Spiritual And Moral Development Of Individuals Within Network Forms Of Educational Programs
The article presents the concept of spiritual and moral development of personality in online forms of educational programs, the relevance of which is due to the emergence of a new type of social structure called the "network society". Considering network educational activity as a spiritual enrichment of a person, and spiritual and moral development of a person as a pedagogical goal of upbringing, the authors believe that network forms of educational programs, satisfying the needs of the population, should become a “breeding ground” for the spiritual and moral development of a person. In fact, we are talking about managed communication, in which the teacher can interact with the student, building the trajectory of his training and adapting the content, methods and pace of educational activity to its features. At the same time, this is the student’s attitude to his education, that is, awareness of the need to learn a subject, obtaining the necessary information. In this regard, the authors determined that the created online educational space should be in the space of multi-level educational programs (projects) for the formation of prospects for their own spiritual and moral education, etc. Programs (projects) should reflect the active nature of education; the composition of educational materials is based on the reflection of real situations and is aimed at the spiritual and moral development of the individual. As a result, each student will be able to create their own spiritual and moral educational space, in accordance with their needs and the chosen learning strategy.
The pace and nature of the development of our society directly depends on the civic position of each person, his motivational-volitional sphere, life priorities, moral beliefs, moral standards and spiritual values. In this regard, the problem of the spiritual and moral development of an individual is always one of the urgent and fundamental tasks in education. At the same time, the modern education system does not always consider the ongoing social transformations that affect the whole world and constitute a new type of social structure called the “network society” based on the microelectronics of information and communication technologies.
As Castells ( 2000) notes: “In the modern era, new information technology networks represent more serious changes than technologies associated with the industrial revolution or the information revolution ... as the Internet becomes a universal tool for interactive communication, we are shifting from computer-centered technology to diffuse network technology” (p. 6).
A special place in a network society is occupied by network forms of implementing educational programs that provide the possibility of their development using the resources of several organizations engaged in educational activities, or when participants in a network form of implementation create and approve a joint educational program. A distinctive feature of such programs is the academic mobility of its participants. This concept is correlated with the concept of "network interaction". Communicatively and structurally, such networked forms of implementing educational programs can have a significant impact on the entire education system at various levels; as a whole, unite the market for educational services and the market for pedagogical and scientific personnel. In the process of implementation, they can become cultural phenomena that produce new patterns of behavior of the people and institutions involved in it, and thereby ensure the spiritual and moral development of participants. Narrow specialization that was relevant in the 19th and 20th centuries is gradually becoming a thing of the past; specialists with not only professional interdisciplinary knowledge, but also key meta-subject competencies, such as communication, cooperation, creative thinking and critical thinking, are becoming more and more in demand in the labor market. These competencies are also important in terms of the spiritual and moral development of the individual, which implies comprehension by her of the surrounding world, her inner “I” and the formation of a conscious understanding of her purpose in life. In this regard, an urgent need for education in modern conditions is the development of the concept of spiritual and moral development of the individual in networked forms of educational programs.
At present, certain theoretical prerequisites have developed to solve the indicated problem. Various problems and aspects of the implementation of network forms of educational programs are considered in the works of various scientists ( Berulava, 2010; Novikov, 2009; Trommsdorff & Chen, 2015). However, despite the full value of the theoretical conclusions contained in these studies, many important questions remain insufficiently developed. It is necessary to determine the substantive capabilities and pedagogical potential of the network forms of educational programs in the context of the spiritual and moral development of the individual on new theoretical and methodological grounds. At the same time, practical prerequisites have developed. For several years, various online educational programs have been intensively developed, implemented and implemented in Russia, since Russia joined the Bologna process in 2003, in which the ideas of online learning have been embodied since 1999. Entering the Bologna process gave a new impetus to the modernization of Russian education. Network forms of training received official status and are defined by the Law on Education in the Russian Federation No. 273-FZ dated 12/29/2012 (latest revision).
In accordance with the law, online forms of implementing educational programs is a methodological system for organizing the educational process, which allows using the resources of several organizations, including foreign ones, for the participants to master the educational program. The law does not limit the list and departmental affiliation of participants in the implementation of the program. Such networking may also be legalized by contract. Unfortunately, these processes have not yet received the proper theoretical understanding and justification in the indicated spiritual and moral context. As a result, contradictions arise between the need for effective methods of spiritual and moral development of a person in the process of network education and the insufficient development of the concept of spiritual and moral development of a person in the process of implementing network forms of educational programs.
