of the author (1999–2018) – the landscape-geophysical approach of field surveys was applied. The study of the tourist market should include both the analysis of official statistical information and the results of a survey (questionnaire) of representatives of the tourism business (Zhirnel & Tolstoguzov, 2011) and potential consumers of the tourism product. The article reflects the results of a study of interest in various types and directions of tourism of the Krasnodar Destination, including ecological tourism. A total of 6,800 respondents participated in the study.
At the initial stage of the development of ecological tourism, its first definitions appeared. So Miller in 1978 defined: "Ecological tourism is a combination of travel with an environmentally sensitive attitude to nature, which allows combining the joy of acquaintance and studying samples of flora and fauna with the ability to contribute to their protection" (Khrabovchenko, 2004, p. 54). In 1988, Mexican environmental economist Ceballos-Lascurain gave the following definition of ecological tourism: "These are trips to relatively untouched corners of nature to explore and explore nature, specimens of wild flora and fauna, as well as cultural attractions located on certain territories" (p. 13). In Russia, the first ecological tourism products appeared in the middle of 80 of the last century. One of the first Russian interpretations of ecotourism, proposed by Kuban scientists Guzhin et al. (1997). "Ecotourism is based on caring for the environment. Organization of trips with a limited number of participants to natural areas with possible visits to places of cultural interest in order to implement various projects for the protection and rational use of natural resources comes to the forefront" (Guzhin et al., 1997, p. 26). The tourism community needs to decide which of the traveling people should be considered environmental tourists and who should not be called such, even if they are consumers of nature-oriented services (Dorofeev et al., 2017).
There is still no single unified definition of ecological tourism in the science of tourism. We offer an author's interpretation of ecotourism. Modern ecological tourism is a visit (subject to environmental technologies), the study, popularization of different natural territories and objects, unchanged or slightly altered by anthropogenic activities (including the urban environment), preserving the traditional way of life of the indigenous population.
Ecotourism is an integral part of tourism activities. Tourism activities of the ecological direction consist of two blocks intimately interconnected. The first block is the activity of tourism business specialists in the development and promotion of an ecological tourism product. The second block is the direct implementation of an ecological tourism product in destinations for tourists, subject to environmental technologies.
All ecological tourism products should be developed in compliance with the rational nature management regime. This mode ensures the conservation of the biological diversity of recreational, natural areas and makes tourism itself more sustainable.
In the modern world tourism industry, mainly two models of ecological tourism organizations are widespread. The first model is “Australian” or “North American.” This model implies the application in the tourism industry of environmentally friendly methods and technologies within the boundaries of specially protected natural territories (water areas) and in the conditions of “wild” nature that is not disturbed or little changed. The second model is “German” or “Western European.” This model considers ecotourism outside the boundaries of specially protected natural territories and water areas, in the space of a cultivated or cultural landscape, most often rural.
We have developed a cyclic diagram of the signs and principles of ecotourism, which can be used in the practical activities of ecotourism specialists as a memo for both them and tourists (Figure
Gerashchenko et al. (2018) classifying the types of tourism in the regions of Russia, essential points are noted. In the studied destination, various types of tourism are developed, but unlike foreign countries in Russia as a whole, and in the Krasnodar Territory, in particular, new functional types of tourism are promising – promising (Promising types of tourism – PTT-1), which can include ecological gastronomic view (Ecological – PTT-1.3-Ec) (Gerashchenko et al., 2018).
An analysis of the questionnaire of 6,800 respondents (conducted between September 2018 and September 2019) in the area of interest in tourist and recreational facilities of various types of tourism in the territory of the Krasnodar Territory allowed, including:
1. To develop a visual synthesis of the most popular among residents and guests of the region localities, objects, and territories of the ecological type of tourism of the Krasnodar Destination (Fig. 2).
2. To compile an informational tourist-recreational register of territories and objects of ecological tourism of the Krasnodar Destination according to the author’s methodology presented in the paper “Justification and design technology of informational registries of tourist-recreation territories and objects of regional destinations of Russia (Gerashchenko, 2019).
