Professional Self-Consciousness As Factor Of Professional Formation And Self-Development Of Personality
The article reveals theoretical approaches to the study of the formation of the professional identity of university students. The relevance of the task of forming the professional identity of university students is revealed. Professional self-awareness is considered a complexly organized, sustainable education, showing certain features in the process of professional development regarding its structure and formation. The role of professional self-awareness as a factor of the personality development and professional development in general and in conjunction with the effectiveness of this activity is analyzed. The process of the formation of professional self-awareness is considered as qualitative and quantitative changes in the content of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral components. The structure of professional self-awareness is presented: a three-component structure of professional self-awareness is highlighted, which includes cognitive, affective, and behavioral components. It is shown that professional self-awareness is a dynamic formation; it can develop, change, expand. It is revealed that, as the development of the educational and professional activity of the subject becomes complicated, its relationship with the subject and social world is improved, due to the specifics of the profession. This circumstance is a prerequisite for the further development of the subject's professional self-awareness, in favor of its increasing adequacy and sufficient differentiation. Professional self-awareness is the factor that regulates the implementation by the subject of current activity as a condition for its development, as well as the professional development of the subject as a whole.
Keywords: Professional identityprofessionalizationcognitiveemotionalprofessional development
The competitiveness of a specialist in the open labor market is based not only on an excellent professional education but also on the development of professional personality traits, to which we include professional self-awareness. Professional self-awareness performs the functions of determining and regulating professional activities, design, and self-development, as well as self-control of a person. Professional identity is the driving force behind the professional development of both the student and the established professional. The conceptual model of self-regulation can be considered as the methodological basis of psychological and pedagogical support for the formation of professional self-awareness of university students. In the process of its formation professional self-awareness as an essential resource allows achieving the optimal result, both in personal growth and in professional activity. After graduation, the formed and harmoniously developed professional self-awareness acts as an essential determinant of continuous professional formation and development, determining the strategies for the professional career growth of a person.
The developed professional self-awareness of a student implies the presence of a developed motivation for self-improvement and self-education, independence based on the adoption of a subjective position in professional activity, and a value attitude to one’s profession. These are the components of a developed professional self-awareness that make a professional in demand in the labor market, contribute to continuous self-education throughout professional life.
Systematic focused work on managing the process of professional development and formation should be aimed at the formation of professional self-awareness, that is, a structure that integrates and regulates professional activities.
Therefore, currently essential and relevant tasks of modern pedagogical psychology: the formation of professional self-consciousness of university students, the identification of mechanisms, patterns, conditions for the implementation of this process, the creation of a registry of technologies that contribute to the development of professional self-awareness of university students.
Self-awareness is interpreted as a conscious attitude of a person to his abilities, motives, feelings, and thoughts. Self-consciousness expresses an emotional and semantic assessment of its capabilities and acts as the basis for appropriate action. Moreover, the attitude towards one’s being is mediated by joint activity with other people. Therefore, in the center of self-awareness lies the idea of oneself as capable of socially significant actions. Studies of professional self-consciousness occupy an essential place among the works related to the study of self-consciousness. The variety of points of view on the essence, definition, structure, and development of self-identity of a person also led to different approaches to understanding the essence, structure, and dynamics of professional self-awareness. The issue of professional self-awareness is interdisciplinary, occupies one of the central places in the study of the psychology of work. This statement is based on the analysis of foreign and Russian theories of this phenomenon in psychological science, sociology, the theory of social work and pedagogy (Bodrov, 2007).
Purpose of the Study
Various approaches are encountered in studies of professional self-consciousness. Particular attention in domestic studies is given to the issue of the internal structure and features of the manifestation of professional self-consciousness. Recently, studies of professional self-awareness have been concentrated mainly around the study of its components and functions in some professions. Various conceptual approaches to the study of professional identity are reflected in the works of Klimov (1996), Markova (1996), and other researchers.
Unlike self-awareness, in general, professional self-awareness is more specific in its content. The content of professional self-awareness refers to professional activity and oneself as to the subject of this activity. Self-consciousness is formed in life and communication with people around us and is the result of knowing ourselves, our actions, mental qualities. Professional self-awareness is the projection of all structural components of self-awareness onto professional activities. Domestic researchers (Mitina, 1989) and some foreign psychologists suggest that professional self-awareness is an attitude towards oneself in the professional labor sphere. Like any attitude, self-awareness has a cognitive, affective, and behavioral substructure (self-understanding, self-attitude, self-behavior). Consequently, the critical components of the structure of professional self-consciousness are the components that characterize the cognitive, affective, behavioral levels and processes of professional identification, as critical mechanisms for the integration of the “professional self” (Berezhnova et al., 2019).
