Relationships "Person-Organization" In The Context Of Sociological Survey
The article proposes a methodology for conducting a comparative sociological analysis based on the determination of common characteristics and differences between an existing organization and an ideal model, that takes into account determinants that are visible both at the corporate and social levels. A special role in the implementation of this methodology is carried out by the engagement of the expert community members, whose main objective is the interpretation of the information received and preparation of recommendations aimed at further improving the system of organizational relations, its transformation in accordance with the domestic requirements of the organization and the imperatives of social development. A special role in the implementation of this methodology is carried out by the involvement of representatives of the expert community whose main task is to interpret the acquired data and prepare recommendations aimed at further improving the system of organizational relations, its transformation in accordance with the internal needs of the organization and the imperatives of social development. A comparative analysis of the real and ideal organizational models identifies the strengths and weaknesses of the organization, identify the main development trends, and prepare practical recommendations for all parties involved - managers and owners, employees, as well as representatives of local governments, trade unions and non-profit organizations. The necessity of systematic work with experts based on their impartial and interested attitude in conducting the most objective analysis of sociological data is substantiated.
Keywords: Social governanceorganizational modelingexpert surveycomparative analysis
One of the main functions of modern sociology is application function, which “has its part in solving practical problems and tasks of social life: from society as a whole to small firms and families” (Lapin, 2002). According to this, an articulation of the main sociological problems and the search for best possible solutions are happening. In relation to the topic of humanization of organizational relations under consideration, the implementation of the application sociological function can be manifested in two aspects. The first aspect is the optimization of the emerging theoretical models through adaptation to the conditions of specific organizations. The second aspect relates to the development of specific recommendations directed at increasing the effectiveness of collaboration in the “person-organization” system, as well as the full realization of the humanistic potential inherent in it. Moreover, both aspects are important to consider in inextricable unity.
The basis for the functioning and development of the "person-organization" system is the collaboration of its constituent elements. In this it is important to consider the special feature, that the number of elements is not confined to the person and the organization. Their number is also determined by the presence of a significant number of links in which they are involved. Thus, indirectly, the society as a whole, which has a decisive impact on the peculiarities of its establishment and development, also enters into the “person-organization” system. Outside of society, this system could not exist. Also, the very idea of its occurrence would be senseless if there was no interaction with customers and contractors. Therefore, they have an indirect influence on the development trajectories of the “person-organization” system. That is why it is possible to analyze the features of the “person-organization” system only from the position of its activities and interaction with society and its individual structures.
The starting point of a sociological survey of the characteristics and development of the "man-organization" system is the awareness of the need for an existence of this system itself. It is important to identify which is the reason for the approach whereby an individual person is equalized in rights with the organization as a whole and sometimes became even higher. It is important to pay attention that there is not only the case of humanistic orientation in social management. An alternative to this is functional orientation, it also suggests the existence of such a system, but with only slightly different approaches to managing the interactions within its framework.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study was to carry out a sociological survey of the "man-organization" relationship system and to define and characterize its social variables.
During the research the methods of theoretical generalization and modeling, comparative and structural-functional analysis, as well as the method of descriptive analysis were used.
The main social beneficiaries of the existence and successful development of the “person-organization” system are society and organizations within its framework. While the benefit of the latter is the result of applying the optimal model of interaction, taking into account the specifics of ongoing activities and relevant social trends. In the end, the benefit of specific organizations assumes not only a social, but also a material nature, which is reflected in increasing the profitability and possible maximization of profit.
Note that one of the arguments against separating a person and an organization as a separate system may be that the organization is a staff population, the distinct perception of each seems inappropriate. The importance of perceiving an organization as a unified entity can also be confirmed by the presence of a synergistic effect, whose impact “in social organizations means an additional energy that exceeds the number of participants’ individual efforts” (Osipov, 2003, p. 52). However, the fact of an effect should not be misleading. Consideration of the features of the “person-organization” system does not mean a denying of the organization`s unity and the need for its perception as a whole. But at the same time, it is important to understand that for each employee there is an opposition to his personal and organizational interests. If it wouldn`t include management practice, there may be a significant reduction in the effectiveness of ongoing activity. Thus, one of the main tasks of leadership is the search of the most appropriate model of organizational interaction, which requires a comprehensive understanding of the characteristics of the system of interaction with a person. For its part this approach doesn`t mean a full management individualization for a particular individual. Of course, the main features of the staff should be taken into account, but the interaction with each of them has occurred on the basis of the principles underlying the corporate culture as a special system of values, taking into account, among other things, development trends of society. It is important to note the significance of effective solution of key problems maintaining a balance of interests, distribution of powers, transformation and regulation of managerial interaction (Berton, 2016).
