Problem Of Labor And Labor Activity In The Chechen Republic

Abstract

The Chechen Republic is one of the Russian regions known in the cultural and political space. The 1990s turned out to be one of the lessons, from which people have to draw conclusions. There are various symbolic bonds that determine characteristics of an ethnic group. One of these concepts is “labor”. The purpose of the article is an analytical review of labor and labor activities of the Chechens. The following tasks were set: – to conduct a mass survey; – to analyze its results. The mass survey conducted in the Chechen Republic included 100 respondents. The subject was labor and labor activity during the crisis. The main methods used were a questionnaire survey, an analysis and a synthesis. They contributed to the collection of information and its analytical processing. The author came to the conclusion that the situation in the republic is a reflection of the critical living conditions of Russian citizens, when people are forced to spend their energy on the routine, the success of a small part of people provokes social hostility and apathy. The needs of the Russian people have been narrowed. People are not satisfied with their work, family, themselves. Social illness affects the nature of events.

Keywords: Laborlabor activityemployereducationquality of work

Introduction

The current situation is characterized by the diversity of its development. In general, the current global crisis in the political and economic spheres puts a stamp on living standards of the Russians. The research subject of researchers is various aspects of the socio-cultural space, within an objective reality of social and human being is formed. According to the researchers, “structuring a multilayer culture with horizontal and vertical layers allows us to identify fundamental and peripheral parts of culture of the post-Soviet and Eurasian peoples, as well as globalization, civilization, and ideological values” (Bilalov & Akaev, 2019, p. 63). Representatives of the social sciences and humanities are faced with the task of a comprehensive analysis of the problems that arose as a result of shifting the boundaries between civilizations, cultures, and times. The study of the material sphere as the basis of social relations is most relevant.

The current situation in Russia is characterized, on the one hand, by the country's relative stability to the effects of the global crisis, and on the other, by the exacerbation of contradictions in the system of social and labor relations, caused primarily by the contradictory interests of their subjects, which led to massive layoffs and freezing and direct payments of wages, aggravation of social tension, and as a result, demotivation of workers to work. (Zhulina, 2011, p. 52).

Under these conditions, the attitude towards work and labor activity is changing. An employee is not protected from the arbitrariness of the employer. A number of researchers pay attention to the modernization of the current situation in the region (Dimaeva et al., 2019).

Problem Statement

The problem of labor and labor activity in the Chechen Republic is analyzed in terms of the current sociocultural situation.

Research Questions

Various aspects of the problem of labor and labor activity is the subject of research of various scientists. For example, some researchers (Sobotková & Dohnalová 2014) say that an increase in unemployment is becoming a serious macroeconomic problem that is being addressed at the level of many governments. At the same time, the problems of labor and labor activity are a consequence of the economic and sociocultural crises. A diploma of a graduate does not mean the professional competence of the applicant (Sobotková & Dohnalová, 2014). The development of the educational process and its relationship with the labor market were described by a group of authors according to whom “the structure of the graduates does not always meet the requirements of the Russian labor market, and the level of education in some higher education organization does not allow graduates be demanded on the international labor market” (Chistyakova, Semenova, Spitsin, & Philipp, 2015), which also determines the problematic nature of the modern labor market . “It is known for a long time that young Russians prefer to study for economists and lawyers, while the economy needs more engineers and welders” (Chistyakova et al., 2015, p. 309). Among the youth of the Chechen Republic, economists and lawyers are one of the most popular professions, while there is no shortage of economists and lawyers in the labor market.

The article is one of the stages in a series of studies on the problems of socio-cultural, political, religious situations in the republic (Betilmerzaeva, Akhtaev, Sadulaev, & Salgiriev, 2017a; Betilmerzaeva, Dzutsev, Shamsuev, & Salgiriev, 2017b; Dzutsev, Atabaeva, Biragova, & Betilmerzaeva, 2016).

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the article is an analytical review of labor and labor activities of the Chechens. The following tasks were set:

  • to conduct a mass survey;

  • to analyze its results.

Research Methods

As part of the project “Labor and economic activity in the Russian Federation during the crisis”, a mass survey involved 100 people. The subject of the research is labor and labor activity during the crisis. The main methods are a questionnaire survey, an analysis and a synthesis which contributed to the collection of information and its analytical processing.

72% of women and 28% of men were the respondents.

The age structure: 18–64-year-old respondents, of whom 22 % – aged 18–24; 40% – aged 25–34; 16 % – aged 35–44; 14 % – aged 45–54; 6% – aged 55–64.

Education: 52 % were graduates of universities; 26 % of respondents had scientific degrees; 18% of respondents were graduates of colleges; 4 % were graduate students.

Findings

1. What is labor for you?

One of the important factors determining the well-being of society is labor and an attitude to labor. More than half of the respondents chose the option “Labor gives me an opportunity to support my family” – 52 %. The option “Labor is a basis for acquiring skills and realizing my abilities” was chosen by 34 % of the respondents. The option “This is a set of tasks” was chosen by 8 %. The option “Labor makes it possible to participate in shared affairs with other people” was chosen by 6 %, “Labor is a form of communication with colleagues” was chosen by 4 % of respondents. The option “Labor gives a certain direction to my daily activities” was not chosen by the respondents.

