Ethnic Aspects Of Rural Settlements Of The Republic Of Tatarstan
The relevance of the study arises from a significant number of challenges in terms of the Russian countryside development caused by insufficient attention to the state of mentality and spirituality of rural residents as the most resistant to environmental factors representatives of traditional folk culture and by the underutilized opportunities of internal development resources, especially, ethnic reproduction and cultural potential. Taking into account the diversity of the regional differences in a significant area of the Russian Federation, it seems appropriate to identify and compare some regional models. Using the example of the Republic of Tatarstan, the authors analyze the ethnic aspects of the rural settlements, their occurrence and dynamics as the main condition for the development of historical and cultural (ethno-cultural) landscapes. The ethno-cultural component, in its turn, is considered as a factor in the sustainable development of rural settlements and requires thoughtful attention to it to provide the optimal use of its resources. This problem statement and its solution are absent in regulatory documents and are not sufficiently represented in the literature. To conduct the research, we used the data taken from the official statistics, specialized reference books, and field materials obtained by the authors during some ethnographic expeditions in the Republic of Tatarstan in 2015–2019. The obtained results allow determining the trends of a number of ethno-demographic processes in the Republic of Tatarstan and moving to a higher level enabling to run a study on the ethno-cultural landscapes of the rural settlements and construct their initial models.
The paper is devoted to the issues of effective organization of training in a foreign community, in particular, the most efficient approaches to prefixal verbs of motion at different stages of training. In the practical course of the Russian language for foreign students, one of the difficult topics is the study of prefixal verbs of motion. The ambiguity of semantic, formal identity of verbs, large quantitative composition of this language group leads to difficulties of studying prefixal verbs and their use in speech. The paper presents the errors from written works of foreign students and gives the analysis of their causes. The paper analyses the possibilities of using various techniques, including the system of training exercises. It considers methodological techniques of dealing with lexical and grammatical units of the studied language at the stages of introducing new educational material, its consolidation and activation in speech, such as the demonstration of a speech model, translation, comment, diagrams, tables, frames, drawings. Besides, the paper highlights the rational combination of systematic performance of training exercises, which lay down a strong language base, and various techniques, which activate the reclusive activity of foreign students, form and develop their speech, help to master such complex and voluminous educational material as prefixal verbs of motion. The provisions set forth in the paper are based on the study of scientific and methodological literature, teaching manuals on Russian language for foreigners, observations in the educational process, as well as personal experience of teaching Russian language to foreign students.
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