The article presents a study, financed by a grant project. The survey among teachers, students and their parents, allowed obtain and analyze numerous factors were obtained and analyzed that impeded the successful promotion of the inclusion process at primary schools. The discovered trends cannot be considered positive: they are a clear psychological obstacle to a productive solution to the task of introducing inclusion; It is proved that hidden conflicts are generated with the psychological unpreparedness of participants of an interaction during the introduction of inclusion. As a result, there is an increase in misunderstanding and accumulation of unspoken claims of the participants in communication to each other. In general, the study confirmed that the main psychological barrier is: fear of the unknown, fear of the harm of inclusion for other participants in the process, negative attitudes and prejudices, teacher’s professional insecurity, unwillingness to change, psychological unpreparedness to work with “special” children. During the implementation of the project, new data on conflict factors were obtained. The analysis of them allowed conclude that an inclusive educational environment adapted to the educational needs of any child can only be created with the close cooperation of all participants in the educational process by the means of education aimed at formation of ideas about disability. Based on the problems studied, the concept of a correctional and preventive system of psychological support for teachers, students and their parents to the introduction of the federal state educational standard for children with disabilities was proposed.
Keywords: EducationinclusionFederal Educational Standardpedagogical supporteducation model
Modernization of education attracts the great attention of parents with children with health limitations and disabilities. The main interest is inclusive education.
As a result of the awareness of the value of life and differences between people, an understanding of human rights, recognition of identity and personal characteristics. The inclusion of each person in society, regardless of their ethnic, religious, political affiliation, and regardless of their state of health, is the main value indicator of a social society.
Most studies on the organization of the inclusive education process agree that the process of introducing inclusive education requires the inclusion of psychological, pedagogical and organizational measures. It is equally important that with the introduction of inclusion, the educational community is faced with the pedagogical incompetence of teachers who do not have qualifications in this field, which significantly complicates and inhibits inclusive processes. A separate topic of the study is the heads of public organizations, who, not understanding the phenomenon of disability, are very careful about the presence and patronage of such children. Indeed, the presence of such children also requires the adjustment of curricula, the availability of special textbooks and infrastructure ( Alekhina, 2017; Alekhina, 2011; Alekhina et al., 2011).
An analysis of the review of studies on inclusive education problems of both foreign studies and Russian literature shows that most researchers agree on one thing, that many factors are required to create a favorable inclusive environment ( Zadorin et al., 2011).
Thus, four factors influence the success of introducing inclusion:
compliance with the material and technical base of a public organization;
professional readiness of teachers with the introduction of the Federal State Educational Standard;
intergroup relationships of children with disabilities in inclusive classes;
organization of the educational process in these types of classes.
Consequently, for the successful implementation of inclusion, serious work needs to be done from the reorganization of the material base of the school to the retraining of teachers. In the special psychological and pedagogical literature there are many studies that relate to the accompaniment of children with disabilities. But with the introduction of inclusion, teachers, parents and children with normal development themselves were not ready for the introduction of FSES. The most problematic area in this regard is the teachers themselves, who are not positively inclined towards the inclusive process ( Magomedova & Damadaeva, 2015).
This attitude to inclusion has an explanation and is dictated by numerous factors: a high level of empathy of teachers for children with disabilities; unwillingness of parents to see unhappy children next to their healthy ones; lack of understanding of the basics of inclusion and fear of the unknown ( Morozova, 2012).
We need a special model of preparing a teacher for inclusive education and training specialists in pedagogical specialties, mainly teachers. The main tasks include the formation of a preventive-corrective model for supporting the inclusion process, which includes several competencies. In the training of schoolteachers, such a component is present contextually. In most cases, teachers are offered to take advanced training courses with this focus, but after receiving certain theoretical knowledge, practical questions remain unresolved. The analysis shows that the modern education system in the understanding of parents has not lost its main function and is primarily a learning one. In their opinion, the acquisition of knowledge and the acquisition of education (i.e., a certificate of completion of an educational organization) affects the life trajectory ( Sergeeva & Khitryuk, 2015)
Changing attitudes towards children with disabilities determine the development of value guidelines. According to researchers, co-education is not only possible, but also useful for all students. In a healthy child, it forms an idea of equality, and for a disabled child it enables socialization in conditions of normal functioning.
