Public Regulation Of Development And Implementation Of Regional Programs
Public regulation of the economy involves the influence of federal and regional authorities on activities of economic entities, market conditions, living standards and the population structure. Public regulation of development and implementation of regional programs is accumulation of capabilities of the region and interaction of federal and regional authorities. In Kalmykia, development of the tourism industry is of great interest. The following tourism destinations are the most promising: ecotourism, business tourism, agrarian tourism, youth tourism, medical (folk medicine), cultural, educational tourism, interest-based tourism, confessional tourism, etc. The Republic of Kalmykia is an agricultural region with unique culture and a weak level of urbanization. Therefore, it is possible to develop agritourism there. Development of the tourism sector in Kalmykia has certain prospects for stimulating the development of the regional economy. The Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation has adopted a program for the development of culture and tourism in Russia until 2020. The program is a series of measures, methods and tools of public policy, ensuring the achievement of priority goals. The development of the tourism industry will create new jobs and expand the sphere of small and medium-sized businesses.
Keywords: State regulationregional economyagritourismagribusiness
The development and implementation of regional programs is an integral part of the state regulation process. It is a set of measures and projects aimed at achieving goals and tasks of an economic, social or environmental nature, requiring coordinated actions of government authorities and businesses funded from the federal budget (Aksenova & Khokhlova, 2016).
The basic methodological principles for the development and implementation of regional programs are as follows:
comprehensiveness and synchronism of objectives of the program at each stage of its implementation;
target orientation and systematic nature of program activities;
variant development of program activities taking into account alternative conditions for its implementation;
resource provision of the program;
targeting of program tasks (executors, deadlines, benchmarks, etc.);
ensuring the manageability of the program (creating legal, organizational, financial mechanisms).
Thus, state regulation of the development and implementation of regional programs is a focused and consistent process of accumulation of capabilities of the region and interaction of federal and regional authorities, as well as their impact on the activities of economic entities, market conditions, living standards and the population structure. In addition, the development of regional programs has a positive effect on the development of various sectors of the economy. It helps improve quality of life of the regional population (Erdnieva, Bolaev, & Dordzhieva, 2017).
For example, in the Republic of Kalmykia, in order to increase the efficiency of the use of budgetary resources and improve the target support of management processes, federal programs were developed. They are aimed at stimulating and supporting healthcare, education, environmental protection, creating a comfortable urban environment, developing culture and tourism.
In recent years, the development of the tourism industry has become very popular in Russia and regions. Due to the government support, it is one of the most promising sectors of the global economy, which has a large-scale multiplier effect and a serious impact on all areas of the economy. As a result, tourism is one of the most dynamically developing and promising sectors of the world economy, which is a complex system that has a serious multiplier effect and a huge impact on all areas of the economy (Boldyreva, Kekeeva, & Kekeev, 2018).
The state program of the Republic of Kalmykia "Development of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Kalmykia for 2013–2020", which determines goals and objectives of the development of culture, tourism and archival affairs of the republic, financial support and mechanisms for implementing the measures is crucial.
Development of tourist destinations in Kalmykia stimulate the development of the regional economy. Attracting investment from the federal budget and extra-budgetary sources will be carried out through federal target programs "Development of domestic and inbound tourism in the Russian Federation (2011– 2018)", "Development of culture and tourism in the Russian Federation (2013–2020)", whose purpose is to increase the competitiveness of the domestic tourism market (Tsatkhlanova, Udaeva, Nadbitova, Chimeeva, & Matsakova, 2017).
The most acute problem is the poorly developed infrastructure, the lack of tourist, cultural and educational facilities, roads, water supply and life support facilities. Due to the lack of financial resources, federal budget subsidies and investment are required (Darbakova, 2015).
The Republic of Kalmykia is a very attractive place for secluded relaxation, it is characterized by clean air and tasty cuisine.
Kalmykia is a protected region, which is rich in unique monuments of nature, culture, historical sites, parks and protected areas. Kalmykia is the only territory in Europe where Tibetan Buddhism exists. It can be traced in the style of infrastructure, monuments, houses, buildings, fences.