What influence can network forms of educational programs have on the spiritual and moral development of a person?
Purpose of the Study
Development of the concept of spiritual and moral development of personality in network forms of educational programs and its testing.
The interdisciplinarity of the stated problems has determined our use of various methods and approaches:
a network approach that is consistent with the spirit of modern post-industrial society, meaning that the network organization must represent an association of independent people, social groups or organizations organized on an ongoing basis to achieve agreed goals that have a common corporate image and infrastructure;
a personality-oriented approach that will help solve the problem of “personification” of knowledge existing in education, the transformation of objectively significant values into the individual meanings of the individual;
a competency-based approach that determines the essence of the spiritual and moral development of the personality, considering its professional orientation;
the project approach, when network activities aimed at the spiritual and moral development of the individual are divided into separate completed cycles (projects);
the peer-to-peer model is aimed at solving the problem of creating by equal participants in the educational context necessary and enough for their self-education.
Methods were also used to identify changes in the personal, behavioral and cognitive and spiritual and moral development of participants in the process of network activity: a test for value orientations; questioning, survey.
We turned our attention to the “connectivism” theory of learning – a model in which the educational community is described as a node that is always part of a larger network. Nodes arise from connection points that are within the network. A network consists of several nodes connected in order to share resources. They can vary in size and strength, depending on the concentration of information and the number of persons that pass through a site. According to this theory, knowledge is distributed over the network and stored in various digital formats, but since information is constantly changing, its accuracy and accuracy can change over time, so understanding of the subject and the ability to learn about it will also change over time ( Corneli & Danoff, 2011).
In our opinion, in the theory of connectivity there are two important points that contribute to learning: the ability to search for current information and the ability to filter secondary and excess information. In other words, the ability to gain knowledge is more important than knowledge itself. The ability to make decisions based on acquired information is considered an integral part of the learning process. We are talking about managed communication in order to master educational programs. The teacher can interact with one student, building the trajectory of his training and adapting the content, methods and pace of educational activity to its features. At the same time, this is personal training, first, the student’s attitude to his education, that is, awareness of the need to learn a subject, obtaining the necessary information.
Based on the ideas of Solovtsova ( 2004), they determined that the process of spiritual and moral development of a person within the framework of a network educational program should be considered in four aspects: as an ascent to spiritual and moral values; as an ascent to education and culture, in which values are reflected, manifested and materially embodied; as an ascent to oneself; as an ascent to another.
Studying the research on the indicated problem and the existing experience in implementing network forms of educational programs allows us to formulate our scientific idea, to identify those approaches and target guidelines that can guide us in solving the indicated problem. To solve the problem of the spiritual and moral development of the individual in modern conditions, we proceeded from the fact that the processes of humanizing culture and humanizing education, which determined the search for tools for implementing online forms of educational programs aimed at the spiritual and moral development of the individual, determine their focus on the formation of Russian public consciousness , including the ideology of statehood of the Russian Federation. As a result, satisfying the needs of the population, online forms of educational programs should become a “breeding ground" for the spiritual and moral development of the individual. They should promote the cultural heritage of the peoples of Russia, its multinational culture, are aimed at preserving the Russian language, thereby exerting both direct and indirect influence on the spiritual and moral qualities of its participants. The essence of the spiritual and moral development of the personality regarding the network educational activities of the participant is considered by us as the spiritual enrichment of the personality and the pedagogical goal of education in the framework of the implementation of network forms of educational programs. In fact, we are talking about the interconnected formation and development of various aspects of the personality, which can flexibly adapt to constantly changing life situations, has a developed intellect and at the same time morality, spiritual values and responsibility.
The concept we developed was tested during the implementation of the RUSNANO School League all-Russian educational program aimed at the development of modern Russian education and implemented in the Republic of Kalmykia, the Russian Federation on the basis of an agreement between Kalmyk State University named after B. B. Gorodovikova and the autonomous non-profit educational organization “School League” (St. Petersburg). The museum operator was the Museum of Kalmyk State University named after Bb Gorodovikova. This program has been implemented since 2012, the regional network includes 38 educational institutions of the Republic of Kalmykia. Up to 6 thousand people take part in network events annually (schoolchildren, teachers, students, teachers, heads of educational institutions and the region, entrepreneurs and heads of public organizations, etc.) ( Darzhinova et al., 2018).
