Turkic-Mongolic Vocabulary Pertaining To Decorations And Headgear In Bashkir And Mongolian Languages

Abstract

This paper describes lexical items used by speakers of various sub-dialects of Bashkir and Mongolian languages for nomination of decorations and headgear. The research results have shown that dialects and sub-dialects of Bashkir have a large number of words that are not used in the literary language and not recorded in dictionaries of the Bashkir language. Some of these words are specific for certain dialects or sub-dialects. At the same time, some of them reflect preserved Old Turkic lexical units. For example, тoyreyets “pin, brooch” from Old Turkic тoyre “prick, attach with a pin” + affix - yets ) is common in Turkic languages of Kipchak group. In some sub-dialects of Tobol-Irtysh dialect and in Barabinsk dialect, the workd пelelek is used, meaning “bracelet”, cf. bilak id. In the literary Tatar, the word belezek appears as a phonetic fusion of two words: belek meaning “signet ring” and yozek meaning “ring” with subsequent haplology. Both words are of Tatar origin. Analysis of this class of vocabulary from the standpoint of their active and passive use has shown that as society develops, obsolete things and phenomena are no longer used. As for some decorations and nominations for headgear of Mongolian peoples, they we different and had their own, usually quite general names, such as malayai ‘headgear, hat’, buce ‘straps, bands’, jalaya ‘tassel of red threads attached to one’s headgear’, erike ‘rosary’. Words bayubci ‘bracelet’ i bulucug ‘signet’ are Common Mongolian, however, they are probably not original, but rather early borrowings from Turkic languages.

Keywords: Bashkir sub-dialectsMongolian languagesheadgear nominationdecoration nomination

Introduction

This paper considers two classes of lexical units, “Decorations” and “Headgear”, as they were developed in languages of nomadic peoples. The words in the lexical system of a certain language are interrelated, just as all the elements of the surrounding reality are interconnected. According to Shmelyov (1973)“…thanks to these extralinguistic links, words are united into groups, which may be called thematic” (p. 120), as “… a thematic group is such a set of words that is based on classification of objects and phenomena themselves” (Filin, 1977, p. 48). Rassadin (2017), on the other hand, notes that “studies of lexical composition with breakdown into lexico-semantical groups is especially important” (p. 97), as the lexico-semantical group is a product of laws and developmental regularities in the lexical semantics of a given language.

Following the concept of Rassadin (2017), the authors are of the opinion that it is more practical to study the semantic groups of lexical units, as it allows establishing the features in the vocabulary related to material culture of the Mongolic languages in comparison with Bashkir and Siberian Tatar language. Selection of the research topic is additionally determined by the fact that through historic development of an ethnic group, changes take place in its material culture and daily life. These changes find instantaneous reflection in the lexical composition of the language, as the layer of material vocabulary is very large and constitutes the majority of the vocabulary count, being an exponent of the most important, essential concepts, and in comparison with grammar, it comes under the influence of interacting and contacting languages faster, and also shows clear reactions to changes happening in the society, which inevitably result in changes in vocabulary of the language. It should be noted, that this topic was previously partially covered in comparisons between Mongolic and Turkic languages (Mazarchuk, 2017, Balzhinimaeva, 2018; Rassadin & Trofimova, 2017), as well as in Turkic-exclusive studies (Shitova, 1995; Vakhitova, 2007, etc.).

Problem Statement

Decorations and headgear, as well as other cultural elements are in direct relationships with the people’s history and reflect cultural and historical links with other peoples. Thus, this part of vocabulary may serve as material for historical-comparative characteristic of not only a single language, but a certain geographical range of Turkic and Mongolic languages.

In ethnography, the group decoration and head includes all the objects and procedures used to decorate human body in order to induce in others favorable emotions: aesthetic, erotic, astonishment, respect, fear, etc.

As it is known, research into various headgear and decorations as additional elements in clothing, hairdo, weapons and armor constitute an important part of Turkic studies. Modern culture and life practices undergo intensive development, displacing various previously common things, including decorations, from real life, often to a degree of complete and irreparable loss. Of course, some rare objects get their way into museums and is stored there as historical artifacts.