The territory of the Republic of Kalmykia combines a unique set of historical cultural, geographical and natural heritage of Kalmykia. An important factor is the convenient geographical location and features of the Buddhist culture in the European part of Russia (Erenzhenova et al., 2018).
Thus, the Republic of Kalmykia has a great potential for creating an active tourism industry and gastronomic, cultural, religious, environmental, family, agritourism, cultural and educational types of tourism.
The Republic of Kalmykia is an agricultural region with unique culture and weak urbanization. It is possible to develop agritourism there (Вurkutbaeva Samtonova, Idzhilova, Voropinova, Aidinova, 2018).
The development of this type of tourism should serve the development of small and medium-sized businesses in villages, the revival of national agricultural industries. The guests might be interested in national martial arts (archery, wrestling, horse riding), accommodation in wagons, participation in national holidays and games (Kosarin, Milkina, Badlaeva, Idzhilova, & Egorinova, 2019).
An important factor is the vibrant ethnic character associated with the specifics of the national and cultural ethnography of the people.
Many monuments, temples, churches, museums and theaters were built and restored, and the infrastructure of Elista, the capital of Kalmykia, was transformed. The largest Buddhist temple in Europe – "Golden Abode of the Buddha – Sakyamuni” – was built.
Purpose of the Study
The development of a tourism industry will create new jobs and expand the sphere of small and medium-sized businesses.
The tourism business is a very profitable activity, an important factor attracting new cash flows in the economy of the region. Tourism can become one of the methods to combat problems of the regional economy and improve the competitiveness of the regional economy (Boldyreva, 2019)
The main research method is the SWOT analysis of the tourism industry (Table
To assess the ethnocultural resources, it is necessary to solve the following tasks:
development of methods and tools to assess the ethnocultural potential;
analysis of the ethnocultural potential of the region;
assessment of the contribution of ethnocultural resources to the competitiveness of the region;
development of the main prospects for using the ethnocultural potential of the country and the region.
The effective development of the tourism industry of the region will increase the flow of tourists, the influx of financial revenues into the economy, the volume of taxes, as well as the beneficial effect on related sectors of the economy (transport, logistics, catering, folk crafts, development of tourist clusters in rural settlements, etc.). In addition, the development of tourism will create prerequisites for the preservation and restoration of cultural and natural heritage sites (Boldyreva, 2018).
The reduction in the number of cultural institutions indicates a lack of means of maintenance and repair of cultural facilities, a decrease in the number of people, and the demand for services and entertainment.
The key principle of any government program is its effectiveness. The effectiveness of the target program refers to the "price" of the project and the amount of costs. The effectiveness of the target program is the correspondence of expected results to the goals and objectives set (Makaeva, Burlinova, Erenzhenova, Choludaeva, & Tserenova, 2016).
Ethnocultural tourism can satisfy the needs of the most demanding tourists. A key component in the ethnocultural tourism is familiarization with culture, traditions and history of various ethnic groups.
European ethnocultural tourism combines features of historical and gastronomic tourism, because European society has been divided into classes. As a result, each class had its own features (Boldyreva, 2018)
The foreign tourism industry, having a historical path of development different from the Russian one, is aimed at (Namysov & Erenzhenova, 2015):
clear identification of the needs and desires of the client;
long-term relationships with the client;
creation of the information environment which significantly increases sales and service provision speed.
Any tradition is an experience that accumulates in the form of stereotypes, customs, rites, rituals, ceremonies, performances and holidays. But the most striking, complex form is a mass holiday – this is the rhythm of life aimed at satisfying needs of people participating in the co-creation-dialogue between the past and the future (Avaldykova et al., 2017).
The population of the region has an excellent opportunity to develop ethnocultural, religious, cultural and educational tourism. Thus, state regulation of the tourist industry can be considered as one of the possible strategic directions for the development of the regional economy.
The development of the tourism industry allows us to know history of the nation and its culture, explore new traditions, expand the horizon
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