The sequencing of the information blocks of the tourist and recreational characteristics of the territory or the object of ecological tourism of the Krasnodar Destination is as follows:
Natural and infrastructural features.
The specifics of use in tourism and recreation.
Maps, photographs, tables
The projected information registry is a database of tourist and recreational active and promising potential of ecological tourism of the Krasnodar Destination. The volume of the developed copyright registry is about 240 pages. The total number of objects, localities, and territories included in the register is about 120.
A somewhat relevant issue in the whole direction of ecological tourism is ecotourism in the urban environment. In essence and significance, it does not differ from ecotourism in unchanged natural landscapes and specially protected natural territories, but an organization, it may have specific features. This topic will be developed in our subsequent scientific works.
Tourism activities in the territories of specially protected natural complexes require special attention. In our opinion, the main promising directions of the organization of tourism activities in the specially protected natural territories of the Krasnodar Destination are as follows:
Development of a strategic program for the development of tourism and recreation in specially protected natural areas at various levels of government (Russia, Krasnodar Territory, Absheron District).
Education at the higher school of qualified specialists in the field of tourism – undergraduate, graduate programs with the introduction of disciplines in the curriculum on the specifics, organization, development of tourism products, tourism activities in specially protected natural areas.
Further training of workers of the tourist administration and tourist industry in the field of tourist activities in specially protected natural areas.
Educational and outreach activities on the laws of operation of specially protected natural areas through the interconnection of technology-oriented training of student tourists and the process of forming an ecological worldview of children and youth.
Scientifically-based project activities in the field of creating eco-estates (tourist eco-complexes and agricultural complexes) on the territory of specially protected natural territories.
Creation and restoration of the material-technical and infrastructural base taking into account environmental technologies: construction and equipment of eco-estates (other complexes), development of transport infrastructure, areas of the region for the development of ecotourism.
Development of excursion programs "Family holiday weekend."
Design and implementation of tours to eco-estates and eco-routes along with the territory of specially protected natural territories. Permitting procedure, registering them.
Determination of mechanisms and technologies for combining the two directions of agrotourism and ecotourism in peasant farms using resources of both the farm and the nearby specially protected natural areas.
The use of eco-estates and other complexes as a base of production practices of students in environmental and tourist destinations for monitoring the functioning of specially protected natural areas in three directions: scientific analysis of the natural and environmental status of specially protected natural areas, scientific and practical monitoring of the use of specially protected natural areas in the tourism business , design and implementation of excursion eco-routes.
Intensive development of permissible types of tourist activity in specially protected natural areas, while providing jobs for the population living in adjacent territories of specially protected natural areas.
Development of algorithm rules for the behavior of tourists and managers (guides and instructors) of excursion groups on the territory of specially protected natural areas and living in eco-estates.
A somewhat relevant issue in the whole direction of ecological tourism is ecotourism in the urban environment. In essence and significance, it does not differ from ecotourism in unchanged natural landscapes and specially protected natural territories, but in the form, it may have specific features.
At the end of the study, the following results were achieved. The evolution of the essence of the definition of "ecological tourism" is shown. The definition of "ecological tourism" has been clarified. The functionality of two interconnected blocks of modern ecological tourism is defined and described. A cyclic diagram of the principles and signs of ecological tourism is developed and presented. The introduction of the term "ecological tourism product" is justified. The classification of ecological tourism products in the regions of Russia is given. An analysis of the results of a survey of 6800 respondents (conducted from September 2018 to September 2019) in the field of interest in tourist and recreational facilities of various types of tourism in the Krasnodar Territory was carried out. The presented analysis made it possible to compile an informational tourist-recreational register of territories and objects of ecological tourism of the Krasnodar Destination according to the author's method. The data obtained are visualized in the form of a cut-off diagram of the geography of the most popular territories, and objects of ecological tourism.12 main promising areas of work of the organization of tourist activities in specially protected natural areas of the studied destination have been identified and described. The information tourist-recreational register of ecological tourism in the region (Krasnodar Destination) can be the basis for the development of new tourism products and advertising of the tourist features of the region for compatriots and foreign customers.
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