Research Questions

For example, Mongolian scholar Tzoloo (1991) writes, that the modern Mongolian includes a group of words borrowed from Altaic languages among the decoration-related terms. The same scholar notes that analysis of confined-use words in certain dialects or sub-dialects of various languages from the standpoint of structure and form reveals that originally Mongolic and originally Turkic words have the same etymological roots that underwent significant phonetic transformation during their adaptation to articulatory features of a language they spread into.

From this fact, it may be stated that originally Mongolic and originally Turkic terms for decorations and headgear are better preserved in dialects, while literary languages largely use borrowings.

This group includes, for instance, Turkic agyyyk “decoration made of cheap gems”, alga “earrings”, syrga “earrings with pendants”, пelelek “bracelet”, yosek “ring”, mуntsak “beads, necklace”, kekrebe “amber”, тoyreyets “pin”, “brooch”, tsуlby “fillet braided into the tresses”, myshelтerek “coins sewn to collar”, keтereyek “small coins (sewn to clothes)”, sуkma “gilded ribbon with silk thread, lace”, etc.

Among the names for decorations existing in Siberian dialects and sub-dialects of Tatar, the word syrga meaning “earrings with pendants” calls attention to itself; it may be found in many Turkic languages and dialects; mуntsak / mуyyntsak meaning “beads, necklace”. Phonetic variants of mуnchak / mynchak (< mуyyn “neck” + - chak suffix), existing in Sterlitamak, Karsun, Perm sub-dialects of Tatar mean “ancient female decoration made of coins to be worn on the neck”; mуnzhaka meaning “neck decoration made of coins and beads sewn on a narrow strap of textile” are used in sub-dialects of Christian Tatars and have a parallel in Buryat, e.g., mоnsоr “silk pompom”, which was once considered a mandatory part of wedding horse decoration, in contemporary Mongolic dialects means a “decoration in the form of a ball made of colorful straps”.

The name of тoyreyets “pin, brooch” is from Old Turkic тoyre “prick, attach with a pin” + affix - yets ) is common in Turkic languages of Kipchak group.

In some sub-dialects of the Tobol-Irtysh and Barabinsk dialects, the word пelelek is used to mean a “bracelet”, see bilak id. (Old Turkic Dictionary, 1969), in literary Tatar, belezek is a phonetic fusion of two words: belek meaning “signet ring” and yozek meaning “ring” with subsequent haplology. Both words are of Tatar origin.

So, terminology related to material culture, including decoration and headgear and their production constitutes a significant layer of colloquial vocabulary of any language. This group of vocabulary is rich in Bashkir (especially in its dialects). In particular, female decorations may be divided into headpieces, neck-and-pectorals and hand decorations (Gareeva, 1985). They all are of great interest; for instance headpieces include various fillets, braiders, ear and temple decorations. Previously, fillets and braiders were mandatory decorative elements for women of any age. In particular, Bashkir women have a certain headpiece, arkalyk , which consists of a narrow, long strap of colorful textile that goes down to waist or sometimes to the ground. It was adorned with silver 10-kopeck pieces, carnelian and turquoise and terminated with sulpy (compound medallions); it is attached at the back of the head on top of (braided) hair. The name is formed from the word arka “back” with the - lyk affix. Bashkir sub-dialects have lexico-phonetical variants of this word: inһelek ~ inһelek ~ elkelek ~ elkemes ~ arkaу , formed from in , in “shoulder” and affixes -һe,- lek, -mes, -у.

The most common decoration is sуlпy “fillet”an ornamental silver pendant with hanging coins and inlays of colorful gems (corals). It is common in all the Bashkir dialectic areas and exists under names alka ~ sylтyrak ~ тenkesуk ~ оngо ~ sуlпy . It is also common for many other Turkic peoples, without specific structural linguistic distance, e.g., in Kyrgyz and Turkmen it is chоlпу , in Tatar it is chуlпy .

Besides the word sуlпy , Bashkir sub-dialects also have a specific word sesтenke ~ sasтenke , where unlike sуlпy , the silver coins are quilted into the end of a fillet, braided of woolen yarn ( ses, sas “hair”, тenke “coin”). This decoration is also known among Kazakhs under the name of shash тenge. In Miass sub-dialect of the Bashkir language, sуlпy is known as sylтyrak lit. “a clinking one”.

