The article discusses the expressive properties of occasional dominant words in the text of M. Zadornov, who is an outstanding satirist of the turn of the XX–XXI centuries. Particular attention is paid to the concepts of expressiveness, expressiveness, and emotionality. The article describes in detail the results of the expressivity of occasional neoplasms of various structures in satirical texts. Particular attention is paid to suffixation as a productive way of occasional word-formation on the example of individually-author formations identified in the works of this author. The novelty of the study is seen in the fact that with the help of a language game, the author's installations are realized that make the modern satirical text pragmatically intense. M. Zadornov focuses on occasionalism and using various techniques of the language game. Thus, M. Zadornov attracts the attention of the listener, emotionally acting, and maintaining contact with him in order to create a comic effect and, as a result, adjust the recipient's values. It is concluded that occasionalism is labeled polyfunctional elements of a satirical text and possesses characteristics set by the ultimate goal of humorous discourse. Occasionalism is considered in its place in the text and in connection with its features, and not in isolation point of view. Occasional formations are readily used by M. Zadornov for creation an unusual, peculiar word since they are characterized by expressiveness and have pronounced imagery due to emotionality against the background of normative formations.
Keywords: Occasional wordsexpressivenessemotivenessexpressivenesslinguistic personalityword formation method
Until recently, occasionality, as an object of study, rarely attracted the attention of linguists who preferred linguistic phenomena. Occasionalism is a speech phenomenon, a manifestation of individual word-making and usage. According to the traditional definition, these are "one-day" words, contextually dependent, created at the moment of speech, "by chance" (Fatkullina, 2002). Occasionalism gives a vast opportunity for word formation in a language. The use of occasionalism in writing is a deliberate phenomenon since they are very unusual and expressive and can be given the status of a rhetorical question. Occasionalism is created in the text with the aim of the author's intention expressing to what is happening. Their application is appropriate within a specific context and cannot be reproduced in other contexts, and also have pragmatic functions.
According to the definition given in the dictionary, Occasionalisms (from lat. Occasionalis – random) – speech phenomena that occur under the influence of the context, the situation of verbal communication for the implementation of any relevant communicative task, mainly to express the meaning necessary in this case; are created on the basis of productive / unproductive models from the material available in the structure of the language, contrary to the existing literary norm (Karaulov, 1997).
Occasionalism is speech phenomena that arise under the influence of the context to express the meaning necessary in a particular situation. In one specific text, occasionalism fulfills an individually stylistic function and as a result of this, becomes widely known to recipients. Occasional formations have the following distinctive features identified by scientists: belonging to speech, creativity, non-normative, functional one-time use, expressiveness, individual affiliation, derivational productivity, nominal facultativeness, synchronous diachronous diffusivity. Also distinguished are such concepts as occasional and neological vocabulary, occasional and potential vocabulary, regular and occasional vocabulary.
The question in the field of the study of occasionalism is unresolved to this day, which makes it necessary to study it. In modern linguistics, the study of occasionalism takes an extended period, as evidenced by the work of such scientists as A.A. Bragin, G.O. Vinokur, E.A. Zemsky, S.V. Ilyasova, V.V. Lopatina, A.G. Lykova, R.Yu. Namitokova, I.A. Neflyasheva, G.F. Rakhimkulova, V.Z. Sannikova, E.V. Senko, I.S. Ulukhanova et al. (as cited in Telia, 1981; Zemskaya, 2009). Despite the significant time range, interest in the topic of occasionalism in speech has not been lost. On the contrary, this interest is growing every year, since the process of occasionalism formation is continually going on. Modern society and the changes occurring in it, provide new ground for the development of pro-nationalisms. The relevance of occasionalism is due to their pragmatic aspect – occasionalism is satirical due to expressivity (Fefelova, 2019). The category of expressivity is a particular manifestation of the expressiveness of speech. On the one hand, the occasionalism in speech contributes to the expression of the speaker’s attitude to what is happening; on the other hand, the occasionalism affects the recipient. Expressive occasionalism contains imagery, appreciated, positive and negative emotiveness, stylistic marking. In humorous discourse, they are widely used as a powerful tool (Fefelova, 2019).
The subject of the study is adherent and indentation occasionalism, taking into account their features in the work of the satirist. The expressiveness of a word can be of two types – adherent and indent. Adherent expressiveness of a word is manifested when it is used in an appropriate context. For example, about ignorance, about a person who is lagging in cultural terms, we can say,
Purpose of the Study
The main goal of the work is to identify and describe the arsenal of occasionalisms used by M. Zadornov in his works.
