The Use Of Game Technologies In Career Guidance With Senior Pupils
In order to achieve the highest results of professional self-determination of high school students it is necessary to create a single, whole career guidance space. Extra-curricular work, additional education, as well as interaction between school and family are very important in creating such an environment. Additional education is considered and functions as a subsystem of continuous education. All 9th year students of Ust-Jeguta School No. 4 of Karachay-Cherkessia Republic, where the formative experiment took place, attended art school, where we conducted the work of design, decorative and applied art clubs and conducted extracurricular work on drawing. The second block was a set of various game technologies that were designed to stimulate the activity of students, teachers and parents in career guidance work. It was necessary to identify the specifics of vocational guidance game technologies as a means of activating vocational guidance work in the process of studying technical disciplines. In our work, we conducted research on the subject of drawing. The experiment showed that in the process of joint career guidance work of the school it is appropriate to be guided by some recommendations: – show a positive attitude to the professional intentions and interests of students; – to hold an interesting discussion between the teacher and parents about the problems that have arisen in the course of work; – to develop jointly the pedagogical strategy and tactics by the school and the family in the process of helping senior pupils in their professional self-determination.
Keywords: Game technologycareer guidanceprofessionengineerschool
Active processes of market economic relations development in all spheres of Russians' life have aggravated the situation in the domestic labor market. The rhythm of life is accelerating (Akinina, Emelyanova, & Igumnova, 2017). The situation of competition between specialists has formed new factor conditions of employment.
The scale and density of the information flow accelerates the process of obsolescence of the theoretical base that forms the individual's readiness for professional activity at the stage of education in secondary general education school (Sorokoumova, Zhurinskaya, Puchkova, Kurnosova, & Temnova, 2018). In today's Karachay-Cherkessia Republic, a special situation has developed with the training of technical specialists. Over the past twenty years, interest in the engineering profession from the young generation has fallen significantly, and without the return of a proper high prestige to engineering work, the successful further development of our society and production is quite problematic.
Our research required a correlation of training (educational), game and career goals. Among the game purposes it is possible to note such, as entertaining, i.e. creation of favorable atmosphere at classes; communicative (establishment of contacts); relaxation (removal of emotional tension) etc., the main purpose of vocational guidance work is necessity of formation of internal readiness of students independently and consciously to plan, correct and realize prospects of the development (professional, life and personal). However, it is not possible to reach it often and the values, as it is known, do not exist for that purpose. Gradual formation means that such complex issues are not solved quickly. Vocational guidance and professional consulting involves not only traditional planning, but also timely adjustment of their plans, the formation of the ability to carry out new elections. Realization of professional prospects assumes at least moral inspiration of students for the first steps on the way to their goals. Professional self-determination is an integral part of human socialization (Yarlykova & Levchenko, 2017). With regard to educational goals, the concept of modernization of education currently prioritizes the improvement of the quality of education and training of professional staff, determines the need to improve the forms and methods of education, activation and intensification of the cognitive process (Bulah, Banshikova, & Shneider, 2015).
However, we were interested not only in educational goals in general, but also in educational goals related to a specific subject – drawing. The peculiarity of the drawing course in secondary general education school under the new program for 9th grade is its extremely concise nature.
The main task of our work is to define the features of vocational guidance game technologies, development of author's classification of games by drawing, making the game model as a condition of activating vocational guidance work with high school students.
The research question is to substantiate the effectiveness of the application of game educational technologies in preparing high school students for the choice of profession.
Purpose of the Study
Regular work with students can help them choose their future profession. Educational work provides great opportunities for career guidance work with the help of game technology. Therefore, the following task was set: to identify and implement types of activating career guidance games that can be used in drawing classes, technology.
Since there wasn't much time allocated for an experiment on the subject of drawing in 9th grade, we didn't try to devote much time to history and stages of development of graphic methods of image at the first classes. More deeply students will perceive excursions in those professions in which they can apply those drawing skills. For example, at the first drawing classes, when students are taught how to work with drawing tools, it was appropriate in our research to involve games. Some researchers believe that already at the approximate, propaedeutic stage in the game tasks may include elements of creativity that guide children to various professions (Kovaleva & Kovaleva, 2014). For example, games provide form modeling by technical drawing with lines missing on it. According to the condition, it is necessary to build up technical drawing of an object. Similar to known problems on connection of the drawing with a markup, tasks of such type require showing the image of an object after performing the necessary operations. All similar game tasks have many solutions. The experience acquired in the course of work on this topic, will be useful for students later in the process of technical, engineering character.