As part of the testing of the concept of spiritual and moral development of the individual in the online forms for the implementation of educational programs, a complex of programs and projects was implemented: Business game-contest "Journalist", Kalmyk State University named after Bb Gorodovikova (past, present and future), vacation school "Agrograd. Kalmykia", vacation school "Nanograd. Kalmykia”, Network creative laboratory of critical thinking, scientific lecture hall, Round Table discussion club, museum conference, museum laboratory and so on ( Darzhinova, 2018). We also included territorial-geographical, cultural, ethnoregional features, local experience in the content of the events. So, for example, within the framework of the project, a business game-competition “Journalist” is held annually, during which participants get the opportunity to get in touch with real production and science, and then create real journalistic materials. Today, there are games on various subjects: “University through the eyes of schoolchildren”, “Mirror for the region”, “Is it easy to be young?”, etc.
An important aspect in testing the concept is the fact that, by offering various network programs and projects, the organizers and participants conduct a large educational work aimed at building a civil society and further developing Russia as a strong state. Various situations: life, social, personal, psychological, age-related and so on, related to the history of Russia, pressing contemporary problems that are discussed in the framework of the scientific lecture and discussion club Round Table, create internal conflicts, impulses to change personality, which allowed participants to enter the dialogical level of interaction with the world, get the opportunity to evaluate themselves, choose values, develop meanings, make an independent decision.
Another component of this concept is the opportunity to participate in projects and programs of parents who are always interested in increasing the motivation of children to learn and get an interesting profession. According to a survey of 56 parents of participants in the study regarding their interest in the project, the greatest value is that the participation of children in the program allows them to be employed, to form their psychological readiness for studying at a university and various competencies (educational, research, etc.). In general, many parents note that they are pleased to receive children's access to modern high-tech production and scientific equipment of Kalmyk State University and the opportunity to interact with their child in the process of participating in projects and programs; the formation of their portfolio for additional points upon further admission to the university.
A questionnaire was developed, consisting of questions aimed at clarifying the respondents' attitude to the socio-economic and political situation in the country, since in the complex structure of the spiritual and moral development of the individual, civic values occupy a special place. The questionnaire was attended by 272 people, divided into two groups: the first group –157 students in grades 8–9 from schools belonging to the regional network; the second group – 115 first-year students of KalmSU in the areas of "psychology", "history", "biology", "physics" (Table
A very high percentage of participants who do not have their own opinions – students and schoolchildren – 76 %; students found it difficult to answer – 15 %; schoolchildren – 17 %.
In 2018, these same respondents participated in a survey (Table
The number of those who found it difficult to answer significantly decreased – up to 7 % – students and up to 8 % – schoolchildren. A meaningful attitude to the situations prevailing in society was shown by 52
In 2018, a survey of 22 parents and 45 teachers was conducted: “What qualities are preferable for children to develop in order to make life easier for them?” From the proposed positions, it was necessary to select 4–5 most important ones (Table
Analysis of the results of the study demonstrated that each of the projects and programs enriches the participants spiritually and morally, helps to make their life interesting and vibrant. The proposed situational-event context allows participants to comprehend the studied space of activity, to consider reality from various angles. For example, the business game-contest "Journalist" becomes an occasion for thoughtful and useful acquaintance of schoolchildren with enterprises, professions, socio-economic problems of the region and the formation of a personal attitude towards them. This project also became a means for career guidance for schoolchildren of the Republic of Kalmykia, their study of educational university space and finding their own landmarks. Teachers advanced their skills through distance education programs; got opportunities for communication and cooperation with colleagues, as well as promoting their ideas in the pedagogical environment. They developed and proposed to the pedagogical community intersubject integration programs, various educational and research projects; mastered new techniques and constantly updated the content of the educational process. Participation in programs and projects as part of the testing of the concept has contributed to the fact that for students of schoolchildren, forums, blogs, and social networks that they choose independently also become a source of news.
The results of testing our concept showed a direct relationship between the spiritual and moral development of the individual, its value orientations, the educational environment and the influence of the family. The study showed that participation in educational programs and projects within the framework of the proposed concept of spiritual and moral development of an individual in online forms of educational programs implementation expands the educational potential of each educational institution and each participant, equalizes the opportunities of rural and city schools. Including the real experience of the teacher and students in the content of the training, we communicatively and structurally created various educational schemes that became the basis for their spiritual and moral development.
Thus, in the conditions of modern Russian society, the implementation of network forms of educational programs can be considered as a key factor in the revival, preservation and development of spiritual culture and personal identity, as they provide participants with a unique opportunity for spiritual enrichment and comprehension of the world, and can have a beneficial effect on the spiritual and the moral component of the personality, its value preferences and life-meaning orientations.
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