Russian Democratic Socialism And Individual Freedom As A Condition Of Social Development


The article analyzes the attitude to the problem of individual rights and freedom of Russian political parties of the early 20th century. The problem is connected with the positions of democratic socialism – a direction for which the issue of equal and mutually beneficial relations State – Society – Individual. Democratic socialism in Russia was represented by the Narodniks, as well as Mensheviks. The liberals who formed the Party People's Freedom supported the sovereignty of the individual, the need for its comprehensive development, and the value for society of every person, regardless of their social belonging to the platform of democratic socialism. The ethical side of politics is developed by leaders of the parties, as the recognition of the individual as a key subject of social development, radically distinguished them from adherents of totalitarian socialism – the Bolsheviks. Democratic parties played a great role in the socio-political modernization of Russia and laying the foundation of civic culture in the country. In addition to developing software installations aimed at gradually involving the working people in self-government processes, they carried out daily informational and propaganda work. This significantly increased the general level of civil consciousness of workers and peasants. The study also reveals some features of the domestic political culture and political consciousness that impeded the modernization dynamics of the country. Traditional Russian sociocentrism, the dominance of the massive ideas characteristic of agrarian societies, and the inertia of sociocultural patterns in the aggregate hindered the development of personal potential among the working people of pre-revolutionary Russia.

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The paper is devoted to the issues of effective organization of training in a foreign community, in particular, the most efficient approaches to prefixal verbs of motion at different stages of training. In the practical course of the Russian language for foreign students, one of the difficult topics is the study of prefixal verbs of motion. The ambiguity of semantic, formal identity of verbs, large quantitative composition of this language group leads to difficulties of studying prefixal verbs and their use in speech. The paper presents the errors from written works of foreign students and gives the analysis of their causes. The paper analyses the possibilities of using various techniques, including the system of training exercises. It considers methodological techniques of dealing with lexical and grammatical units of the studied language at the stages of introducing new educational material, its consolidation and activation in speech, such as the demonstration of a speech model, translation, comment, diagrams, tables, frames, drawings. Besides, the paper highlights the rational combination of systematic performance of training exercises, which lay down a strong language base, and various techniques, which activate the reclusive activity of foreign students, form and develop their speech, help to master such complex and voluminous educational material as prefixal verbs of motion. The provisions set forth in the paper are based on the study of scientific and methodological literature, teaching manuals on Russian language for foreigners, observations in the educational process, as well as personal experience of teaching Russian language to foreign students.

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