A systematic approach involves the study of professional self-consciousness as a system that combines many collaborative elements that are closely connected and create individual integrity.
The use of meaningful analysis as a scientific method means considering the object in the unity of all the constituent elements. Content analysis allows identifying the elements of the object, its properties, internal processes, relationships, contradictions, and development trends. Content analysis is the analysis of significant positions that determine the integrity of the system. The content of the system is mobile, dynamic, procedural, associated with quantitative changes, reflects the wealth of internal and external interactions.
A meaningful approach to professional self-awareness study is to consider the composition of each of its components and dimensions. The components of professional identity are the cognitive, affective, behavioral components. Currently, there is no single point of view on the problem of the structure of professional self-awareness. In this regard, it is advisable to present our point of view on this issue.
After analyzing many works devoted to the study of the structure of professional self-consciousness, we concluded that it is advisable to single out the three-component structure of professional self-consciousness. The three-component structure of professional self-awareness includes cognitive, affective, and behavioral components.
Let us turn to the consideration of the presented components in the structure of professional self-awareness.
1. The cognitive component of professional self-awareness, first of all, includes the professional image of "I." The most critical link in the formation of the professional image of the employee's self is self-knowledge.
Self-knowledge is a complex, multi-level process, individualized in time. This process consists of the fact that a person, receiving knowledge about himself as a professional, develops this knowledge and forms a general idea of himself as a professional. A professional can correlate this knowledge with the requirements and standards that society sets for this profession. This knowledge allows determining his place in this professional group and the system of social relations as a whole.
Self-knowledge can be realized only through the relation of a given person to other people, through various forms of connection of his "I" with the "I" of others. Thus, knowing oneself as a professional, a person continually compares with other professionals. On this basis, he gradually comes to the formation of the image "I as a professional".
Thus, with the help of self-knowledge, many elements of a generalized image of oneself as a professional are formed. This image reflects stable ideas about oneself as a person, and about a professional, which are more or less significant.
The particular importance of the process of self-knowledge as a professional is the continuity of this process. Self-knowledge is expressed in a constant movement from one knowledge of oneself to another, its refinement, deepening, expansion.
Thus, the professional image of the "I" includes many changing, but relatively stable ideas about myself as an employee. This image is an essential component of the cognitive component of professional identity.
The final component of the cognitive component of professional identity is knowledge about the profession and its requirements for the individual. The content of the profession includes an employee's understanding of the professional norms and rules, his idea of the specific goals and objectives of his activity, an idea of the methods and work organization, an idea of his job status, and an idea of the development prospects. This knowledge is the basis for understanding the personal qualities of the subjects of labor activity, their professional worldview, and the personal concept of professional labor (Markova, 1996).
Thus, we define the cognitive component of professional self-consciousness through a system of self-representation as a subject of professional development, generalized into a professional image "I as a professional," as well as knowledge about my profession.
2. The affective component of professional self-consciousness includes professional self-esteem, self-attitude to oneself as an employee, professional, and attitude to one's professional activity.
The central place in the content of this component is occupied by professional self-esteem. Professional self-esteem involves the assessment by a person of himself as a specialist, his capabilities, qualities, his place in a professional environment.
Professional self-esteem is characterized by the results of comparing real and ideal images, "I am an employee." Moreover, under the real image, "I am an employee," we mean the result of adequate self-knowledge by a person of what the employee is. The image "I am an employee" is the result of the conceptual design of the image of the ideal-typical professional. The construction of the image "I am an employee" is carried out with the obligatory involvement of scientific knowledge about the profession. The result of comparing these images is a representation that reflects, first, the conformity (or non-conformity) of these images, and, second, the degree of such inconsistency that determines the adequacy of professional self-esteem.
For the formation of professional self-esteem, one should take into account the specialist's awareness of the attitude of colleagues and leadership towards themselves. The opinions and evaluations of these people are always being compared with emerging ideas.
These emerging ideas are about themselves as individuals and employees. Based on this, the level of claims, the desire to achieve individual results, and self-development are reflected in self-esteem.
It should be noted that an indicator of a developed and productively professional self-awareness is the adequacy of professional self-esteem. Adequate self-esteem provides accurate identification and manifestations in the specific circumstances of professional activity and relationships. The adequacy of professional self-esteem also manifests itself in a positive impact on performance. A person reacts in a certain way to success and failure in professional activity. The effectiveness of its interaction with others depends on the regulation of the process of self-development. The management organization of behavior serves as a subjective and psychological basis for the level of personal aspirations (Mitina, 1989).