In our study, we will consider occasionalism as new expressive words with inherent and reflective characteristics in the context of adherent expressiveness. Occasionalism is created by the period of speech action and existing in a particular speech situation in the micro context where they were created. Occasionalism is not fixed in dictionaries; they express the expression and the author's sense of using the word. All occasionalism is attached to the context only semantically. By the strength of expressivity, pro-nationalisms are independent. For example, “годяи, доумок, доносок,” it is occasionally possible to name any living creature in the corresponding situation. The lexical meaning of occasionalism of “годяи, доумок, доносок” will depend on the context or situation (Zadornov, 2005). Expression of this word is an independent feature that persists for any of its occasional lexical meaning. The range of expressivity and the level of occasionality in occasional words is quite variable. This variability is affected by a semantic violation of the word-formation rules of occasionalism, a departure from the classical standard word-formation. Occasionalism is the prerogative of written speech and reflects the stylistic feature of the author's speech (Fefelova & Sagitova, 2019).
The adherent occasionalism expressiveness is dues to one of the meanings of a multi-valued word in derivation. It is based on figurative meanings of derivatives – metaphorical and metonymic meanings. In words formed with the help of adherent strong formants, two components of connotation are revealed that convey the meaning of the linguistic unit: evaluative and intensifying. The evaluation component is implemented in the “-ушк-“, formant, for example, an звездушка (Zadornov, 2014). The first meaning of this word is a star (звезда), a luminous heavenly luminary. With a positive connotation, the diminutive suffix “-очк-” will be used in this word. The second meaning – megalomania, the suffix “-ушк-” in this context, carries a negative connotation. The expression is observed when the word is not used in its direct meaning. Another suffix for this component is the “-як-”suffix. An example of a word with this suffix is the word “точняк.” In the first meaning, the word is used as an adverb, the literary form, the normalized word is adverb exactly, and in the second meaning, the word is used as jargon in the meaning of "exactly." However, the “-як-”gives an expressive coloring to the word. In this context, the точняк is the author's occasionalism (Zadornov, 2005).
Contextually expressive suffixes themselves are expressively neutral. However, due to the context, words formed using these suffixes get expressive tones. Also, a striking example of grammatical word formation with the help of the affix is the use of the suffix "-ищ-“: «Это будет не шедевр – шедеврище!» (Zadornov, 2005). Such word-formation is carried out with almost the same ease as the formation of mutable words. Violation of word-formation norms implies the use of the following techniques: combining semantically or stylistically incompatible morphemes into one verbal whole, various kinds of grammatical "animations" (personifications) of inanimate objects or properties characteristic of inanimate objects. As a result, the application of these techniques gives an occasional word with pronounced expression. For example: “Опосля чего долбани плюхалкой по кувывалке и, кады чвокнет, отскочь дальшее, прикинься ветошью и не отсвечивай. Потому как она в это время шмяк.. ту-дыть, сподыть, ёксель-моксель, ёрш твою медь... Ш-ш-ш! И ждешь, пока остынет. Остыло – подымаесся, вздыхаешь... Осторо-о-ожненько вздыхаешь про себя, шобы эта быдла не рванула! И бегишь за угол за поллитрой. Потому как пронесло!” (Zadornov, 2005). Thus, expressivity is an indispensable attribute of occasionality. Occasionality extends at the vocabulary level only within occasional words. Expressiveness covers a broader area of vocabulary (Karaulov, 1997).
Expressiveness is a characteristic feature of an occasional word and has different directions in its formation. Due to the speech continuity violation to the novelty of the word, the relevance of micro text increases. The creation of occasionalism can be different: both phonetic and morphemic. The use of expressively-stained formants is a common factor in creating expressive occasionalism. For example, the use of expressive suffixes "
Expressiveness is enhanced by the violation of stylistic restrictions in the compatibility of morphemes, which can be manifested in the addition of formants. In the following example, the formation of occasionalism occurs through the transformation of adjectives in a pure comparative degree: "
A vivid, expressive, and evaluative tool are hybrids in which the incompatible semantic parts of the source words are combined: “Массовый
A kind of expressive occasionalism is created by texts in which there is a precedent. Precedents can be both names and texts. Phraseological units, proverbs, and sayings can serve as precedent texts. For example: «Мало мы с вами еще книг, товарищи, понимаете, или
The source for neoplasms are proper names: the Tretyakov Gallery (using haberdashery instead of the gallery, the author thereby emphasizes the low cultural level of the hero), Rimsky-Korsakov, the periodic table, Borodino panorama, Rastrelli, Friedrich Engels. The transformation of well-known phraseological units gives the text a comic effect and a background context for neoplasms:
In the Russian language, the predominant way of morphemic word formation is affixal, where suffixation dominates. At the same time, it is used for creation not only ordinary words but also occasional formations. For example, "A woman writes. First describes his charms. Further clearly (apparently, purposeful character): "I want a husband with an apartment." Moreover, the postscript: "Do not offer tents and kayaks." Oh, poor thing! Looks like she had gotten into trouble for her life (Видать «
Occasionalism is formed in different ways. (the euro currency)is the result of adding a diminutive suffix “-k-.”