2. In which industry do you work?

Most of the respondents (92 %) are engaged in education. Accordingly, the results of the study reflect the state of labor in one of the material-production spheres. Seeing the limited scope of the industry, we tried to enrich this picture with field materials.

3. Are you satisfied with your salary?

74 % said that their salaries are not satisfactory, 20 % – "quite satisfactory"; the rest found it difficult to answer.

The comments reflected reasons for dissatisfaction: “it is not enough to satisfy my financial needs, I am forced to engage in two professional areas – law enforcement and teaching (this is interesting, but low paid”; “it’s completely satisfying";" "I spend my salary on publications."

4. Do you think that work makes it possible to show your talent?

52 % of respondents chose the option “Yes, I can implement my professional skills”; 40 % – “Not fully”; 4 % of respondents cannot express themselves in their work.

A number of respondents said that the work of scientists and teachers is creative, so you can always find opportunities to express your personality.

5. Does work give you a sense of stability in order to support family?

An analysis of respondents' answers indicates the need for fundamental changes in the remuneration of budgetary organizations. 22 % answered “Yes, it does”, 46 % answered “Not fully”; 32 % – “No, it doesn’t” – 32 %.

6. In your opinion, is it better to work in the commercial or public organizations?

The results demonstrate the confidence of respondents in the state economy: 90 % answered that they prefer to work in the state economy with fixed salaries; 2 % of respondents preferred working in commercial organizations; 4 % of respondents found it difficult to answer; 4 % chose the option “other”.

We believe that this percentage is based on the prevailing attitude towards public institutions. In fact, the Soviet ideology was based on holy ideas: land – to peasants, factories – to workers. These ideas became ideological tools, slogans. The images of the worker and the peasant were not realized because ideologists bureaucraticized their essence. There was another side represented by simulations of those who destroyed the great idea of brotherhood, freedom and justice.

The bureaucratic tools have not changed much. It all depends on the professionalism of a person, personality characteristics, organizational skills. Public work is more secure, requires less activity. In the informal economy, the responsibility for success or failure is on the individual. Some of the respondents are not ready to take responsibility for their future.

7. What is suitable for you – a certain salary established by the state, or work outside the public system?

The question contributed to some certainty of the respondents' true aspirations. 86% did not want to work in the public system. 10 % were ready to work for a real salary outside the public system.

The position of those who said that the government should be a guarantor of the educational and research policies was clearly expressed.

Conclusion

The respondents' answers are a very interesting material for reflection on the attitude to labor in the republic. For half of the respondents, labor (Question 1) serves as a means of satisfying economic needs of their families which positively characterizes people employed in the public sector. 34 % of respondents define labor as “the basis for acquiring skills and realizing their abilities”. An encouraging factor is the fact that labor activity is a launching pad for a further growth. Respondents suggested such options as work is a “burden”, “”, “pleasure”, “a form of self-expression, income, family support."

An important criterion in assessing labor and labor activity is the last answer (labor “as a form of self-expression”), which corresponds to the Soviet and Russian classical approaches to labor as a means of expressing one’s own personality. The field material contains arguments of the respondents who claim that it is unjustified to grow vegetables when it is possible to buy everything in the market. Respondents said about low salaries of manual workers, risks of employment in a private sector, etc. Seasonal employment for the Chechen region served as one of the sources of family income in the 1970s and the beginning of the 1980s, currently, a considerable part of workers travels outside the region in order to support their families.

We believe that this picture (Question 5) reflects the unhealthy situation in society when workers employed in education and science (92 % of respondents) are served by people who cannot satisfy their primary socioeconomic needs. Initially, the development of human reflection was determined by the level of development of social and economic relations which allowed the homo erectus to manifest himself as a homo sapiens. A man whose energy is spend on everyday needs have not time on social and political reflection.

When people are forced to spend their energy on the routine, the success of a small part of people provokes social hostility and apathy. There was a period in the life of Soviet children, when the lack of paints was made up for by the collection of candy wrappers. Today, a similar factor is colored shop windows, television screens, where there is a form, but there is no content. It is the world of simulacra. Needs have been narrowed, people turned into great consumers who are not satisfied with their jobs, families or themselves.

In search for stability, the individual creates a family that agitates his consumer fervor, etc. The chariot of social degeneration is launched. This situation can be changed if a girl with candy wrappers understands that the true value is the content rather than the wrapper. But it is not simple. If in the experiment “brains in a barrel” by H. Putnam, the brain is a victim of a scientist (“evil genius”), under the modern marketing balancing, there is no need to spend money on barrels, we are under a constant attack of "evil geniuses", imposing certain values.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Russian Fundamental Research Fund, project 19-011-31454 “Labor and economic activity in the Russian Federation under crisis conditions”.

References

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Publisher

European Publisher

First Online

31.10.2020

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.05.380

Online ISSN

2357-1330