Thus, professional self-esteem occupies a leading position in the affective-evaluative component and is an essential indicator of a developed and productive professional self-awareness.
The personal characteristics of the subjects of labor have a significant impact on the success of its implementation in the professional sphere. This circumstance leads to the need to include in the affective-evaluative component of professional self-awareness not only a professional aspect but also a personal one. In this regard, self-attitude to oneself as an employee of professional activity, the formation of which are the adoption of oneself as a person and self-esteem, is of particular relevance.
Based on the foregoing, the affective component of an employee's professional identity is determined by a combination of the following characteristics: parameters of professional self-esteem (degree of adequacy, level); attitude to oneself as a person, employee (acceptance-rejection of oneself as a person, employee, self-esteem); attitude to their profession.
3. The behavioral component of professional self-awareness includes a motivational-value, regulatory, and actionable aspect. The specific feature of this component is its integral indivisible unity, complementarity, and mutual influence of its constituent systems. Moreover, one formation determines the formation and development of another. This fact leads to the consideration of the behavioral component as a holistic education, ensuring the effectiveness of labor activity.
The formation of a behavioral component is directly dependent on the cognitive component. The cognitive component, in turn, fills the content of professional self-consciousness and is a lever of the subject's behavior, giving the personal meaning of the professional activity.
The social position of a person determines the personal meaning of the image of the profession, and its main components are sense-forming motives, value orientations, semantic attitudes. Motives play an activating role in the process of functioning of the regulatory-active mechanism of activity. Motivation expands the possibilities of subjects in adapting to various severe conditions and (extreme) situations. Personal motivation mobilizes the growth of conscious activity to carry out any activity to achieve goals. Motives are also an integral system regulator and an activator of activity. On this basis, motives ensure the satisfaction of urgent needs, the desire of the individual to self-actualization, coordinating this with its present and future, while maintaining its stability and constancy in the changing conditions of life.
In this regard, the regulatory and active component takes on a particular role. The regulatory and acting component is, firstly, the activity aimed at internalizing the external requirements of a particular specialty for a person and, secondly, the conscious formation, development, and improvement on this basis of professionally essential qualities and, in general, professional competence.
A person's ability to self-regulation and self-government arises based on a person reflectively reflecting himself. The subject, acting in the function of "I am the controller," makes the object of analysis its actions, controls itself as an executor. The process of reflection is complemented and enriched by emerging feedback processes. The individual gets the opportunity to adjust his activities and communication, to arbitrarily control his behavior. The result of the process of reflection is the change and development of individual consciousness.
Thus, the behavioral component of the employee's professional self-awareness finds expression in the desire for self-actualization, the degree of satisfaction with his professional activity, as well as in the ability to correct and voluntarily control his behavior.
It can be summarized that professional self-awareness is a multicomponent and rather complex formation and acts in the unity of the following components: cognitive, affective, and behavioral. These components have specific content and will depend on professional affiliation, as well as the stage of professional development of the subject. Their study must be carried out, taking into account dynamic (course and development of the process) and productive (appearance and availability of a specific product) points of view.
Professional self-consciousness acts as a condition, determinant, or means of developing a specialist's individuality, regulating his professional activity, and the process of professionalization as a whole. All this makes the problem of the development of professional self-awareness of students in educational psychology, particularly urgent (Shapovalova et al., 2019).
As a part of the personality's self-awareness, professional self-consciousness is manifested in the process, and the results of the specialist's awareness of himself — specialist's awareness concludes a subject of activity and the characteristics of his professional activity. The resulting constructs of the work of professional self-consciousness are both situational "I-images" of a professional ", and a more stable system of professional self-esteem and self-determination" I-concept "of a professional.
The unified position on the problem of the structure of professional identity was not found. In this regard, it is advisable to present this point of view on this problem (Morosanova, 2012).
We define professional self-awareness as a complex mental process. The procedural side of self-consciousness consists in the perception by a person of numerous images of himself in the sphere of professional behavior and activity, professional communication. The productive side of self-awareness is the generation of integral "I-professional" images and a stable system of these images – a professional "I-concept." Structurally, self-awareness is a unity of three parties – the cognitive component (self-knowledge), the affective component (self-attitude), and the conative, behavioral (self-regulation)".
Thus, the structure of professional self-consciousness appears in the unity of the three components.