Parents of children with disabilities are keenly aware of any changes in their attitude towards their children. Many of them believe that despite the introduction of inclusive education, the attitude has not changed. Changes in the attitude towards children with disabilities for the better are also noted ( Kuchmaeva et al., 2014).
There are cases of discrimination in education against children with disabilities.
Based on the data collected, we can say that in a mass school, children with disabilities are not always accepted positively. There are cases of negative attitudes towards children with disabilities ( Chigrina, 2010).
In accordance with the program of modernization and education of children with disabilities, the focus is inclusion. Therefore, it was important to consider the attitude of the parent community to the prospects for its development. It is noted that most parents believe that the development of inclusive education should exist only as a socialization, i.e. it is not considered as a process of training and education.
Thus, it can be noted that parents see structural changes, however, there is a misunderstanding of the parent community in the definition of this structure. In the process of modernization, value guidelines are formed, which are expressed in a change in attitude towards children with disabilities.
Consequently, the study of psychological and pedagogical support of inclusive education has a high social significance. The selected aspect of the study revealed several contradictions:
between the relevance of psychological and pedagogical support of inclusive education, their high theoretical and practical significance and the relatively low degree of their knowledge;
with the traditional stereotype of the perception of the education and upbringing of children with disabilities in specialized educational institutions and the introduction of an integrated education model, which gives rise to the need for a comprehensive scientific analysis of this phenomenon;
the need to implement a set of measures of pedagogical and psychological resources to form a positive attitude towards the phenomenon of disability among teachers and children with normative development and their absence in practice.
In our study, we proceeded from the hypothesis that in order to modernize education in connection with the introduction of inclusion, it is necessary to create conditions for mobilizing pedagogical and psychological resources aimed at creating a tolerant attitude towards the phenomenon of disability.
Purpose of the Study
The creation of a holistic correctional and preventive system of psychological support, providing optimal pedagogical conditions for teachers, students and their parents to the introduction of a federal state educational standard for children with disabilities
The research was obtained by questionnaires.
According to research, the modernization process has regional characteristics that determine the pace of development of inclusive education.
In this regard, we can say that the processes taking place in the Republic of Dagestan have certain characteristic features. To test this hypothesis, a survey was conducted using questionnaires.
During the study, a volunteer group was created to conduct surveys in the Republic of Dagestan. For this, the territory of the republic was divided into 3 zones (southern, mountain, central), to facilitate statistical processing of data and the reliability of the research results. In these areas, 15,900 people were surveyed, of which 6,900 primary school teachers, 3,000 parents, 6,000 normally developing peers.
When questioning teachers of educational organizations of the Republic of Dagestan, it was revealed that only 41 % of the surveyed teachers have a concept of what inclusive education is.
According to this survey, it was revealed that only 12 % of parents are aware of the principles of inclusive education, but 32 % of them are positive about inclusive education, although they have a vague idea of what it is and how it should happen.
Public educators are more informed about what inclusive education is, but only 44 % of them are positive about the ideas of inclusive education. It should also be noted that a relatively small percentage of teachers have a positive attitude towards co-education of children with disabilities-35 %. An even smaller number of parents approve of the idea and have a positive attitude towards co-education of their children with children with disabilities. However, 76 % of the children themselves are positive about the fact that they will study together with children with disabilities and disabilities.
Most of all, it was surprising that 78 % of the teachers surveyed did not even suggest who belonged to the category of children with disabilities and 90 % of the parents answered the question whether they belong to the category of children with disabilities.
It can be assumed that the incompetence of parents and teachers is related to the fact that training seminars and explanatory work are not conducted. This also applies to educational programs. Teachers often do not understand what adapted programs are. Most children with disabilities are enrolled in the general program.
It was noted that out of the entire array of respondents for training programs, adapted programs recommended by the medical-psychological-pedagogical commission are an additional form of the educational process that is not identified with inclusion.
In our opinion, the difficulties teachers must face have objective and subjective features. For example, the lack of knowledge and practical skills of the teaching staff in working with children with disabilities is noted in secondary schools.
