The article is devoted to the urgent problem of the preservation of cultural heritage, which includes material and spiritual objects. The material component of the cultural heritage is represented by architectural monuments, museum collections, nature reserves. The spiritual heritage includes language, ideals, traditions, rites, folklore, etc. Tertiy Ivanovich Filippov is one of the guardians of the study and preservation of cultural heritage (December 24, 1825, Rzhev –November 11, 1899, St. Petersburg), writer, publicist, and government official of the second half of the 19th century. He successfully graduated from Tver Provincial Classical Gymnasium in 1843, showed excellent knowledge of history, Russian literature, physics, the law of God, the Greek language, he had good results in statistics, geography and mathematics, Latin, German and French. Since 1857 he had been working as an official of special assignments under the Chief Prosecutor of the Synod. In 1864 he worked in the control department, during the period from 1889 to 1899 he was working as a government inspector. He took a number of measures to improve supervision of the expenditure of the state budget. He promoted the employment of women in the supervisory bodies. He skillfully combined service with literary and social activities. He was familiar and assisted many writers and musicians. In 1884, a commission was created under the Russian Geographical Society for collecting folk songs, the chairman of which Filippov was until the end of his days. He made great contribution to the publication of collections of songwriting.
Keywords: Filippovcultural heritagecultural spacenational cultureidentityglobalization
In modern society, cultural heritage has become one of the key concepts in the field of culture. This term refers to the tangible and intangible parts of culture created by previous generations and perceived as value by certain communities of people (Medvedeva & Stonalova, 2016).
Heritage products represent a wide range of diverse historical events, personalities, folk memory, myths, literary associations and preserved material remains of the past (Ashworth, 2017).
Various aspects of the preservation and use of cultural heritage occupy an important place in modern research.
The material component of cultural heritage includes primarily monuments of architecture, history, museum collections. Architectural and urban planning projects are created taking into account the level of culture, the priorities of state policy, and the public mood of the time. The historical environment of the city is formed (Mumford, 1961). Scientific research on the creation and role of architectural monuments in the context of sociocultural processes allows substantively examining the relationship between the history of the creation of these objects and socio-political processes in the country (Molokova, 2019).
The cultural space created by man constantly reflects the processes that take place in society. Various aspects of the creation and functioning of urban cultural space occupy an important place in modern urban studies.
From an architectural point of view, a city can be considered as a system of spatio-temporal expression of human creativity (Landry, 2008). Architectural monuments organically inscribed in the historical environment of the city are of particular interest, they include: palace ensembles, industrial and civil buildings, places of worship, theaters, estates, mansions, museums. In this context, a public museum is a combination of the manifestation of power to the public and the affirmation of power in the ruling class (Bennett, 1995).
The components of intangible cultural heritage include: language, ideals, traditions, customs, rituals, holidays, memorable dates, folklore, etc. Scientists pay due attention to the preservation of the spiritual cultural heritage, national culture (Likhachev, 2000; Turkaev, 2018). The interest in those people who have made a significant contribution to the study and preservation of cultural objects is expanding. Among them, it is necessary to note Tertiy Ivanovich Filippov, state comptroller, representative of the conservative direction of Russian public thought. In recent years, a number of his literary and journalistic works have been reprinted (Filippov, 2008). The milestones of his life and ideas became the subject of research (Alekseeva, 2008, 2010; Mamonova, 2009; Pronchatova, 2011). The activity of T. Fillipov as a writer, philanthropist and collector of Russian song folklore presents great interest.
Nowadays the problem of the attitude of the state and society towards the preservation of cultural heritage, the formation of a modern cultural space in the historical valuable environment of a city is one of the most relevant. It is studied by historians, philosophers, cultural scientists, sociologists, etc. (Kolokolchikova, 2014; Krivykh, 2017; Paliy, 2017). The problems of expanding intercultural interaction and preserving the cultural space of the region are of interest (Bernyukevich, Sun, & Golovko, 2018), as well as the concept of a “smart city” aimed at the creation of such an infrastructure that is optimal for people and society (Volkov, 2019). In the context of globalization, the problem of the preservation of spiritual cultural heritage, cultural identity is becoming more relevant. The historical experience of the activities of outstanding persons in this field is gaining importance. Tertiy Ivanovich Filippov, a representative of the Russian bureaucratic elite, a thinker, a publicist of the second half of the 19th century, made his contribution to the preservation of spiritual heritage.
The subject of the study is presented by important aspects of the activities of the state comptroller T.I. Filippov to preserve cultural heritage.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the research is to analyze the main directions and results of the activities of Tertiy Filippov on the preservation of cultural heritage: song folklore, language, traditions.
The basis of the study is an integrated approach that allows considering different aspects of the study of cultural heritage, cultural space and determine their relevance. Within the framework of historical and problem-chronological methods, the main directions and results of the activity of state comptroller Tertiy Ivanovich Filippov on the preservation of cultural heritage are considered. The specific historical conditions of his life and work are examined on the basis of archival documents and published literature.
Tertiy Filippov is known as a statesman, publicist, secular theologian and collector of Russian song folklore.