Such experience makes it possible for students to activate their creative thinking with the help of game technologies, to form initial skills of achieving personal satisfaction with conditions and results of work. Carrying out a game role, entering into the conditionally real relations with each other, students get a little experience of the creative cognition of their possible future profession.
Vocational-oriented goals were also realized here: students had to realize in which professions certain graphic concepts could be realized, and emphasized the formation of students' skills to work with these concepts. Among such skills, the researchers single out the ability to identify (to learn these concepts in standard situations), the ability to use these concepts independently, to classify, i.e., to combine them according to a certain attribute, to interpret and apply them in practice (Ovchinnikova, 2010).
Implementing these goals, we used the game "Gift". This game discusses the content of a whole series of graphic concepts, as well as those possible professions in which these concepts may be present. The game is played in class at the drawing class. The procedure included the following main steps.
1. Instruction. Your friend has invited you to his birthday party. In the current minutes you should break up into small groups (from 3 to 5 persons) and already in groups to discuss what you can give a friend. It is important to fulfill several conditions: the gift should contain a hint of his profession, the gift should contain drawing material and include certain graphical concepts, the gift should be unusual, funny, witty and humorous.
2. Time should be limited. For 2 minutes it is necessary to come up with a gift, prepare it in 5 minutes, sew it in 2–3 minutes and present a gift.
3. After that, each team names their gift one by one. At the same time, participants, including the presenter, can ask for more specific questions. For example, what does a gift have to do with a friend's profession, what does a friend do, how much a gift can cost if you buy it in a shop, not by yourself. Such type of questions have a significant, active role, as they force participants to offer their variants of gifts in a more responsible and reasonable way. Justifying these or those options, the players are forced to correlate them with the features of the profession under consideration and in the process of such consideration actually reveal the most interesting elements of professional work, linking its maintenance with the content of the drawing.
A similar game is "Masquerade Costume", often held with students on the eve of some holidays associated with carnival shows. In this game the guys have to come up with a masquerade costume, associated with graphic concepts for a predetermined profession. In this case, the guys show great ingenuity and interest in the game. Cascades of the most unusual ideas are literally grounded. For example, a suit "Man – cube", "Man – square", "Man – cone", "Man – ball".
To be a businessman, the guys were offered a tie painted with different geometric bodies. The economist was to wear a suit "wooden ruble" in a form of a wooden circle. For the president's profession – a horn in the form of a cone to be able to make various toasts for the health of Russians and others.
The general task at carrying out of such type of performing games was that pupils:
(a) They were to provide an analysis and define the time spent on the type and subtypes of work and game organizational and informational operations;
b) show what topics of the Drawing subject could be used in the game and what specific graphic concepts could be included in the description of the gift (ball, cube, circle, line, etc.);
c) which elements of creative work are included in the game description;
d) to determine whether the content of the game corresponds to the model of a particular profession or specialty.
The purpose of this type of games was to actualize the most basic technical knowledge, rules, notions, and notions learnt in the course of drawing. It was paid attention to allocation of the most essential material for what guys in the beginning could offer insignificant signs and properties of a material, and then to allocate and unite the most essential signs and properties of concepts according to drawing. At the same time, we took care to develop the students' ability to distinguish essential material by volume. For this purpose, children could single out one feature (for example, in a circle) and then combine several different features around it.
Hence, such games helped to develop ability at pupils to master and process the technical information from a course of plotting, to select in the course of game the most important, essential, endowing this main thing in the form of the concrete concept; skills to apply the received knowledge in a life situation, to select such material under the drawing which can appear significant in the further practical activity. This started from the point of view of the fact that students should not only be informed in the field of drawing, but also have the available fund of effective knowledge, see how one can use the knowledge by drawing in practice, at the same time, we should not exaggerate the meaning of such skills.