Modeling of an ideal organizational system is an important step of sociological survey. Within this step, it is important to consider as many aspects as possible that characterize the ideal organization. It should take into account the number of levels of the organizational hierarchy, the possible existence of branched horizontal communications between units. At the same time, spans of control must be taken into account. As a result, several homogeneous options arise, within prevailing a certain model of interaction between superiors and subordinates, between departments, between staff members and the organization as a whole. It is important to pay attention that the main feature of the corporate governance structure is to create opportunities for the development and implementation of strategies (Gurkov, 2008). In the current context, it is important to provide the benefits of the organization, which lies in its ability to interact effectively with the external environment. Consequently, within the framework of the organizational structure, certain mechanisms of such communication should be provided. This may be the establishment of a special structural unit, responsible for interaction with the institutions of modern society, and the increase the autonomy of existing elements of the organizational structure and staff members. Anyway, it cannot be considered the ideal model of organization in isolation from society with its unique features and unique characteristics. If this condition is neglected, then it will be impossible to compare this model with real-life organizations due to the low representation of the results.
Continuing the analysis of the "person-organization" system, it should be noted that in some cases the processes of organizational relationships cannot be evaluated. It is possible to establish reliably only the number of relations existing between staff members and units. This approach does not allow determining the nature of the whole process. As a result, the qualitative evaluation of the interaction in the organization plays a leading role. Within such surveys, we cannot avoid analysis of expert information, which can be seen as one of “strategies for addressing challenges of developing high-quality programs and tools for diagnosing and monitoring modern multifactorial social problems” (Onipko, 2014, p. 70). The involvement of the expert community in trend analysis in organizational development in general and the “person-organization” system in particular allows successfully addressing a number of possible challenges. Firstly, such an approach reduces the need for continual review of the relevance and adequacy of the data used, because experts have kept the latest information that most fully reflects the current state of affairs. Secondly, experts can act not only as a source of information, but also consult on a great number of current issues. Finally, thirdly, for the researcher of social processes, it is very important to interact with practitioners. This allows enriching his own research tools, discussing fresh ideas that are in line with current trends of development of society. Experts involved in ongoing research can successfully be practitioners.
The analysis of expert information, must be given as part of the study of organizational systems as widely as possible. This approach is already actively applied in the theory and practice of state and public administration, when interaction with state expert institutes are becoming an inherent attribute of decision making at any level of government (Tselyutina, 2007). Such practices are gradually entered into the business sector. Governing bodies of large and small companies use the services of organizations that provide consulting services. There are a large number of independent experts who are ready to facilitate in finding the most optimal and efficient model of business management. From this it may be concluded that the interaction with the expert community is one of the current developments in modern management. In research in the field of organizational and managerial activities, it is also important to adhere to such approaches, which makes it possible to improve the validity of the results, while simultaneously reducing the rate of their analysis and interpretation.
The question that remains open is the circle of persons that may be invited to be experts. At first sight, there should be management representatives – the leaders of the organization and its structural subdivisions. However, the information obtained may have unilateral nature and be overly formalized. Indeed, the leader of the organization can provide comprehensive data of member`s number, the level of their professional qualifications, he can show researchers the results of the activities. But he hardly has information about the structure of informal interaction with the staff, staff morale, their many interests, that are not belonging to the performance of professional duties. In addressing issues don`t count on the leadership of structural divisions. That is why, it is very appropriate to involve ordinary members as experts, who have been working with the organization for quite some time and who acquire authority in the staff. They will help to understand the very essence of the ongoing interaction in all its aspects, they will provide information about the features of informal communications and established relationships. All of this must be a full understanding of the features of a particular system of "person-organization." In addition, the involvement of not only leaders, but also ordinary members as experts will highlight the importance of the latter for the staff which is one of the most important manifestations of the humanization of organizational and managerial activities.
One of the significant problems may be the lack of sustainable motivation of potential experts to participate in the research. In the present case, it is necessary not only to notify of the need and importance of the events, capable of improving the theory of social management. The explanation of practical benefit for leaders and staff members has great importance, it consists in their opportunity to apply the findings in order to enhance the effectiveness of interaction, increase staff experience satisfaction with professional activities. A similar approach is connected with general features of conducting applied sociological research, the results of which “become one of the decision-making factors, if they are significant for the management subject, they represent informational value for it” (Farahutdinov, 2011, p. 108). Knowing that, experts from leaders and members, interested in the sustainable development of the organization, will engage with the researcher. The main motive is awareness of the importance of going work both for advancing the science of social management and to practice within their activities.