He was native of Rzhev, a graduate of Tver Gymnasium. In 1848 he graduated from the Department of Philosophy at the University of Moscow. On February 23, 1850, he was accepted into the 1st Moscow Grammar School as a senior teacher of Russian literature and approved as a titular adviser. On February 23, 1856, he was promoted to college assessors; on November 18, 1856, he was designated for a post of the secretary to the 1st Basmanny Department of the Guardianship of the Poor in Moscow.
His sound and deep knowledge of the Greek language, theological science and church law attracted special attention of Count A.P. Tolstoy, who was then Chief Prosecutor of the Holy Synod, and determined a new turn in the career of T.I. Filippov. On March 14, 1857, Tertiy Filippov was transferred to the Spiritual Department of the Orthodox Confession and was designated for the re-appointing post, and on May 14, 1858, he was designated for the post of the official of special assignments of the VI class under the Chief Prosecutor of the Synod. In February 23, 1860, he was promoted to court adviser by virtue of long service. On April 29, 1860 T.I. Filippov was appointed a member of the Committee on the Transformation of religious educational establishments, which was highly approved by the Holy Synod, in which at the same time he was in charge of office management. From February 23, 1862, for the distinction in service, he was promoted to college adviser. On June 2, 1862, Tertiy Ivanovich was encharged with a task to draw up a report on the Spiritual Department for 1861, which he duly executed in October 1862.
On February 10, 1864, Filippov joined the State Audit Office (under V.A. Tatarinov, the founder of existing control system). He was appointed Assistant Manager of the Interim Audit Commission. On April 22, 1866, for the diligent service, he was granted the rank of Actual State Councilor. On May 18, 1866, he was appointed a member of the State Audit Office to the Committee for the application of judicial charters to administrative departments. On February 14, 1867, he was appointed as a member of the Commission from the State Audit Office, established with the highest permission, to discuss the issue of exempting the treasury from surcharge for the maintenance of horses at postal stations.
On February 4, 1869, he was approved as an advisory member of the Veterinary Committee of the Ministry of the Internal Affairs.
In the absence of the manager of the Provisional Revision Commission on June 4, 1870 T.I. Filippov was the head of this Commission. On the occasion of the appointment of M.N. Ostrovsky, the manager of the Provisional Revision Commission of the State Comptroller, Filippov was entrusted with the temporary management of this Commission on April 20, 1871, and from July 8 of the same year he was appointed a Manager of the Provisional Revision Commission.
Immediately before this, on May 7, 1871 T.I. Filippov was appointed a member of the Commission, approved by the State Audit Office to revise the classification of financial estimates; on February 8, 1872 he became its Chairman. On December 28, 1874 Filippov became a member of the Tax Commission at the Ministry of Finance. As a reward for excellent service, he was granted secret advisers on April 13, 1875, Terty Ivanovich was awarded “monarchal favor” for his work as a member of the highest approved Commission at the 2nd Branch of his own Imperial Majesty the Chancellery to discuss the assumptions about the consolidation of the Senate and other official printing houses in a unified system.
On January 29, 1876 he became a member of the Statistical Council under the Ministry of Internal Affairs from the State Audit Office. On November 13, 1877, Filippov was appointed as a representative of the State Audit Office to a special meeting established under the State Council for preliminary considerations on measures to provide for families of dead, wounded and missing people of lower ranks.
On October 27, 1878, he was appointed to the post of comrade (deputy) of the state comptroller. On January 31, 1879, he became Chairman of the Special Organizational Commission established under the State Audit Office for preliminary discussion of issues related to clarifying, supplementing or changing the rules of the cash and audit procedures or relating to the improvement of the existing accounting and reporting system. On November 25, 1881 by the State Audit Office T.I. Filippov was appointed a member of the Special Commission to draft a transformation of the provincial and county administration. On October 5, 1882, he was appointed to the Commission established by the Holy Synod to develop and discuss comprehensively the issue of ensuring the clergy proper participation in public education.
By the highest decree on January 1, 1883, T.I. Filippov became a senator with the abandonment of his previous post. On January 21, 1883, he was granted the right to participate in the General Assembly, the 4th, the 5th and Land Surveying Departments of the Governing Senate.
In connection with the appointment of the state comptroller D.M. Solsky, the Chairman of the Department of Laws of the State Council on July 17, 1889, Filippov temporarily took control of the State Audit Office as a friend of the absent minister. On July 26, 1889, Tertiy Filippov was appointed state comptroller, remaining a senator and becoming a member of the Finance Committee on August 5, 1889. Before entry into his service on July 27, 1889, Filippov met all the employees of his department, addressing them with a welcoming speech. Filippov served in this high position for more than 10 years until his death in 1899.
