Methods Of Using The Linguistic-Methodological Model In Russian As Foreign Language Training
The processes taking place in the modern Russian language cannot but be taken into account by the method of its teaching to foreigners. One of the conditions of modern education, dictated by the dynamics of today's life, is the focus on the need for actual use of knowledge and skills acquired in the course of teaching. An important factor that influences the principles of development of communicative competence is the need to focus the content of teaching on the current state of the Russian language, one of the features of which is considered to be the active impact of spoken language on a classified literary language. Another feature is an updated syntax with a divided sentence, with the use of unions or union words at the beginning of the sentence. In the work on the basis of the standard model of the proposal the linguistic and methodical basis of teaching the perception of the content of scientific and educational text is considered. This also includes grammatical skills to search for standard models in the text and form sentences with them, to introduce missed models into sentences, to formulate monological statements. The results of the research have revealed that for effective teaching of Russian as a foreign language, the linguistic-methodical model can be used in different ways: as a printed textbook, which is the basis for lessons in speech practice, as well as a web-based learning material in the form of an electronic accompanying course.
Keywords: Russian languagecommunicationeducational textlinguistic-methodical modelsecond languageefficiency
The historical changes taking place in the life of modern society require clarification of the paradigm of education. The new model of education is based, first of all, on the fact that "all knowledge and skills acquired in the course of teaching, without exception, must be applied in fact" ( Stepanenko, 2008, para. 11). This is one of the main and necessary conditions of education of the 19th century, dictated by the dynamics of modern life.
The new paradigm of education takes into account both the teaching of knowledge and the need to develop new skills and abilities based on specific core competences. Modern teaching of Russian "is recommended to be based on new linguistic and philosophical and linguistic and water-educational principles, taking into account the processes in the field of nomination, linguocultural science, cognitive science, frame semantics, intercultural communication, etc" ( Teremova, 2017, p. 62). This is especially important for the training of a philologist of a broad profile, who investigates his own as not only Russian, but also a foreign language in order to teach it, including the future, which has the ability to specialize in Russian as a foreign language, and have a good command of syntactic categories, when "the accent carrier more easily uses language units, intensively uses all the steps of the linguistic system without exception, while creating a syntactic space for the language" ( Zavyalova, 2016, p. 231).
Linguomethodical model is a system of verbal, operational and visual learning techniques that facilitate the assimilation of subject information in a foreign language, the development of communication and thinking skills. It is also necessary to keep in mind the active interaction of students during the integrated teaching of Russian language and subject discipline. "This method is widely used in foreign practice of teaching foreign language and is a mandatory part of the methodology of subject-oriented learning, based on modern approaches of subject-language integrated learning" ( Aitkazina, 2014, p. 650).
General didactic and private didactic methodological principles are used as the linguistic-methodical basis for teaching ( Trefilova, 2016). The effectiveness of creating conscious speech skills in the learning process is guaranteed, including such private and methodological principles as the principle of accounting for the systematization of denominational roles, the principle of accounting for the impact of the communication plan on the structural and semantic order of the text and the principle of semantic foresight of the text, taking into account standard modifications of sentence models. The first principle studies a substantial version of the sentence, which can be formulated in various statements. They can be different because of the performers of standard values. They should be taken into account, because students often do not realize the categories of abstraction used to express the inner essence of the phenomena, procedurality, are not able to point to the relationship between persons, objects, etc. The following principle is implemented when establishing the main components of interrelations within the text: "the subject of the text, the microtheme, the communicative purpose, this and new data" ( Shatilov, 2015, p. 224). In microthemes of text, there may be different typical models of text, depending on the communication task.
This study aims to clarify the following issues: (1) What methods of using the language-methodological model are used in RCT training? (2) How do teachers use the LMD model in teaching RCTs? (3) How to effectively teach Russian language using the linguistic-methodological model?
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to study the methods of use, linguistic model in teaching Russian as a foreign language.
The linguistic methodical model is used in "teaching foreign students about speech activities, because communication tasks and programs of speech behavior include social and everyday communication and official communication in certain situations of communication (on the street, in class, in a museum, etc.)" ( Deryabin, 2015, p. 8). Therefore, the requirements of the first certification level include the ability to implement a number of verbal intentions required in everyday communication: to enter into communication, get acquainted, introduce oneself, apologize, remind oneself, change the topic of conversation, end the conversation and other most common situations of communication, in which a foreigner should be able to navigate.
For the education of foreign students, linguistic and methodological foundations of the video course are also being developed as an effective means of teaching Russian to this category of students ( Bryksina, 2016). In addition, the introduction of new teaching tools is also associated with the lack of professional competence of foreign students only due to traditional work on reading textbooks on certain topics. It is only aimed at mastering the minimum amount of information that may not be sufficient for professional activities, although it is pragmatic motivation that is the main factor in the process of learning Russian by this group of students.