The modernization of educational processes is associated with long-term strategies that prioritize the tasks assigned to the education system. The formation of long-term action models is established in the legislative and regulatory acts of state power; therefore, they are not subject to change in a certain period.
We also noted that in order to receive specialized assistance to teachers educating children with disabilities in correctional educational institutions, a network of teaching rooms has been formed, such consultations are not held for secondary school teachers. It should be noted that one of the main difficulties is the relationship with parents.
In educational organizations that do not have an early education function for children with disabilities, there is a lack of technical and software – methodological equipment. The teaching staff must deal with the search for technical equipment, program and methodological material themselves.
Among the difficulties faced by the administration of secondary schools, where children with disabilities are studying, is the technical equipment of the classes.
The education development for children with disabilities as ensuring equal access for all children, without exception. Having excluded the concept of corrective education from the law, the modernization of the education of children with disabilities has taken on impasse. The law defines the joint education of all children, but there is no technical, pedagogical, economic, or even architectural opportunity for this.
Experts from general education organizations believe that inclusive education is worth developing. But this process is not a single decade. Experts of correctional educational organizations agree with them. However, they believe that inclusive education should have only the functions of socialization. Being in a general education class should be fragmented for disabled children with many types of correctional needs ( Aleshina, 2010).
Thus, there are significant differences in the opinion of experts regarding the modernization of the education of children with disabilities. The misunderstanding of the structural – functional system of this education is determined.
Many structural and functional changes raise many questions related to the education of children with disabilities. Basically, the education system of children with disabilities retains their educational functions in the correctional school. In order for the process of modernization of the education of children with disabilities in the Republic of Dagestan to be accelerated, we proposed the concept of a correctional and preventive system of psychological support for teachers, students and their parents to the introduction of the federal state educational standard for children with disabilities, presented in Figure
The main problems faced by teachers are the lack of structurally functional education system for children with disabilities.
It is very important to take measures aimed at the effectiveness of modernization of education.
Providing teachers of educational institutions with information materials, creating a network of free courses to support the educational process of children with disabilities, creating consulting and methodological centers for teachers of educational organizations.
In connection with the reorganization and the change in the funding procedure, the justification for opening additional rates for specialists in the field of correction is difficult, however, according to experts, the availability of such specialists is one of the primary conditions for the successful education of children with disabilities. To date, educational organizations of the Republic of Dagestan are not provided with specialists in the field of corrective pedagogy and psychology. In most areas of the republic there is no socio-psychological service.
The big problem of joint education in secondary schools is the rejection of children with disabilities in the children's team.
Even though a lot of work is being done to erase stereotypes, they strongly influence both the perception of children and the perception of parents.
Basically, the teaching staff relates with some misunderstanding to children with disabilities, certain needs of children with disabilities with diseases of the internal system of organs. The lack of an external manifestation of health restrictions is an occasion for teachers not to consider the characteristics of the child.
Accordingly, to the identified problems, the concept of a correctional and preventive system of psychological support of teachers, students and their parents to the introduction of FSES for children with disabilities is proposed to structure the work of a public organization and ensure optimal pedagogical conditions when introducing inclusion.
Thus, the education system for children with disabilities does not have a clearly defined structure and is in the process of modernization, which provides a transition to a new form of education that considers the formed values in relation to children with disabilities.
First, you need to understand that any process of reformation faces certain difficulties in view of the transition from the old system to an updated system. Thus, identifying problems to further solve them helps a more successful modernization process.
The implementation of modernization processes provides for the formation of partnerships between the main participants in the educational process. In this regard, attention should be paid to the conflictogenic factors that hinder the construction of an inclusive educational environment that is adapted to the educational needs of any child. Such a model can only be created with the close cooperation of all participants in the educational process, the means of which is education, aimed at creating ideas about the phenomenon of disability.
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31 October 2020
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, translation, interpretation
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Damadaeva, A. S., Bekhoeva, A. A., Aliyeva, M. A., & Kravtsova, F. H. (2020). Correctional And Preventive System Of Psychological Support When Introducing Inclusion. In D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism» Dedicated to the 80th Anniversary of Turkayev Hassan Vakhitovich, vol 92. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1562-1568). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.05.206