Obtaining and analyzing expert information is a valuable source for sociological research. However, it is impossible to interact with a limited circle of people. It is often important to understand the staff member`s morale, monitor dynamic of their opinions and attitudes towards the organization. In most cases, one cannot do without conducting surveys. It has its own specifics, different from working with experts. Since the sample is large enough – hundreds or even thousands of people, if a large company at the federal level is being examined – it is important to carefully approach the development of sociological tools. The basic requirement is the correct raising issues and thorough inspection of the formulation of questions, because they can formalize only in this way and as a result, formalized the process of the obtained information (Averyanov, 1998). It is important not to deviate from the planned research program, otherwise, it`s possible to distort results and to reduce their validity.
Regardless of which methodologies will be used in each particular case, it is important to remember that the starting point of the analysis should be a person. Such an approach is based not only on the field specifics of undertaking survey that is the humanization of organizational activity. It is also on the trends in sociological science, within which “there is a shift in research interests in connection with the awareness of the significance of the subjective factor, the role and significance of person as an active social subject, under the influence of which changes in both macro and micro worlds are being made” (Toshchenko, 1999, p. 5).
After processing and interpretation of the information received, it is possible to create a model of the investigated organization. Then a phased comparison of previously prepared ideal sociological model follows. During the analysis identifies the features of the ongoing interaction, the structure of external and internal relations and the involvement of units and staff members.
When analyzing, it is necessary to address what will be its starting point - the organization as a whole or the place of a particular person in it. Of course, the very idea of humanization suggests the need for the strongest emphasis on the human factor. However, the interaction with an individual member does not allow understanding the essence of the entire organization. One of the tasks of sociological research is the generalization of information received. Otherwise, models developed cannot be translated to modern society as a whole and a significant number of organizations, carrying out activities in its framework. Therefore, it is important to apply the most universal methodology for analyzing the system under consideration, not to focus on interaction with specific members, but try to abstract and isolate those essential characteristics that correspond to interact with all members without exception. That is why, taking into account the uniqueness of each person and the importance of the human factor, it is necessary to proceed from the peculiarities of organizational and social relationships.
First, an exhaustive analysis of the “person-organization” system suggests theoretical understanding of organizational development in line with the trends of modern society. The collection of empirical data should not be considered as the main part of the study. Interpretation and preparation of recommendations on their basis for improving organizational and socio-managerial relations seem to be much more important. A variant is also possible, which almost completely excludes consideration of the features of existing organizations. The survey lies in the development of a theoretical model of the organizational structure and the corresponding system of interaction. Of course, it is necessary to take into account the experience of leading domestic and foreign companies, detailed in the sociological and managerial literature. It is not difficult to guess that in the case the labor intensity of the analysis is considerably reduced, which, however, does not mean a simultaneous declining importance of the theory and practice of social management. In any case, the analysis with theoretical nature or analysis supported by interaction with specific organizations, can serve as a basis for enhancing the effectiveness of the interaction between a person and an organization, which at the same time means the full realization of the potential inherent in each staff member, which manifests itself as a result of the synergistic effect.
In the analysis of the "person-organization" system, it is possible to realize a number of methodological approaches. Their concrete realization depends on the objectives that the researcher set for himself. Considering social values and their possible transformation within specific organizational entities and developing a theoretical model of the organizational structure, we can understand the essential characteristics of the “person-organization” system. Theoretical analysis may be supported by practice during the study of specific organization`s activities. However, the main thing is understanding of the substance of social interaction and those concrete realizations takes place at the level of society can be within the particular organization. Such an approach is currently becoming a key to understanding the features of the “person-organization” system as an integral phenomenon, which is the main requirement of comprehensive and exhaustive analysis.
According to the above mentioned aspects the following conclusions may be drawn:
1. The relevance of conducting research on the establishment and transformation of systems of organizational relations is due to the significance of the information received both for social management theory and practice.
2. A comparative analysis of the specific and the ideal organizational model allows identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the organization, identifying the main trends in its development, preparing recommendations for all involved parties - leaders and owners, staff members, as well as representatives of local communities, trade unions and non-profit organizations.
3. Work with experts should be systemic and based on their impartiality and interest in conducting the most objective analysis with valid and correct results.
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