In the following example, the author intentionally uses the merging of several suffixes to give expression to the whole context: “А главное, все эти советские дядьки и тетьки пели всю эту патриотическую
Among M. Zadornov's occasionalism is a word formed from the abbreviation. (ДНК – DNA):
Thus, the suffix method of occasional word formation is effective, and M. Zadornov's occasionalism created by this method enhances the general expressiveness of his works. The fundamental law in occasional word formation is the law of analogy. Most occasionalism arises by analogy with common words. The unusual thing is that the new word being created is synonymous with the well-known word used in the language – the word has the same root but differs from it by the word-formation tools that are used in this new word. Occasional words can belong to very productive word-formation types and to unproductive and unproductive, both stylistically neutral and characteristic of colloquial speech.
Occasionalism is a means to create a fresh, unconventional, original word. Writers often push apart the language-forming word-formation framework. Each word-forming type in a language has its boundaries of use – it is limited in possibilities. However, writers and poets sometimes allow themselves to expand the possibilities of word-formation. For the generally accepted literary language, such a word is a violation of the word-formation norm, and a poet with its help creates a bright, original image (Fatkullina, 2002).
“По зрачкам, как по пням с годовыми кольцами, видать, кто сколько
Occasionalism often carries a hidden function of speech neoplasms, and they allow circumventing acute angles, cultural prohibitions, censorship as if to mask the message. For example: «Американцы ведут себя так, как будто они главные, а их президент –
"First – marketing, leasing, tolling, then –
“После обеда, чтобы не дать всему офису заснуть, напел строчку из очередного клипа очередной
The word is formed by analogy with the words: lucky jumper, nutcracker, nutcracker, where the suffix “-
In the Russian Language Dictionary, the token “
The lexical way of the formation of occasionalism is a vivid reflection of the comic and author's intentions regarding the events described in the context. for example:: “В своем родном городе никогда не дышали окружающей средой вечерним выбросом
By adding up the fundamentals of two words: “
Describing Russian sport, M. Zadornov uses the precedent name of a German footballer as expressive occasionalism: "Сборная Германии – это вам не
In the following example: “Мы до того опустились в своём
«Благодаря вам мы
«Ешь пирог!» – а муж уже не может, пузо растет. Но если не съест,
“Ну что, будем садиться? – вопросительно
The use of several single-structure neoplasms contributes to the enhancement of the expressionism of occasionalism in one micro text: “Это будет не шедевр –
The described lexical units are saturated with emotional and evaluative shades. The main differentiating feature of occasionalism is a functional disability, which is due to individual authorship. Occasionalism remains the brainchild of the author, single, irreproducible phrases.
In the analysis, we concluded that most of the occasionalism created by the satirist formed by adding the foundations of words and the suffix method. They can be classified as grammatical, lexical, and graphic occasionalism. Occasionalism is formed as occasional and phraseological combinations by the prefix and prefix-suffix, which is comparatively less classified. Language variability is a specific condition for its existence, that is dictated primarily by the interaction in it of everyday and occasional lexemes. Due to the dynamics of the language, occasionalism can be transformed into typical situations in certain speech situations, thereby emphasizing that the language changes and develops. Occasional word-making takes place according to models already available in the language, but with the intentional violation, due to the author's intention. The approach to lexicology from the standpoint of pragmalinguistics is exceptionally relevant. Occasionalism, considered on the example of comic texts, represent a special kind of message that has a pronounced pragmatic orientation. The comic text directly affects the recipient, and occasionalism, as a marked element of such a text, must have specific characteristics and place in the text.
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31 October 2020
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, translation, interpretation
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Fefelova, G. G., Sagitova, A. F., Rakhimova, E. F., & Zaripova, L. H. (2020). Occasionalisms As A Coding Information Method In The Creativity Of M. Zadornov. In D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism» Dedicated to the 80th Anniversary of Turkayev Hassan Vakhitovich, vol 92. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 346-355). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.05.46