The concept of "corrective" came to the forefront of pedagogy and psychology from the Latin language – and means corrected, improved, corrected, partially changed, corrected something. By corrective games we mean special games aimed at correction or improvement of defects or mistakes in graphic material, as well as at development of accuracy, correctness, correctness in perception and use of knowledge by drawing. Certainly, they are quite close to performing games and at that time more complicated goals are solved with their help. With their help it is possible to find out and correct the certain mistakes arising at transfer and assimilation by pupils of the information on a subject. Such games have also professional orientation value as they allow to learn the truth that at any production, engineering, in general general technical activity there are special services of control and the account of the executed work, operating within the limits of standards and do not allow to admit industrial errors. The game "Find a mistake" serves exactly these purposes. This game is carried out in a class. There are up to 20–24 people involved in the game. The time of the game – from 30 to 40 minutes. The game procedure that we used in the process of experimental work involved the following stages:
1. Participants were explained the general meaning of the game, which is reflected in its name. According to the teacher's instructions, the children make a drawing on the cards according to the topic they are studying. It is possible to give such tasks to children to perform at home, in the process of independent work, especially if the task is a certain difficulty for students.
2. After performing the task, each participant passes his card to a neighbor so that the neighbor checks the drawing and finds an error or inaccuracy, incorrectness in the drawing.
3. The inspectors will prepare an answer to justify their position. The student whose work is being checked also receives a card for checking from his roommate.
4. Then students work on their mistakes. Then come the messages from the guys. It is important to limit the time of participants in the process. On messages will take no more than 2-3 minutes, so that all students have time to express their views. At the same time, not all students can agree with the comments of their fellow students.
5. Therefore, anyone who does not agree with the comments is given the right to present end their drawing at the end of the class.
6. Since sometimes students do not notice mistakes in their classmates' graphic works, their teacher helps them. He concludes the game. The more students find mistakes and are able to justify their criticism, the higher their score is.
It is also possible to give the players themselves the right of assessment. First they name their grades one by one and then comment on them briefly. In the next lesson (and if there is time left, then within the game time), a small discussion between the individual players is organized. The overall outcome of the game can be jointly developed and refined drawing rules according to modern standards.
These game moments are usually particularly helpful in the end of the game. This can be explained by the fact that often in the process of gaining knowledge, the interest of children to already learned knowledge decreases. As well as the factor of novelty of the material under study ceases the work process. In these cases it is necessary to diversify a technique, to open new sides of the studied phenomena, to expand creative moments. It is most of all helped by the game which helps to memorize the studied graphic material and gives students a great strength and comprehension, clarifies those questions and sides of the studied material which were not clear at first. The use of games to enhance the learning material gives the lesson brightness and helps students realize the professional significance of the graphic material they are studying.
Corrective games allow, as we have seen, to include elements of creativity in the learning process. We tried to integrate the reproductive and creative activity of students into the game through experimental work. There are more examples of these games that can be implemented int he clasroom (Ovchinnikova, 2006).
Even more vocational guidance can have game tasks on topics related to the problems of construction drawing. Let us give an example. In the image of a one-storey house to build its plan. For specification of conditions of the game task it is possible to add that the small house is one-room, in a living room two entrances lead: one – through the open terrace, another – through kitchen. The chimney is beautifully laid out on the facade. This task is offered in the teacher's book.
Another task requires improving the facade of the building to give it greater architectural expression and modern appearance (without changing the plan).
In the course of the research, we changed the conditions of the task, supplementing the problems that are important for the construction profession with excursions into history, into the content of national cultures, especially those of the peoples inhabiting the North Caucasus. For example, the guys were interested in designing, and even constructing a medieval castle, a Cossack house, which was very difficult. Such tasks turned out to be a powerful means of shaping the mindset of students and required great effort and energy, intelligence and will from children. In this case, the game of castles and houses was hard work, in the process of which overcome obstacles, great difficulties and generally brought students a great pleasure. With this type of games formed an interest in the profession of builder, teacher, because watching such tasks, students saw what a variety of inspiring and creative methods and tools used by a teacher.
The experiment showed that the introduction of the game focused on orientation content, increased students' interest in drawing, activities related to the use of this subject, influenced the development of activity, awareness of 9th grade students. The same tests, survey, rankings were used, which helped us to establish the initial level of these qualities.
This work proves that the problem of high school students' professional competence is an acute problem and its solution requires a variety of pedagogical conditions (Yusupov, 2018). Modeling the process of vocational guidance work using games in the process of graphic training of students required the precise definition of these conditions and their verification.
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