Sesbaу is a braider that in its base has a stripe of textile with badges sewn at the ends and with silver one ruble coins; it is primarily a decoration of elderly women. Sesbaу is a compound word, in consists of ses “hair” and baу “rope”. Similar term exists in Turkmen as sach-bag and Nogai shash- bav . The following variants of sesbaу are known from Bashkir sub-dialects: saskaralyk ~ sasmaу ~ sasтenke ~ sasуrma ~ sasyrme ~ sesaуyrlyk ~ ses aуyrтmagy ~ sesmey ~ sesтenke ~ sesyrges ~ sesyrmes ~ sesyrme ~ yrmes ~ yrges ~ arkalyk ~ beyzemes . In some sub-dialects of Bashkir.

Female forehead decorations may include mandaysa ’frontlet’.

Kalпak ’cap’ is a headgear of black textile, decorated with corals and beads and embroidered with silver or gold thread; it is worn on one’s forehead under the kуshъяуlyk (twinned head shawl). G.G. Gareeva notes that this name is very common in Dyomsky, Miass, Ik-Sakmar, Kyzyl, Middle and North-Western sub-dialects of Bashkir, as well as in speech of Bashkirs living in Chelyabinsk Oblast (Gareeva 1985). In sub-dialects, variants with qualifiers may be found: meryende kalпak “cap with beads”, kayyуzy kalпak “embroidered cap”, тenkele kalпak “cap adorned with coins”, уkaly kalпak “cap with galloon”. Lacing, ribbon with coins sewn onto it and used with a woman’s head shawl ( kуshъяуlyk ), connecting halves of the twinned head shawl under the chin has various names in Bashkir sub-dialects; in Salyut it is known as sylbyr , in Miass as eyeksen , in Dyomsky as eyekse, eleksen , in Middle as һagaldyryk , in Mid-Western as sakalтyrak , sakalтay , in Gaina sagyldyryk , in Kara-Idel it is sagaldyryk .

Kashmaу is a female headgear worn by married women, made with red corals, coins and jewels. The term is common in all Bashkir sub-dialects, there are several variants: sabaklaу (Dyomsky); һabakтaу, kelebesh (Kyzyl). Similar term in the form of уshпу, kashпaу has been attested in the Chuvash language.

Of decorations worn on one’s head, alka “earrings”, were also popular among women of all ages. The most common of them were ayalka “lunula”. The following variants have been attested in various sub-dialects: alka, kоlak alkaһy, тamsyly alka, тamsy alka, sуkly alka, komosh alka, kоlak һyrgaһy, тamsyly һyrga, һyrga (Argal, Kyzyl, Middle, Ik-Sakmar, Kubalyak, Ay, alka, syrga (Dyomsky), sуkly alka, mуnsakly alka, alka (Middle); syrga, kоlaksa (Gaina), among Bashkirs living in Sverdlovsk oblast; earrings made of small beads kоlakbaу (Middle), etc..

In sub-dialects of Bashkir, an omonymic variant of һyrga has been attested. The variant һyrga is the most ancient form. In the Eastern dialect, һyrga means only earrings with both coins and gems, while alka denotes earrings without gems, usually akin to a lunula ayalka . Various Turkic languages have the following terms for this realia: erebek, syrga in Kara-Kalpak; syrga, shygyrshyk in Kazakh; syrga, soyko, iymek in Kyrgyz; syrga in Nogai; isirga, zirak in Uzbek; alka in Chuvash. In Khalkha Mongolian, the earrings are known as eemeg, syyh , in Kalmyk they are siik .

Names for neck and plectrum decorations are also of considerable interest. Here, they are brought together, as it is often hard to determine whether a given decoration intended to be worn on one’s neck or breast. In particular, a woman’s decoration made of coral beads and worn on one’s neck, mуyynsak “bead necklace”, in sub-dialects is known under various names: kylmaу (Miass, Salyut), gerebe (Miass), kerebe (Miass, Middle, Ik-Sakmarsky, Gaina, Kyzyl, Ay), тiyme, тime (North-Western), тoyme (Dyomsky, North-Western), mуyynbaу (Miass, Middle), mуyyn тoymeһe (Middle), mуnsak (Kyzyl, Sakmar); cyrga (North-Western), һakalтa (Miass);