Over the years of his service, the real Actual Privy councilor Tertiy Ivanovich Filippov, State Comptroller, Senator, became a holder of the following orders: the Holy Blessed Grand Prince Alexander Nevsky, decorated with diamonds, the White Eagle, St. Vladimir of the 2nd degree, St. Anna of the 1st degree, St. Stanislav of the 1st degree, received the distinction for 40 years of spotless service. Emir of Bukhara awarded him the Order of the Bukhara gold star of the 1st degree. T. Filippov had the following medals: bronze medal in memory of the war of 1853–1856, dark bronze medal with Alexander ribbon in memory of the coronation of Emperor Alexander III, silver medal with double Vladimir and St. Andrew ribbon in memory of the reign of Emperor Nicholas I, silver medal with Alexander ribbon in memory of the reign of Emperor Alexander III, silver medal in memory of the coronation of Emperor Nicholas II, and dark bronze medal with a ribbon of state colors for the service in the first General Census of 1897.
Filippov was awarded international orders, including the order of Daniil Montenegrin of the 1st degree, the order of Serbian St. Sava of the 1st degree, Takov’s order of the 1st degree and the Greek Grand Cross of the Order of the Savior.
T.I. Filippov was an honorary member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Russian Theater Society, the Veterinary Committee, the Council of Moscow University, a full and honorary member of the Russian Geographical Society, a full member of the Society of Adherents of Russian Historical Education of Philological Society of St. Petersburg University, etc.
The life of T.I. Filippov was devoted to the service to the state, people, science, art and the church as an assembly of believers.
From the very beginning of his career, Tertiy Filippov paid due attention to the establishment of the upbringing and education in Russia, by which he understood the unified process of becoming a person, citizen and patriot.
Filippov T.I. was one of the first statesmen who recognized the possibility of women to open up a new field of work, giving them the opportunity to enter the civil service and, in particular, control institutions.
Filippov owned the idea of the need to preserve the surviving remnants of Russian song antiquity for science and art. In 1882, the collection “Forty Folk Songs Collected by T.I. Filippov and harmonized N.A. Rimsky-Korsakov” was published. Being the head of the commission at the Russian Geographical Society in 1884, he managed to put this ides on solid ground. With his all-presenting reports, Tertiy Filippov repeatedly requested the allocation of funds for the organization of special expeditions to various places in Russia in order to collect Russian folk songs with tunes, epics, and contributed to their musical development, as well as the search for ancient folk instruments.
Five such expeditions were equipped, during which more than 700 songs were collected. Collected songs at the request of T.I. Filippov were published at the Geographical Society in the form of separate collections. In 1894, the first such collection "Songs of the Russian people. Collected in the provinces of Arkhangelsk and Olonets in 1886. The words are recorded: by F.M. Istomin, and the tunes – by G.O. Dyutsh” was published under the supervision of T.I. Filippov and edited by F.I. Istomin and S.M. Lyapunov.
In 1899, the second collection of “Songs of the Russian people was published. Collected in the provinces of Vologda, Vyatka and Kostroma in 1893” was published.
Tertiy Fillipov collected an extensive library in the 90s of the XIX century A catalog of his Russian and foreign books on 50 pages was compiled, which included 6 sections: “Russian Literature”, “Foreign Literature”, “History and Biographies”, “Law. Politics. Sociology”, “Philosophy, Psychology, Theology, etc.”, “Geography, travel, natural sciences, ethnography, anthropology, statistics, etc.” A short list of books was also made, which included only old-printed and manuscript books since 1494 in the amount of 148 pieces, which were of great value.
Many articles of different years were compiled in “T. Filippov's Collection” in 1896. The official’s office was decorated with portraits of Emperors Alexander III and Nicholas II, Metropolitan of Moscow Filaret, the Patriarchs of Jerusalem Gerasim and Alexandria Sofroniy, State Comptroller V.A. Tatarinov, as well as Filippov’s portrait painted by I.E. Repin. The portrait was completed in September 1899 and immediately acquired high artistic value, and became one of the most successful works of the famous artist. At the initiative of Sergey, the son of T.I. Filippov the portrait was left to the Russian Museum in St. Petersburg for the gallery of contemporaries of Emperor Alexander III, where it is currently exposed.
Tertiy Filippov, state comptroller, public figure and publicist, was one of the outstanding figures of his time.
In the administrative sphere, he represented the type of an active Russian man. Due to his own efforts from the lower levels of the hierarchical ladder, he reached a higher administrative post equal to the ministerial one.
He was a teacher, publicist, scientist and collector of Russian national spiritual jewels. His participation in the old Moscow literary circles, when Moscow set the tone for Russian public opinion, was very prominent. He managed to combine literary works with public service and harmonize one with the other. He was known as a collector of ancient Russian songs and epics, tunes and tales, in which the national soul poured out and the everyday appearance of the people was preserved. He spoke about the protection of the historical treasury of Russia, the Russian epic and language.
Tertiy Ivanovich Filippov as the representative of the highest state administration of Russia was a person with an extensive scientific education, energetic and solid, a man who sincerely loved his homeland and was distinguished by patriotic aspirations.
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31 October 2020
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Mikhailovna, B. O. (2020). Activities Of Tertiy Filippov On The Preservation Of Cultural Heritage. In D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism» Dedicated to the 80th Anniversary of Turkayev Hassan Vakhitovich, vol 92. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 2912-2918). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.05.386