In addition, it is recommended to use additional material in the form of an electronic supplement to the printed textbook, which can not only increase the efficiency of the educational process, but also the motivation of students.
Electronic linguistic-methodical simulators have been created at the Department of Computer Linguistic and Linguistic Studies of the FPKP RKI PFURDN. One of them is a dictionary in pictures, which is a complex electronic training tool for presentation, exposure and memorization of new words and aimed at the use of the main perceptual channels of the student. Structurally and functionally, the dictionary "is formed on the basis of the principle of creating lexico-semantic categories of lexical units. In order to fix the entered vocabulary, the vocabulary is transferred to another language-methodical simulator "Words, words, words..." ( Asanova, 2015). In the course of its use, the program automatically provides prompts for performing actions of the student. Based on the results of the training, the student is evaluated with the help of a comment and a ratio of incorrect and correct answers.
Another way of using the linguistic-methodical model for Russian language teaching is the application of UDE technology (strengthening didactic units) ( Lebedinskiy & Gerbik, 2011). It is aimed at teaching literate writing. Here the study of spelling is based on the enlarged linguodidactic units "vocabulary + phonetics + graphics", "phonetics + morphomics + morphology + syntax". Formation of spelling skill consists of several subsystems: creation of spelling action, mastering the skill of phoneme writing, rules of spelling, adjustment of spelling skill, based on its psychophysiological nature. The development of thinking and speech in Russian language lessons using UDE technology can be presented as a system with several stages: the first stage is a preparation for the free command of written language, writing creative works; the second stage is the writing of creative works in the lessons of speech development. Such lessons contribute to the development of creative linguistic abilities of students, i.e. the ability to redesign the standard framework of existing experience. Reliance on grammatical compatibility and abandonment of traditional clarity allow students to distract themselves from the lexical meaning of the word, thereby developing creative thinking and imagination, revealing expressive means of language, cultivating interest in linguistics, Russian language lessons, and love "for language as a means of communication" ( Deryabin, 2015, p. 10). The UDE technology thus helps to teach essays and essays with certain peculiarities: they compare and contrast texts, apply algorithmic methods, introduce visual creativity of students, and connect mutual assistance of schoolchildren.
Linguistic models are also used to teach students how to understand the scientific text. Practice has shown that the teacher does not always develop the ability to repeat texts in a scientific style during the organization of speech development lessons. However, in order to achieve positive results, it is necessary to observe the "basics of understanding the scientific text based on standard sentence models" ( Vishnyakova & Nikolaeva, 2014, p. 89). This may include the theoretical provisions of the methods of teaching Russian as a foreign language, the linguistic and methodological concept of forecasting and the linguistic and methodological statements of the review of the scientific and educational text when using as a basis for the model sentence.
For effective teaching of Russian as a foreign language, the linguistic-methodical model can be used in various ways: as a printed textbook, which is the basis for lessons in speech practice, as well as as online training material in the form of an electronic course, which is posted on the Internet for additional self-study in extra-curricular time. The effectiveness of the training can be seen if the linguistic and methodological basis for the presentation of the scientific text is respected, based on model sentences. The peculiarity of the linguistic-methodological basis is that it is based on the theoretical position concerning the syntagmatic relationship between words and paradigmatic relations within the framework of a typical sentence modification. And besides, in the ability of typical sentence modifications to teach and valence of words, formation in the field of text modeling. RUDN has developed electronic linguistic-methodical simulators, which allow remembering and further fixing new words in memory by practice.
Thus, modern society contributes to changes in teaching methods. First of all, they are based on the practical application of all acquired knowledge and skills. Modern teaching of Russian as a foreign language should continue to be built on the basis of new linguistic and philosophical and linguistic and water-educational principles, not to forget about the processes taking place in the field of nomination, linguocultural studies, cognitive science, frame semantics, intercultural communication. Linguomethodological model is a communication model, which allows, on the basis of consideration of semantic and syntactic characteristics of a complex sentence in another way to show the nature and system of language functioning; technology of studying and teaching syntax of a complex sentence, its comprehension and perception in a spontaneous, unprepared speech, corresponding to real communication in different types of verbal activity: listening, reading and speaking. It is used in teaching foreign students to speak, and it is used in teaching them to understand scientific and educational text. The effectiveness of the training is visible if the linguistic and methodological basis for the presentation of the scientific text is observed, based on standard sentence models. In addition, model sentence models can be used for foreign students' understanding of the Russian language based on the example of a scientific text. This is explained by the fact that the student's speech consists of the basis of the communication unit – the sentence. In view of the above, the theoretical provisions concerning syntagmatic relations between words and paradigmatic relations of a sentence model are not the only ones used to understand the scientific text using the sentence model, but also the theoretical provisions concerning syntagmatic relations between words and paradigmatic relations of a sentence model, which provide an opportunity to select and combine the paradigmatic relations of a sentence model and to highlight the possibilities of the sentence model to train.
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