1. The cognitive component of professional self-awareness is represented by a professional "self-image" or professional "self-concept." These constructs are formed in the process of self-knowledge. In professional self-knowledge, a specialist gains knowledge about himself as a subject of professional activity and correlates them with specific professional samples, standards, and standards. Continuous comparison occurs both with other carriers of this profession and with oneself based on a generalized actual professional "image-I." This image includes the image of yourself as a professional in the future.
Thus, the professional image of the self can be imagined as a system that accumulates the subject's self-image as an employee, a professional. This image is formed as a result of the process of self-knowledge and consisting of four mutually penetrating and complementary ideas: 1) ideas about their personal and professional abilities and capabilities (retrospective self); 2) self-image as a subject of professional and personal interaction with other people (reflective self); 3) representations of yourself as an employee, a professional in reality at the moment (actual I); 4) self-image as an employee, a professional in the future, what he wants to become (perfect me).
Thus, we define the cognitive component of professional self-consciousness through a system of self-representations as a subject of professional development, generalized into a professional image "I as a professional", as well as knowledge about my profession.
2. The affective component (emotional-value, "I-attitude"). One of the most important concepts related to the affective under the structure of professional self-awareness of a specialist is the concept of self-esteem.
The affective component of professional self-awareness includes professional self-esteem, self-attitude to oneself as an employee, professional, and attitude to one's professional activity.
The affective component manifests itself in the system of professional self-esteem and the holistic attitude of the subject to his professional activity.
Professional self-esteem is aimed at assessing oneself as a carrier of professionally important qualities, one's place on the line of professional development, place in the professional community, the potential for professional self-development, one's assessment of one's limitations in the profession. Self-esteem is the result of a comparison of the actual and ideal "images-I" in the projection of professional activity. This is the developing determining mechanism of professional self-esteem. Self-assessment reflects the desire for a particular place on the line of professional development, claims to status in the professional community, the desire to master new types of activities, or improve existing ones. Launching an intrapersonal contradiction, it conditions the activities of professional self-development in his meanings of professional activity self-actualization. The adequacy of professional self-esteem is manifested in the of professional identifying accuracy in his place on the line of professional development. For example, a negative attitude to the profession is a source of distortion of the subjective picture of their professional path, violations in the process of establishing scientific ideas about their professional purpose, and self-awareness in the space of their profession.
The attitude to one's profession, as an independent element of the affective-evaluative component, also performs autonomous functions, determining the nature of self-consciousness as a whole. Based on the foregoing, the affective-evaluative component of an employee's professional self-awareness is determined by a combination of the following characteristics: parameters of professional self-esteem (degree of adequacy, level); attitude to oneself as a person, employee (acceptance-rejection of oneself as a person, employee, self-esteem); attitude to their profession.
3. The behavioral component includes the motivational-value, regulatory, and affective aspects, is realized in the process of self-regulation.
There is a fixation of the activation process, a conscious correction of the labor functions fulfillment, and the process of professional development as a whole.
The formation of the behavioral component is directly dependent on the cognitive component, which, in turn, filling the content of professional self-consciousness is a lever of the subject's behavior, giving the personal meaning of the professional activity.
A person's ability to self-regulation and self-government arises based on a person reflectively reflecting himself. A person, acting in the function of "I am the controller," makes the object of analysis his actions, controls himself as a performer.
Thus, the behavioral component of the employee's professional self-awareness finds expression in the desire for self-actualization, the degree of satisfaction with his professional activity, as well as in the ability to correct and voluntarily control his behavior.
The high level of development of the cognitive component of professional self-consciousness corresponds to the presence of developed ideas about their professional qualities, in-depth knowledge of the essence and content of their professional activities, characterized by the integrated image of I-professional and I-concept and personality. A high level of development of the affective component corresponds to an adequate assessment of oneself as a professional, positive professional self-attitude. The behavioral component is in the presence of an apparent motive for professional self-realization, self-actualization, and professional self-development.
Thus, as a result of the analysis of the structure of professional self-consciousness, we have many criteria for diagnosing the main components at the cognitive, affective, and conative levels. These constructs will allow adequately tracking the dynamics of professional self-awareness at the stage of specialist training.
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31 October 2020
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Shapovalova, M. L., Enns, E. A., Serdyukova, E. F., & Zvereva, R. G. (2020). Professional Self-Consciousness As Factor Of Professional Formation And Self-Development Of Personality. In & D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism» Dedicated to the 80th Anniversary of Turkayev Hassan Vakhitovich, vol 92. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 306-314). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.05.41