Gerebe “decoration made of large beads” (under this name in Dyomsky, Kyzyl, North-Western sub-dialects), syrga (Dyomsky), yerebe (Dyomsky, Middle); amber bead necklace – karaba (Ik-Sakmar), when it is made of carnelian – һyrga (Dyomsky, Middle, Ik-Sakmar);

Оlоn “necklace made from coins”in the speech of Orenburg Bashkirs (Gareeva, 1985), mуysak (Dyomsky, Miass, Middle), mуyynsуk (Miass), mуyynsak (Salyut, Ay), mуyyn тenkeһe (Ik-Sakmar), yaga (Gaina, North-Western, Ay), yakachylbyr , mуynzhaka (Gaina), mуynтoп , mуynтenke , cyrga (North Western), kaптyrma (Tuk-Soran, Sakmar), yagalak (Middle, Ik-Sakmar), syrga (Dyomsky);

Kуza, kуzay “neck decoration made from corals” (North-Western);

Sakalтay “pectoral embellished with coins and corals” (Dyomsky), etc.

Kykrekse “women’s pectoral made of closely sewn coins” in various sub-dialects

of the Bashkir language has the following names: yagaтoп (Gaina), yagiтek (North-Western), kykreksen (Eastern dialect), kykrek ferzese (North-Western), etc.

Тyshelderek “pectoral worn by women under a dress” has the following names in various sub-dialects: kykerek , limenтe (Middle), тasmizey (Sakmar), kykerekse (Dyomsky, Middle, Ik-Sakmar), sakmaтysh (Middle, Ural), тyshelderek (Middle, Ural, Ay), тyshтey (Dyomsky).

Emeyzek “women’s elongated pectoral decoration, worn over the left shoulder and under the right arm through the chest, embellished with silver coins, jewels and corals” has various names: deyeт (Dyomsky, Menzel, North-Western, Middle), kykrekse (Sakmar), kyya izey (Kyzyl, Miass), mуyyn тenkeһe (Kyzyl), mуyynsa (Dyomsky, Middle), kesebike (Sakmar), тerkeme // тeyeт (Dyomsky, Middle), тyshelderek (Middle), тyshтey, heyke (North-Western), etc..

An original neck and pectoral decoration is selтer , made from red corals and silver coins and covering all the chest area down to waist. In different dialects of Bashkir, this decoration also has various names, e.g., yaga (karaidelьskiy, Miass, Middle, Ural, Ay), тyshlek , mуysa , sakal (Dyomsky), mуysa (Middle, Ural), тyshтey (menzelinskiy), һyrga (Dyomsky, Middle), bashkizey (Ik-Sakmar), etc.

The third group of women’s decoration covers hand decorations belezek “bracelet”, baldak “ring”, yozok “signet ring”. Belezek “bracelet” is a laminar decoration with rounded ends, highly decorated with stones, glass and embossing. In the Eastern and Middle dialects, as well as in the Ik-Sakmah sub-dialect of the Southern dialect, belezek is known as bezelek, in Argayash sub-dialect of the Eastern dialect it is known as тупsyуa . Depending on material, various names are used. For example, bоrma bezelek “winding bracelet” (Argayash), dambak belezek “brass bracelet” (Dyomsky), komosh bezelek “silver bracelet” (Kyzyl, Ik-Sakmar), karalтyn bezelek “bracelet of high-carat gold” (Ik-Sakmar, Kyzyl), kaуyrsyn belezek “pearl bracelet” (Dyomsky), kashтy bezelek “bracelet with a gem” (Eastern dialect, Ik-Sakmar); bracelets with clinking coins are called sуlпyly belezek (Kyzyl), kyldyrakтy bezelek (Miass), syngaly bezelek (Kyzyl, Miass), sylтyrlak belezek (Sakmar), sуkly belezek (Dyomsky, Tok-Soran, Middle, Ik-Sakmar), shime belezek “thin ornate bracelet” (Dyomsky, Ik-Sakmar), ishmele bezelek “winding bracelet” (Kyzyl), kargaly belezek “bracelet with gold ornaments” (Middle), bracelets of small beads are called kуlbaу (Miass, Middle, Ay), etc..

Hand decorations are baldak “ring”, yozok “signet ring”. In sub-dialects of Bashkir, clinking rings with small silver coins are called syngaly baldak, sylтyldakтy baldak, sуlпyly baldak, тenkele baldak (Ik-Sakmar, Kyzyl), sylтyrakтy yozok (Middle), sylтyrlak baldak (Ik-Sakmar), sylтyrakтy baldak (Miass, Ay, Kubalyak), sylтyrmakly baldak (Dyomsky), sуkly yozok (Dyomsky, Tok-Soran, Middle, Ik-Sakmar), “diamond ring” is called faryуanтash baldak (Ay), “winding signet ring” bоrma yozok , “silver ring” komosh baldak (Ik-Sakmar, Kyzyl), “ring without gems” kashsyz baldak (Dyomsky), туgyn (Ay, Kubalyak) etc.

Let us then consider names for headgear decorations in Mongolic languages: Old Written Mongolian buce, Khalkha-Mongol, Kalmyk bych , Buryat byshe “ties, ribbons, lacings”; there are two types of bych : “back ribbons” made of silk or satin in yellow or orange color are called zhavdan bych; in various Mongolian tribes they are 40 cm to 1 m long, while Turkic peoples of Mongolia sew short blue ribbons on top of long red ones; every color is meaningful; the chin ribbon is called eryy bych , it is adjusted at sides and has a length of 50 cm.

Besides, headgear was decorated with a broad red ribbon, like Khalkha-Mongolian dalbaa , Buryat, dalbaa “hanging scrap”, Kalmyk “1. broad surface, 2. fin”; Old Written Mongolian jalaya , Khalkha-Mongolian zalaa , Kalmyk zala , Buryat zalaa “red tassel made from silk or regular thread”, akin to sunbeams, it is a symbol of good luck and greatness. Nugteren (2011) correlates this word with a common Turkic *yalïg meaning “cockscomb”.

It should be noted that an essential attribute among Mongolic peoples was Old Written Mongolian erike , Khalkha erih , Kalmyk erkn , Buryat erhi – “rosary made of gems or finewood”.

On their wrists, like many other peoples, Mongols wore a bracelet that in Old Written Mongolian was called bayubci / bayuu “kоlьtsо, zaпяsтьe, brasleт”, Khalkha-Mongolian bуgуyvch , Buryat bуgaag , bуgybsha , Kalmyk bуhу , cf. Old Written Mongolian yar-un bayuu “ring, wrist” i altan bayubci “gold decoration on one’s arm or leg”, quruyun-u bayubci “ring, signet”, yar-un bayubci “bracelet or hand ring”, carbayun-u bayubci “forearm decoration” see (Kovalevskii, 1984). Ramstedt (1935) traces bayuu back to Turkic buqagu “shackles”.

Besides bracelets, material culture of Mongolic peoples includes finger rings and signets: Old Written Mongolian biltsəɢ / bultsəɢ < from Written Mongolian buleceg, bulucug , Khalkha-Mongolian bolzog / belzeg “ring, signet, bracelet”, Buryat behelig “ring, signet”, Kalmyk biltsg “ring, signet”. According to observations of the German scholar Nutgeren (2011), these words were borrowed in common Turkic period *bilezuk < * bilek yuzuk “wrist ring”. By the way, in the modern Khalkha-Mongolian, the word most often used in the meaning of the “ring” is bogzh (< Old Written Mongolian bögeji meaning ‘clamp’). The most common term for headgear in Mongolic languages is Old Written Mongolian malayai / malaya , Khalkha-Mongolian malgay , Buryat malgay , Kalmyk mahla . In the Comparative Historical Grammar of Turkic Languages. Vocabulary, we may find a name for a winter fur hat of Kyrgyz (Kazakh) people – malahay – hat with ear-flaps – Turkmen dialect, Tatar dialect, Uzbek; “fur hat with long ear-flaps” – Tatar dialect, Kyrgyz, Uzbek, Uzbek dialect; “hat with ear-flaps down to shoulders”); “fur hat – Uigur, Uigur dialect, “skullcap with otter fur at the bottom” – Uigur dialect, “hat” – Uigur dialect (Comparative Historical Grammar of Turkic Languages. Vocabulary, 2001). According to Todaev (2001), this frozen form exists in the language of Oirots in Xinjian and in the modern Kalmyk as mahlaa / mahalay . In the Kalmyk dictionary of Ramstedt (1935), we may find a form maχlǟ , which is similar in its appearance to Khalkha-Mongolian and Buryat variants malχǟ i malχа̄ . It is recognized that malayai is a common Mongolic word that was borrowed into Turkic languages, and then was borrowed into Russian from the Turkic languages, see (Vasmer, 1961). According to hypothesis of the German scholar Nugteren (2011), the protoform is * magalaï or * malagaï , which is intact in the Kalmyk language.

It should be noted that the definitive in front of the term point to malgay belonging to a certain people (Turkic tribes): tsaaтan malgay “headgear of Tsaatans”, kazak malgay “Kazakh hat”, уrianhay malgay “Uryankhay hat”.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to consider and describe a thematic group of vocabulary units pertaining to decorations and headgear in Bashkir and Mongolic languages.

Research Methods

A set of methods and procedures was used to analyze the factual material in accordance with the research objective: descriptive, comparative-historical, comparative methods of research, as well as procedures of complex description of linguistic and ethnographic materials.

Findings

The paper presents the research results obtained within the framework of a project titled ““Formation of a layer of material vocabulary in Turkic and Mongolic languages (As exemplified by terms of clothing, footwear and decorations)”. It should be noted that lexical units used by speakers of both Turkic and Mongolic languages and dialects for naming decorations and headgear have many more detailed ethnographic descriptions that the linguistic ones. Due to that, the authors hold it necessary to emphasize linguistic comparative-historical research in this aspect. This class of vocabulary in Mongolic languages includes both original Mongolic units and multiple borrowings from Chinese, Tibetan and Turkic languages. The research results have shown that dialects and sub-dialects of Bashkir have a large number of words that are not used in the literary language and not recorded in dictionaries of the Bashkir language. Some of these words are specific for certain dialects or sub-dialects. At the same time, some of them reflect preserved Old Turkic lexical units. For example, тoyreyets “pin, brooch” from Old Turkic тoyre “prick, attach with a pin” + affix - yets ) is common in Turkic languages of Kipchak group. In some sub-dialects of the Tobol-Irtysh and Barabinsk dialects, the word пelelek is used to mean a “bracelet”, see bilak id. (Old Turkic Dictionary, 1969), in literary Tatar, belezek is a phonetic fusion of two words: belek meaning “signet ring” and yozek meaning “ring” with subsequent haplology. Both words are of Tatar origin. Analysis of this class of vocabulary from the standpoint of their active and passive use has shown that as society develops, obsolete things and phenomena are no longer used, and thus, their names are dropped from the language as well. As for some decorations and nominations for headgear of Mongolian peoples, they had their own, usually quite general names, such as malayai ‘headgear, hat’, (hereinafter only Written Mongolian variants are given to shorten the lists), cikibci ‘earmuffs’, buce ‘straps, bands’, jalaya ‘tassel of red threads attached to one’s headgear’, erike ‘rosary’. Words bayubci ‘bracelet’ i bulucug ‘signet ring’ are Common Mongolian, however, they are probably not original, but rather early borrowings from Turkic languages.

Conclusion

The authors note that analysis of all the names of headgear and decorations in sub-dialects of Bashkir and Mongolic languages with description of meanings and etymological analysis is impossible within the framework of a single paper, however, on the basis of available material it is possible to conclude that the more unique a headgear or decoration is, the lower is the probability that there is a term for it in dialects and still less in cognate languages. This class of lexical units in these languages has original words, as headgears and decorations differed between ethnicities and thus had their own nominations. Words baοubci "bracelet" and bulucug "ring" are Common Mongolian, however, they are probably not original, but rather early borrowings from Turkic languages.

Acknowledgments

This research has been conducted with financial support of an intra-university grant no. 1095 “Formation of a layer of material vocabulary in Turkic and Mongolic languages (As exemplified by terms of clothing, footwear and decorations)”.

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Publisher

European Publisher

First Online

31.10.2020

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.05.472

Online ISSN

2357-1330